Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. In the British Isles they are called lime trees, or lime bushes, although they are not related to the tree that produces the lime fruit. Other names include linden for the European species, basswood for North American species; the genus occurs in Europe and eastern North America, but the greatest species diversity is found in Asia. Under the Cronquist classification system, this genus was placed in the family Tiliaceae, but genetic research summarised by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has resulted in the incorporation of this genus, of most of the previous family, into the Malvaceae. Tilia species are large, deciduous trees, reaching 20 to 40 metres tall, with oblique-cordate leaves 6 to 20 centimetres across; as with elms, the exact number of species is uncertain, as many if not most of the species will hybridise both in the wild and in cultivation. Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with both male and female parts, pollinated by insects.
The genus is called lime or linden in Britain and linden, lime, or basswood in North America."Lime" is an altered form of Middle English lind, in the 16th century line, from Old English feminine lind or linde, Proto-Germanic *lendā, cognate to Latin lentus "flexible" and Sanskrit latā "liana". Within Germanic languages, English "lithe", German lind "lenient, yielding" are from the same root. "Linden" was the adjective, "made from linwood or lime-wood". Neither the name nor the tree is related to the citrus fruit called "lime". Another common name used in North America is basswood, derived from bast, the name for the inner bark. Teil is an old name for the lime tree. Latin tilia is cognate to Greek πτελέᾱ, ptelea, "elm tree", τιλίαι, tiliai, "black poplar" from a Proto-Indo-European word *ptel-ei̯ā with a meaning of "broad"; the Tilia's sturdy trunk stands like a pillar and the branches divide and subdivide into numerous ramifications on which the twigs are fine and thick. In summer, these are profusely clothed with large leaves and the result is a dense head of abundant foliage.
The leaves of all the Tilia species are heart-shaped and most are asymmetrical, the tiny fruit, looking like peas, always hang attached to a ribbon-like, greenish-yellow bract, whose use seems to be to launch the ripened seed-clusters just a little beyond the parent tree. The flowers of the European and American Tilia species are similar, except the American bears a petal-like scale among its stamens and the European varieties are devoid of these appendages. All of the Tilia species may be propagated by cuttings and grafting, as well as by seed, they grow in rich soil, but are subject to the attack of many insects. Tilia is notoriously difficult to propagate from seed. If allowed to dry, the seeds will take 18 months to germinate. In particular, aphids are attracted by the rich supply of sap, are in turn "farmed" by ants for the production of the sap which the ants collect for their own use, the result can be a dripping of excess sap onto the lower branches and leaves, anything else below. Cars left under the trees can become coated with a film of the syrup thus dropped from higher up.
The ant/aphid "farming" process does not appear to cause any serious damage to the trees. In Europe, some linden trees reached considerable ages. A coppice of T. cordata in Westonbirt Arboretum in Gloucestershire is estimated to be 2,000 years old. In the courtyard of the Imperial Castle at Nuremberg is a Tilia which, by tradition recounted in 1900, was planted by the Empress Cunigunde, the wife of Henry II of Germany circa 1000; the Tilia of Neuenstadt am Kocher in Baden-Württemberg, was estimated at 1000 years old when it fell. The Alte Linde tree of Naters, Switzerland, is mentioned in a document in 1357 and described by the writer at that time as magnam. A plaque at its foot mentions that in 1155 a linden tree was on this spot; the Najevnik linden tree, a 700-year-old T. cordata, is the thickest tree in Slovenia. The excellence of the honey of the far-famed Hyblaean Mountains was due to the linden trees that covered its sides and crowned its summit. Lime fossils have been found in the Tertiary formations of Grinnell Land, Canada, at 82° N latitude, in Svalbard, Norway.
