Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Belarusian Americans known by the somewhat dated terms Byelorussian Americans, Whiteruthenian Americans and White-Russian Americans, are Americans who are of total or partial Belarusian ancestry. There is a suggestion that the first Belarusian immigrants to the United States, settling there in the early 17th century in Virginia, could have been brought by Captain John Smith, who visited Belarus in 1603; the first wave of mass emigration from Belarus started in the final decades of the nineteenth century and continued until World War I. They emigrated to the United States via northern Germany; when they arrived, most settled in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. However, most of these first Belarusians were registered either as Poles. Most Belarusians who immigrated to the United States after World War I were political immigrants from western Europe and Poland. There were only several thousands of them. Few Belarusians from Jewish-Belarusian families, came to the USA between the late 1930s and the end of 1941.
In the post-World War II period, from 1948 to the early 1950s about 50,000 Belarusians immigrated to the United States. These immigrants were former prisoners of war from the Polish and Soviet armies, persons who had worked in Germany as Ostarbeiters during the World War II, former émigrés who left Belarus shortly after the war or in 1939 when the Soviets attacked Poland, refugees who had fled Belarus in 1943 or 1944, defectors and dissidents after World War II, they came from many countries where they had settled after World War II. The majority of them came from West Austria. Many Belarusians who came from Great Britain, Italy, Belgium and other countries in South America and North Africa. During the 1980s and 1990s the waves of Belarusians that emigrated to the United States were small compared with previous waves. People have emigrated for political and family reasons. Most of these immigrants are of the Jewish-Belarusian descent; the 1980 U. S. census counted 7,328 Belarusians in the United States, but the 1990 census registered only 4,277 Belarusians.
According to the 1990 US Census, only 4,277 respondents claimed Belarusian ancestry. The precise number of Belarusian Americans is difficult to determine, as census and immigration statistics did not recognize Belarusians as a separate category, as the Belarus region was for a long time part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union when early immigrants arrived. Many of them were recorded as Russian or Polish, depending on the region of Belarus where they were born; the largest concentrations of Belarusian Americans are in the metropolitan New York area, New Jersey, Chicago, Los Angeles, Detroit. There were several waves of Belarusian influx into the USA, one before the Russian Revolution in 1919-1939 from West Belarus in the late 1940s-early 1950s, after the collapse of the USSR in the 1990s. One major group of Belarusian immigrants to the U. S. are Belarusian Jews who migrated starting in the mid-19th century, having faced discrimination in the Russian Empire, which Belarus was part of at the time.
According to the 2000 Census Bureau report, 38,505 people who were born in Belarus lived in the USA. Of them, 1,363 spoke the Belarusian language at home. Belarusian-born population in the US since 2010: There are several organizations in the United States that have developed a system of secondary schools in places with communities of Belarusian descent; these organizations have the goal of teaching the language and religious traditions of Belarus. Thus the Belarusian culture is represented by choirs, theatrical groups, musical and dance ensembles. One of the more prominent associations is the Belarusan American Association. Red, white and green colours dominate in the national costume; the national costumes differ depending on the region of Belarus. As indicated by Vitaut Kipel, Belarusian Americans have preserved the main elements of the traditional costume. Belarusian cuisine has left a trace in the life of the Americans. One of the proofs is the traditional bagel; the Americans know Belarusian pirogy and cabbages.
The Belarusian cuisine is dominated by various grains, beef and mushrooms. Many dishes are cooked from potatoes. There are dishes similar to the ones of neighbouring countries: cabbage rolls, cold betroot soop or meat jelly. Belarus Americans have preserved the traditional cuisine in their families. In the 1950s the St. Euphrosynia Belarusian Orthodox Church was created in New Jersey. Larry Brown, professional All Star basketball player and coach Dick Dale Kirk Douglas Harrison Ford Al Franken Alex Galchenyuk Wayne Gretzky Scarlett Johansson Tadeusz Kościuszko Olga Korbut Lisa Kudrow Jared Kushner Siarhei Navumchyk Dasha Nekrasova Zianon Pazniak Nikolai Sudzilovsky Jazep Varonka Gary Vaynerchuk Dimitry Sholokhov Belarusian Youth Movement of America The Belarusan-American Association The international seminar Belarusian Diaspora: Past and Present took place in Minsk
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Bowdon is a city in Carroll County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 2,040; the community was incorporated on January 1, 1859, was named after Alabama congressman Franklin Welsh Bowdon. A college was established in Bowdon in 1857. Bowdon Municipal Court changed some of its practices in 2015 after Judge Richard A. Diment was shown in recordings demanding payment in exchange for avoiding jail. In a New York Times article, Judge Diment claimed that he had never jailed someone for failing to pay a fine. Judge Diment's daughter described him as a proponent of civil rights. According to the United States Census Bureau, Bowdon has a total area of all land. Bowdon has mild winters, with highs averaging in the low to mid 50s and lows around 32. There are one or two days each winter when lows drop below 15. Snow is averaging about 2" a winter; some winters however. Ice is more common than snow. Rainfall is plentiful in the winter. Although severe weather is not common, it does happen in the winter.
The most recent severe weather event occurred on February 26, 2008 when an EF3 tornado hit an area about four miles north of Bowdon. The fall and spring months tend to bring the nicest weather, with numerous sunny days. Highs in the spring average in the 70s and lows average in the 40s and 50s. There is severe weather in the spring, with a tornado. Fall tends to be the nicest season, with plentiful sunshine and highs in the 70s. Towards the end of fall, lows can drop below 30. Summer is very humid and hot, although the heat is relieved by afternoon thunderstorms which occur daily; the summer of 2007 was one of the hottest on record with several days of highs above 100. Highs in the summer are around 90 with lows in the 60s. On May 11, 2008 Bowdon was hit by a series of tornadoes known as the "Mother's Day Storm" with a few reported injuries, but no deaths; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,959 people, 815 households, 543 families residing in the city. The population density was 576.5 people per square mile.
There were 893 housing units at an average density of 262.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.87% White, 25.17% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 1.23% from other races, 1.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.40% of the population. Bowdon was in 2000 tied with Rosemont, Illinois for being the place in the United States with the highest percentage of people reporting Bulgarian ancestry, they were both tied at 2.7%. There were 815 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 20.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,875, the median income for a family was $35,400. Males had a median income of $29,125 versus $19,643 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,968. About 15.1% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over. Bowdon is the city of license for radio station WBZY. Bull Buchanan, current Rampage Pro Wrestling World Heavyweight Champion. Nick Jones was twice signed by the Seattle Seahawks. Michael'Mike' Huey, a recording studio and world touring drummer. City of Bowdon Georgia Website Portal style website, Business, Library and more City-Data.com Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Bowdon Site of Bowdon College historical marker Whatley Memorial Historic Park historical marker
Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, the basis of Standard Croatian and Montenegrin; the other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian. Serbian is the only European standard language whose speakers are functionally digraphic, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets; the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created it based on phonemic principles. The Serbian Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830. Serbian is a standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian, a Slavic language, of the South Slavic subgroup.
Other standardized forms of Serbo-Croatian are Bosnian and Montenegrin. It has lower intelligibility with the Eastern South Slavic languages Bulgarian and Macedonian, than with Slovene. Figures of speakers according to countries: Serbia: 6,540,699 Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1,086,027 Germany: 568,240 Austria: 350,000 Montenegro: 265,890 Switzerland: 186,000 United States: 172,874 Sweden: 120,000 Italy: 106,498 Canada: 72,690 Australia: 55,114 Croatia: 52,879 Slovenia: 38,964 North Macedonia: 24,773 Romania: 22,518 Serbian was the official language of Montenegro until October 2007 when the new Constitution of Montenegro replaced the Constitution of 1992. Amid opposition from pro-Serbian parties, the Montenegrin language was made the sole official language of the country, Serbian was given the status of a recognised minority language along with Bosnian and Croatian. According to the 2011 Montenegrin census, 42.88% declare Serbian to be their native language, while Montenegrin is declared by 36.97% of the population.
Standard Serbian language uses both Latin script. Serbian is a rare example of synchronic digraphia, a situation where all literate members of a society have two interchangeable writing systems available to them. Media and publishers select one alphabet or another. Although Serbian language authorities have recognized the official status of both scripts in contemporary Standard Serbian for more than half of a century now, due to historical reasons, the Cyrillic script was made the official script of Serbia's administration by the 2006 Constitution. However, the law does not regulate scripts in standard language, or standard language itself by any means, leaving the choice of script as a matter of personal preference and to the free will in all aspects of life, except in government paperwork production and in official written communication with state officials, which have to be in Cyrillic. In media, the public broadcaster, Radio Television of Serbia, predominantly uses the Cyrillic script whereas the run broadcasters, like RTV Pink, predominantly use the Latin script.