Sapporta believed he had found there the common ancestor of the Tilia species of America. The linden is recommended as an ornamental tree when a mass of a deep shade is desired; the tree produces fragrant and nectar-producing flowers, the medicinal herb lime blossom. They are important honey plants for beekeepers, producing a pale but richly flavoured monofloral honey; the flowers are used for herbal teas and tinctures. Linden trees produce soft and worked timber, which has little grain and a density of 560 kg per cubic metre, it was used by Germanic tribes for constructing shields. It is a popular wood for intricate carving. In Germany, it was the classic wood for sculpture from the Middle Ages onwards and is the material for the elaborate altarpieces of Veit Stoss, Tilman Riemenschnei
The Lithuanian calendar is unusual among Western countries in that neither the names of the months nor the names of the weekdays are derived from Greek or Norse mythology. They were formalized after Lithuania regained independence in 1918, based on historic names, celebrate natural phenomena; the days of the week are ordinal numbers. Ancient Baltic cosmological schemes have been found on burial urns dated from 600-200 BC; as with other Bronze Age cultures, there were megaliths associated with the summer and winter solstices. A modern interpretation of the ancient solar calendar was created in 2002 at the Kretinga Museum. Lithuanian calendar shows some similarities with Slavic calendar, so may have roots in Proto-Balto-Slavic era; the Gediminas Sceptre, discovered in 1680, indicates that during his reign the year started in April and was divided into 12 months, varying in length from 29 to 31 days. Each month began with a new moon; the Julian calendar was used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1800, following Lithuania's annexation by the Russian Empire, the Julian calendar again became the norm, although a part of ethnic Lithuania left of Nemunas River retained the Gregorian calendar.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 re-instated the Gregorian calendar, the Western European standard for over a century, in January 1918. These changes caused some confusion; the standardization of month names was made difficult by the fact that publication in the Lithuanian language was illegal from 1864 to 1904 and some drift in the usages occurred. Month names are not customarily capitalized in the Lithuanian language, reflecting their secular origins. Sausis derives from the adjective sausas, "dry". At this point in Lithuania's winter, precipitation is in the form of fine, dry snowflakes, indoor humidity is low, its historic names included ragas, didysis ragutis, siekis and pusčius. Vasaris derives from the noun vasara, "summer". At this point, the days have begun to lengthen, there are occasional thaws, thoughts and plans of summer reawaken, its historic names were ragutis and pridėtinis. Kovas may derive from the rook, or the noun kova, meaning battle. Rooks increase their activity at this time.
The alternate derivation refers to the struggle between spring. It was known as morčius and karvelinis. Balandis is derived from balandis, the dove, which at this point has begun to coo and mate. Earlier names included žiedų, gegužinis, biržėtas, Velykų. Gegužė is derived from the cuckoo, its call is felt to herald the final arrival of spring. Several folk beliefs are associated with this event, it was earlier known as gegužinis, sėtinis, sėmenis, žiedžius, žiedų, berželis, milčius, mildinis. Birželis is derived from the birch, which flowers during this month. Birch branches are used as decorations during Pentecost, its earlier names were visjavis, jaunius, žienpjovys, sėmenis, kirmėlių, biržis, mėšlinis, pūdymo. Liepa is derived from the linden tree, which flowers during this month. Older names for the month were liepinis, liepžiedis, plaukjavis, plūkis, šienpjūtis, šienpjūvis. Rugpjūtis is derived from rugiai and the verb pjauti, to cut; this staple Lithuanian grain is harvested then. It was known as degėsis, paukštlėkis, pjūties.
Rugsėjis is derived from rugiai, with the suffix sėti, to sow. The grain is sown at this time and overwinters in the fields, resuming growth in the spring. Other names for this month were rudenio, vėsulinis, paukštlėkis, šilų, strazdinis, viržių, sėjos and vesulis. Spalis is derived from flax hards; the plant was harvested at this time. The historic names for this month were vėlinis, lapkristys and septintinis. Lapkritis is derived from lapas and kristi, to fall, its older names include vėlių, vėlius, lapkrėstys, grodis and vilkų. Gruodis is derived from the noun gruodas, its older names include sausinis, vilkų, Kalėdų. The days of the week are named beginning with Monday, they are pirmadienis, trečiadienis, penktadienis, šeštadienis, sekmadienis. They are not ordinarily capitalized. History of Lithuania Symbols of Lithuania Slavic calendar Germanic calendar Archaeoastronomy Months in the Lithuanian calendar Months in Polish calendar - Origin and Meaning The Lithuanian months Calendar exposition at a Lithuanian museum Photos of a modern solar calendar in Kretinga The Lithuanian calendar
Croats or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia. Croats live in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but are recognized minorities in such countries as Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Due to political and economic reasons, many Croats migrated to North and South America as well as Australia and New Zealand, establishing a diaspora in the aftermath of World War II, with grassroots assistance from earlier communities and the Roman Catholic Church. Croats are Roman Catholics; the Croatian language is official in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the European Union, is a recognised minority language within Croatian autochthonous communities and minorities in Montenegro, Italy and Serbia. Evidence is rather scarce for the period between the 7th and 8th centuries, CE. Archaeological evidence shows population continuity in coastal Istria. In contrast, much of the Dinaric hinterland appears to have been depopulated, as all hilltop settlements, from Noricum to Dardania, were abandoned in the early 7th century.