Newspapers can be found in both scripts. Outdoor signage, including road signs and commercial displays, predominantly uses the Latin alphabet. Larger signs those put up by the government, will feature both alphabets. A survey from 2014 showed that 47% of the Serbian population favors the Latin alphabet whereas 36% favors the Cyrillic one. Latin script has become more and more popular in Serbia, as it is easier to input on phones and computers; the sort order of the ćirilica alphabet: Cyrillic order called Azbuka: А Б В Г Д Ђ Е Ж З И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Т Ћ У Ф Х Ц Ч Џ ШThe sort order of the latinica alphabet: Latin order called Abeceda: A B C Č Ć D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž Serbian is a inflected language, with grammatical morphology for nouns and adjectives as well as verbs. Serbian nouns are classified into three declensional types, denoted by their nominative case endings as "-a" type, "-i" and "-e" type. Into each of these declensional types may fall nouns of any of three genders: masculine, feminine or neuter.
Each noun may be inflected to represent the noun's grammatical case, of which Serbian has seven: Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Locative Vocative InstrumentalNouns are further inflected to represent the noun's number, singular or plural. Pronouns, when used, are inflected along the same number morphology as nouns. Serbian is a pro-drop language, meaning that pronouns may be omitted from a sentence when their meaning is inferred from the text. In cases where pronouns may be dropped, they may be used to add emphasis. For example: Adjectives in Serbian may be placed before or after the noun they modify, but must agree in number and case with the modified noun. Serbian verbs are conjugated in four past forms—perfect, aorist and pluperfect—of which the last two have a l
Serbian Americans, in Serbian, the community is known as American Serbs, are United States citizens of Serb ethnic ancestry. As of 2012, there are 199,080 American citizens of "Serbian ancestry" who identify as having Serb ancestry. However, the number may be higher, as some 328,547 people who identify as Yugoslavs living in the United States, most Yugoslav immigrants were of Serb ethnicity; the group includes Serbian Americans living in the United States for one or several generations, dual Serbian–American citizens, or any other Serbian Americans who consider themselves to be affiliated to both cultures or countries. One of the first Serb immigrants to the United States was the settler George Fisher, who arrived in Philadelphia in 1815, moved to Mexico, fought in the Texan Revolution, became a judge in California. Another notable early Serb in America was Basil Rosevic, who founded a shipping company, the Trans-Oceanic Ship Lines, around the year 1800. In the early 1800s, many Serb sailors and fishermen from Montenegro and Herzegovina immigrated to New Orleans seeking employment.
In 1841, Serbs founded the Greek Orthodox parish with Greek immigrants in New Orleans, further solidifying their presence in the region. Serbian Americans fought in the American Civil War on the side of the Confederacy, as most Serbs living in America were in Louisiana and Mississippi. Several Confederate military units were formed by Serbs in Louisiana, such as the Cognevich Company, the First and Second Slavonian Rifles. At least 400 Serbs fought in these three units during the Civil War. Several other known Serbian soldiers in the Civil War came from Alabama and Florida from Pensacola. Other Serbs settled in Alabama and Mississippi, as well as California, where they joined the Gold Rush. Serb immigrants first came in significant numbers to the United States in the late 1800s from the Adriatic regions of Austria-Hungary and areas of the Balkans. During this time, most Serb immigrants to the United States settled in mid-western industrial cities or in California, which had a climate similar to that of the Dalmatian coast.
Serb men found employment in mines, numerous Serb families moved to mining towns throughout the country. Serbian miners and their families settled in great numbers in Alaska, the primary hub of Alaskan Serbs was in Juneau. In 1893, Alaskan Serbs helped build the Orthodox Church in Juneau alongside the native Orthodox Tlingit people. By World War I there were two Serbian societies established in Juneau for the preservation of Serbian customs and heritage in Alaska. In 1943, many Serbian-American miners were killed in the Smith Mine disaster in Montana; the number of Serbs who immigrated to the United States is difficult to determine as Serb immigrants were variously classified by their country of origin, thus as Turks, Croats, Montenegrins, Bosnians and Austro-Hungarians. In the 1910 census, there were 16,676 Serbs from Austria-Hungary, 4,321 from Serbia, 3,724 from Montenegro. Serbian-Americans volunteered in the First Balkan War. During World War I, as many as 15,000 Serbian-American volunteers returned to the Balkans to fight for the Allied cause in their homeland.
Serbs in the United States who did not volunteer to fight marched for the creation of Yugoslavia, sent aid to the Balkans through the Red Cross, formed a Serbian Relief Committee, urged notable Americans to support the Serbian cause. Distinguished Serbian American scientist Mihajlo Pupin, a friend of US President Woodrow Wilson, led the Serbian National Defence, a Serbian-American organization which collected money and attempted to influence American public opinion with regard to the Balkans. During World War I, Pupin's Consulate in New York served as a center of Serbian-American diplomacy and volunteering of Serbian Americans to the Serbian front. In the 1912–18 period, thousands of Serbian-American volunteers came from Alaska and California. After World War II many Serbs immigrated to the United States from Yugoslavia after the country came under the authoritarian rule of Communist leader Josip Broz Tito. Since many Serbian American cultural and religious organizations have been formed in the United States.
With the fall of Communism and the disintegration of Yugoslavia, Serbs in the United States have established several interest groups, the most organized of, the Serbian Unity Congress. Serbs have lived in Alaska since the earliest days of American settlement in the 19th century. Many Serbs came in the Klondike Gold Rush in the late 1890s to seek fortune, just like they had done in the earlier California Gold Rush; the primary areas of Serbian and Montenegrin settlement were Juneau and Sitka. Many Serbs settled in the Canadian Yukon during the gold rush as well, such as legendary prospector Black Mike Vojnić. In 1893, Serbian miners in Alaska built the Orthodox Church in Juneau alongside the native Orthodox Tlingit people, converted to Orthodoxy by the Russians decades before.. By World War I there were two Serbian societies established in Juneau for the preservation of Serbian customs and heritage in Alaska. In 1905 a newspaper called "The Serbian Montenegrin" was founded in Douglas. Serbs made up a large number of the miners at the Treadwell gold mine until its collapse in 1917 and subsequent closure in 1922.
In 1907, during the union conflicts involving the Western Federation of Miners, two Serb miners were killed in an underground shaft. The funeral procession for the nonunion man was accompanied by a march from the Serbian Slavonic
Slovak or less Slovakian is a West Slavic language. It is called slovenský slovenčina in the language itself. Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by 5.51 million people. Slovak speakers are found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Serbia, Romania, Canada, Germany, Israel, the United Kingdom, Austria, Ukraine and many other countries worldwide. Slovak should not be confused with Slovenian, the main language of Slovenia. Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics placed above certain letters The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle; the secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule; the tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced but the same way.
The applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation. In addition, the following rules are present: When a voiced consonant is at the end of a word before a pause, it is devoiced to its voiceless counterpart. For example, pohyb is pronounced /pɔɦip/ and prípad is pronounced /pɾiːpat/; the assimilation rule: Consonant clusters containing both voiced and voiceless elements are voiced if the last consonant is a voiced one, or voiceless if the last consonant is voiceless. For example, otázka is pronounced /ɔtaːska/ and vzchopiť sa is pronounced /fsxɔpitsːa/; this rule applies over the word boundary. For example, prísť domov and viac jahôd; the voiced counterpart of "ch" /x/ is, the unvoiced counterpart of "h" /ɦ/ is /x/. Most foreign words receive Slovak spelling or after some time. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" – softvér, "gay" – gej, "quality" is spelled kvalita.
Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a Slovak form of the name exists. Slovak features some heterophonic homographs, the most common examples being krásne /ˈkɾaːsnɛ/ versus krásne /ˈkɾaːsɲɛ/; the main features of Slovak syntax are as follows: The verb agrees in person and number with its subject. Some examples include the following: Speváčka spieva. Speváčky spievajú. My speváčky spievame. and so forth. Adjectives and numerals agree in person and case with the noun to which they refer. Adjectives precede their noun. Botanic or zoological terms are exceptions as is the naming of Holy Spirit in a majority of churches. Word order in Slovak is free, since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles regardless of word placement; this free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis. Some examples are as follows: Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod. = That big man opens a store there today.
– The word order does not emphasize any specific detail, just general information. Ten veľký muž dnes otvára obchod tam. = That big man is today opening a store there. – This word order emphasizes the place. Dnes tam otvára obchod ten veľký muž. = Today over there a store is being opened by that big man. – This word order focuses on the person, opening the store. Obchod tam dnes otvára ten veľký muž. = The store over there is today being opened by that big man. – Depending on the intonation the focus can be either on the store itself or on the person. The unmarked order is subject–verb–object. Variation in word order is possible, but word order is not free. In the above example, the noun phrase ten veľký muž cannot be split up, so that the following combinations are not possible: Ten otvára veľký muž tam dnes obchod. Obchod muž tam ten veľký dnes otvára.... And the following is stylistically not correct: Obchod ten veľký muž dnes tam otvára; this is correct: Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod Ten veľký muž tam otvára dnes obchod Otvára tam dnes ten veľký muž obchod?
Slovak does not have articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten may be used in front of the noun in situations where definiteness must be made explicit. Slovak nouns are inflected for number. There are six cases: nominative, dative, accusative and instrum