Although the dating of the earliest Slavic settlements is still disputed, there is a hiatus of a century. The origin and nature of the Slavic migrations remain controversial, all available evidence points to the nearby Danubian and Carpathian regions; the ethnonym "Croat" is first attested in the charter of Duke Trpimir. Much uncertainty revolves around the exact circumstances of their appearance given the scarcity of literary sources during the 7th and 8th century "Dark Ages". Traditionally, scholarship has placed the arrival of the Croats in the 7th century on the basis of the Byzantine document De Administrando Imperio; as such, the arrival of the Croats was seen as a second wave of Slavic migrations, which liberated Dalmatia from Avar hegemony. However, as early as the 1970s, scholars questioned the reliability of Porphyrogenitus' work, written as it was in the 10th century. Rather than being an accurate historical account, De Administrando Imperio more reflects the political situation during the 10th century.
It served as Byzantine propaganda praising Emperor Heraclius for repopulating the Balkans with Croats, who were seen by the Byzantines as tributary peoples living on what had always been'Roman land'. Scholars have hypothesized the name Croat may be Iranian, thus suggesting that the Croatians were a Sarmatian tribe from the Pontic region who were part of a larger movement at the same time that the Slavs were moving toward the Adriatic; the major basis for this connection was the perceived similarity between Hrvat and inscriptions from the Tanais dated to the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, mentioning the name Khoroathos. Similar arguments have been made for an alleged Gothic-Croat link. Whilst there is indeed possible evidence of population continuity between Gothic and Croatian times in parts of Dalmatia, the idea of a Gothic origin of Croats was more rooted in 20th century Ustaše political aspirations than historical reality. Contemporary scholarship views the rise of "Croats" as an autochthonous, Dalmatian response to the demise of the Avar khanate and the encroachment of Frankish and Byzantine Empires into northern Dalmatia.
They appear to have been based around Klis, down to the Cetina and south of Liburnia. Here, concentrations of the "Old Croat culture" abound, marked by some wealthy warrior burials dating to the 9th century CE. Other, distinct polities existed near the Croat duchy; these included the Guduscans, the Narentines and the Sorabi who ruled some other eastern parts of ex-Roman "Dalmatia". Prominent in the territory of future Croatia was the polity of Prince Liutevid, who ruled the territories between the Drava and Sava rivers, centred from his fort at Sisak. Although Duke Liutevid and his people are seen as a "Pannonian Croats", he is, due to the lack of "evidence that they had a sense of Croat identity" referred to as dux Pannoniae Inferioris, or a Slav, by contemporary sources. However, the Croats became the dominant local power in northern Dalmatia, absorbing Liburnia and expanding their name by conquest and prestige. In the south, while having periods of independence, the Naretines "merged" with Croats under control of Croatian Kings.
With such expansion, Croatia soon became dominant power and absorb other polities between Frankish and Byzantine empire. Although the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja has been dismissed as an unreliable record, the mentioned "Red Croatia" suggests that Croatian clans and families might have settled as far south as Duklja/Zeta and city of Drač in today's Albania; the lands which constitute modern Croatia fell under three major geographic-politic zones during the Middle Ages, which were influenced by powerful neighbour Empires – notably the Byzantines, the Avars and Magyars and Bulgars. Each vied for control of the Northwest Balkan regions. Two independent Slavic dukedoms emerged sometime during the 9th century: the Croat Duchy and Principality of Lower Pannonia. Having been under Avar control, lower Pannonia became a march of the Carolingian Empire around 800. Aided by Vojnomir in 796, the first named Slavic Duke of Pannonia, the Franks wrested control of
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time; when used without qualification, "weather" is understood to mean the weather of Earth. Weather is driven by air pressure and moisture differences between one place and another; these differences can occur due to the sun's angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow.
Because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth's surface, temperatures range ±40 °C annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change. Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes, as most atmospheric heating is due to contact with the Earth's surface while radiative losses to space are constant. Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location; the Earth's weather system is a chaotic system. Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, there is evidence that human activities such as agriculture and industry have modified weather patterns. Studying how the weather works on other planets has been helpful in understanding how weather works on Earth.
A famous landmark in the Solar System, Jupiter's Great Red Spot, is an anticyclonic storm known to have existed for at least 300 years. However, weather is not limited to planetary bodies. A star's corona is being lost to space, creating what is a thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System; the movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind. On Earth, the common weather phenomena include wind, rain, snow and dust storms. Less common events include natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes and ice storms. All familiar weather phenomena occur in the troposphere. Weather does occur in the stratosphere and can affect weather lower down in the troposphere, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. Weather occurs due to air pressure and moisture differences between one place to another; these differences can occur due to the sun angle at any particular spot, which varies by latitude from the tropics. In other words, the farther from the tropics one lies, the lower the sun angle is, which causes those locations to be cooler due the spread of the sunlight over a greater surface.
The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the large scale atmospheric circulation cells and the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Weather systems in the tropics, such as monsoons or organized thunderstorm systems, are caused by different processes; because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. In June the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, so at any given Northern Hemisphere latitude sunlight falls more directly on that spot than in December; this effect causes seasons. Over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbital parameters affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth and influence long-term climate.. The uneven solar heating can be due to the weather itself in the form of cloudiness and precipitation.
Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes, which the result of higher surface temperature and radiational heating, which produces the adiabatic lapse rate. In some situations, the temperature increases with height; this phenomenon is known as an inversion and can cause mountaintops to be warmer than the valleys below. Inversions can lead to the formation of fog and act as a cap that suppresses thunderstorm development. On local scales, temperature differences can occur because different surfaces have differing physical characteristics such as reflectivity, roughness, or moisture content. Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. A hot surface warms the air above it causing it to expand and lower the density and the resulting surface air pressure; the resulting horizontal pressure gradient moves the air from higher to lower pressure regions, creating a wind, the Earth's rotation causes deflection of this air flow due to the Coriolis effect. The simple systems thus formed can display emergent behaviour to produce more complex systems and thus other weather phenomena.
Large scale examples include the Hadley cell while a small
Cornus is a genus of about 30–60 species of woody plants in the family Cornaceae known as dogwoods, which can be distinguished by their blossoms and distinctive bark. Most are deciduous trees or shrubs, but a few species are nearly herbaceous perennial subshrubs, a few of the woody species are evergreen. Several species have small heads of inconspicuous flowers surrounded by an involucre of large white petal-like bracts, while others have more open clusters of petal-bearing flowers; the various species of dogwood are native throughout much of temperate and boreal Eurasia and North America, with China and Japan and the southeastern United States rich in native species. Species include the common dogwood Cornus sanguinea of Eurasia, the cultivated flowering dogwood of eastern North America, the Pacific dogwood Cornus nuttallii of western North America, the Kousa dogwood Cornus kousa of eastern Asia, two low-growing boreal species, the Canadian and Eurasian dwarf cornels, Cornus canadensis and Cornus suecica respectively.
Depending on botanical interpretation, the dogwoods are variously divided into one to nine genera or subgenera. The name "dog-tree" entered the English vocabulary before 1548, becoming "dogwood" by 1614. Once the name dogwood was affixed to this kind of tree, it soon acquired a secondary name as the Hound's Tree, while the fruits came to be known as dogberries or houndberries. Another theory advances the view that "dogwood" was derived from the Old English dagwood, from the use of the slender stems of its hard wood for making "dags". Another, earlier name of the dogwood in English is the whipple-tree. Geoffrey Chaucer uses "whippletree" in The Canterbury Tales to refer to the dogwood. A whippletree is an element of the traction of a horse-drawn cart, linking the drawpole of the cart to the harnesses of the horses in file. Dogwoods have simple, untoothed leaves with the veins curving distinctively as they approach the leaf margins. Most dogwood species have opposite leaves, while a few, such as Cornus alternifolia and C. controversa, have their leaves alternate.
Dogwood flowers have four parts. In many species, the flowers are borne separately in open clusters, while in various other species, the flowers themselves are clustered, lacking showy petals, but surrounded by four to six large white petal-like bracts; the fruits of all dogwood species are drupes with one or two seeds brightly colorful. The drupes of species in the subgenera Cornus are edible. Many are without much flavor. Cornus kousa and Cornus mas are sold commercially as edible fruit trees; the fruits of Cornus kousa have a tropical pudding like flavor in addition to hard pits. The fruits of Cornus mas are both tart and sweet when ripe, they have been eaten in Eastern Europe for centuries, both as food and medicine to fight colds and flus. They are high in vitamin C. However, those of species in subgenus Swida are mildly toxic to people, though eaten by birds. Dogwoods are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of butterflies and moths, including the emperor moth, the engrailed, the small angle shades, the following case-bearers of the genus Coleophora: C. ahenella, C. salicivorella, C. albiantennaella, C. cornella and C. cornivorella, with the latter three all feeding on Cornus.
Dogwoods are planted horticulturally, the dense wood of the larger-stemmed species is valued for certain specialized purposes. Cutting boards and other fine turnings can be made from this fine beautiful wood. Over 32 different varieties of game birds, including quail, feed on the red seeds. Various species of Cornus the flowering dogwood, are ubiquitous in American gardens and landscaping. S. except the hottest and driest areas". In contrast, in England the lack of sharp winters and hot summers makes Cornus florida shy of flowering. Other Cornus species are stoloniferous shrubs that grow in wet habitats and along waterways. Several of these are used along highways and in naturalizing landscape plantings those species with bright red or bright yellow stems conspicuous in winter, such as Cornus stolonifera; the following cultivars, of mixed or uncertain origin, have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit: ‘Eddie’s White Wonder’ ‘Norman Hadden’ ‘Ormonde’ ‘Porlock’ The species Cornus mas is cultivated in southeastern Europe for its showy, edible berries, that have the color of the carnelian gemstone.
Cornelian-cherries are used in syrups and preserves. Dense and fine-grained, dogwood timber has a density of 0.79 and is prized for making loom shuttles, tool handles, roller skates and other small items that require a hard and strong wood. Though it is tough for woodworking, some artisans favor dogwood for small projects such as walking canes, arrow making, mountain dulcimers and fine inlays. Dogwood wood is an excellent substitute for persimmon wood in the heads of certain golf clubs. Dogwood lumber is rare in that it is not available with any manufacturer and must be cut down by the person wanting to use it. Larger items have been made of dogwood, such as the screw-in basket-style
Slovene months have standard modern names derived from Latin names, as in most European languages. There are archaic Slovene month names, which exist in both a standardized set as well as many variations; the standard modern Slovene month names are januar, marec, maj, julij, september, oktober and december. When writing dates, they appear after the day and are represented by Arabic numerals, sometimes with Roman numerals. Older variants include januvarij'January', februvarij'February', marcij'March'. Many of the names in the standardized set of archaic Slovene month names first occur in the Škofja Loka manuscript, written in 1466 by Martin of Loka. January prosinec' shining through'. In the Prekmurje dialect of Slovene, the following system was attested: sečen'January', süšec'February', mali traven'March', velki traven'April', risalšček'May', ivanšček'June', jakopešček'July', mešnjek'August', mihalšček'September', vsesvišček'October', andrejšček'November', božič'December'. JanuaryAdditional names include brumen, sečen, ledenec and lednik, mali božičnjak and malobožičnjak, prozimec and zimec.
The name prosinec, associated with millet bread and the act of asking for something, was first written in the Škofja Loka manuscript. FebruaryAdditional names include sečan and sečen, sečni mesec; the name svečan may relate to Candlemas. This name originates from sičan, written as svičan in the New Carniolan Almanac from 1775 and changed to its final form by Franc Metelko in his New Almanac from 1824; the name was spelled sečan, meaning "the month of cutting down of trees". In 1848, a proposal was put forward in Kmetijske in rokodelske novice by the Slovene Society of Ljubljana to call this month talnik, but it has not stuck; the idea was proposed by patriot Blaž Potočnik. A name of February in Slovene was vesnar, after the mythological character Vesna. MarchAdditional names include brezen and breznik, gregorščak, postnik and tretnik; the name sušec was first written in the Škofja Loka manuscript. AprilAdditional names include jurijevščak; the name mali traven was first written in the Škofja Loka manuscript.
MayAdditional names include cvetičnik and cvetnar, mlečen, risalščak and rusalščak, rožni mesec, sviben. The name veliki traven was first written in the Škofja Loka manuscript. JuneAdditional names include bobov cvet ivanjščak and šentjanževec, kresnik, prašnik, rožencvet and rožni cvet, rženi cvet. JulyAdditional names include jakobnik and jakobščak, pšeničnik, žetnik. AugustAdditional names include kolovožnjak, medmašnik, mešnjak, porcijunkula, velikomašnjak, vršenj. SeptemberAdditional names include jesenik, jesenščak, miholščak, šmihelščnik. OctoberAdditional names include kozoprsk, lukovščak, moštnik, obročnik, repnik and vinščak. NovemberAdditional names include andrejščak, listognoj, martinščak, vsesvečnjak, vsesvečak. DecemberAdditional names include veliki božičnjak. Croatian months Czech months Macedonian months Slavic calendar http://projetbabel.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=7222 A comprehensive table of Slavic and Baltic month names, explanation in French
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon