Russification or Russianization is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. In a historical sense, the term refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia, aimed at Russian domination; the major areas of Russification are politics and culture. In politics, an element of Russification is assigning Russian nationals to leading administrative positions in national institutions. In culture, Russification amounts to domination of the Russian language in official business and strong influence of the Russian language on national idioms; the shifts in demographics in favour of the ethnic Russian population are sometimes considered as a form of Russification as well. Analytically, it is helpful to distinguish Russification, as a process of changing one's ethnic self-label or identity from a non-Russian ethnonym to Russian, from Russianization, the spread of the Russian language and people into non-Russian cultures and regions, distinct from Sovietization or the imposition of institutional forms established by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union throughout the territory ruled by that party.
In this sense, although Russification is conflated across Russification and Russian-led Sovietization, each can be considered a distinct process. Russianization and Sovietization, for example, did not automatically lead to Russification – change in language or self-identity of non-Russian peoples to being Russian. Thus, despite long exposure to the Russian language and culture, as well as to Sovietization, at the end of the Soviet era non-Russians were on the verge of becoming a majority of the population in the Soviet Union. An early case of Russification took place in the 16th century in the conquered Khanate of Kazan and other Tatar areas; the main elements of this process were Christianization and implementation of the Russian language as the sole administrative language. After the Russian defeat in the Crimean War in 1856 and the Polish rebellion of 1863, Tsar Alexander II increased Russification to reduce the threat of future rebellions. Russia was populated by many minority groups, forcing them to accept the Russian culture was an attempt to prevent self-determinationist tendencies and separatism.
In the 19th century, Russian settlers on traditional Kirghiz land drove many of the Kirghiz over the border to China. Indigenous to large parts of western and central Russia are the Uralic peoples, such as the Vepsians, Mordvins and Permians; the Russification of Uralic peoples begins with the original eastward expansion of the East Slavs. Written records of the oldest period are scarce, but toponymic evidence indicates that this expansion was accomplished at the expense of various Volga-Finnic peoples, who were assimilated by Russians; the Russification of the Komi began in the 13th to 14th centuries, but did not penetrate into the Komi heartlands until the 18th century. Komi-Russian bilingualism has become the norm over the 19th and has led to increasing Russian influence in the Komi language; the enforced Russification of Russia's remaining indigenous minorities has intensified during the Soviet era and continues unabated in the 21st century in connection to urbanization and the dropping population replacement rates.
As a result, several of Russia's indigenous languages and cultures are considered endangered. E.g. between the 1989 and 2002 censuses, the assimilation numbers of the Mordvins have totalled over 100,000, a major loss for a people totalling less than one million in number. According to Vasily Pekteyev, director of the Mari National Theater in Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El, a policy of Russification in the republic that began in 2001 has resulted in the Mari language no longer being taught in schools and villages. By the 2010 Russian census, there were 204,000 native speakers of Mari, a drop from 254,000 in 2002. In 19th century the Russian Empire strove to replace the Ukrainian, Polish and Belarusian languages and dialects by Russian in those areas, which were annexed by the Russian Empire after the Partitions of Poland and the Congress of Vienna. Imperial Russia faced a crucial critical cultural situation by 1815: Large sections of Russian society had come under foreign influence as a result of the Napoleonic wars and appeared open to change.
As a consequence of absorbing so much Polish territory, by 1815 no less than 64 per cent of the nobility of the Romanov realm was of Polish descent, since there more literate Poles than Russians, more people within it could read and write Polish than Russian. The third largest city, was Polish in character and its university was the best in the Empire. Russification in Congress Poland intensified after the November Uprising of 1831, in particular after the January Uprising of 1863. In 1864 the Polish and Belarusian languages were banned in public places. Research and teaching of the Polish language, of Polish history or of Catholicism were forbidden. Illiteracy rose. Students were beaten for resisting Russification. A Polish underground education network formed, including the famous Flying University. According to Russian estimates, by 1901 one-third of the inhabitants in t
Serbianisation or Serbianization known as Serbification, Serbisation or Serbization is the spread of Serbian culture and language, either by integration or assimilation. John Uglješa, a fourteenth century Serbian despot who ruled much of Macedonia on behalf of Serb Emperor Stefan Uroš V attempted to Serbianise the monastic community of Mount Athos. Serbian historians in their historiography to demonstrate the Serb character of Bosnia and Hercegovina have cited that the region upon its submission to the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate led to the Serbianisation of most of the territory; the historical sources demonstrate that before the 19th century and the rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire the majority of the ordinary Orthodox Christians on the Balkans had only a vague idea of their ethnic identity. The local South Slavic-speaking peasants were accustomed to define itself in terms of their religion and occupation. After the national states were established, peasantry was indoctrinated through the schools and military conscription, the official Church, the governmental press.
It was through these instruments of the state administration, that a national identity came into real and rapid development. The Serbian Revolts between 1804 and 1815 gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire that evolved towards de facto independence between 1835 and 1867. In this period a two transitional ethno-linguistic territories between Serbs and Bulgarians existed; the first one of transitional Bulgarians, between Niš and Sofia, a second one of transitional Serbs, between Niš and Belgrade. At the time the areas west of Belgrade were considered free of Bulgarian ethno-linguistic influence and as such motivated the Serb linguistic reformer Vuk Karadžić to use the Hercegovina dialects for his standardisation of Serbian. National revival and statehood among the Serbs preceded the Bulgarian struggles by some decades, which led to the full Serbianisation of the transitional Serbs between Belgrade and Niš in the first half of the 19th century. Serbian sources from the mid 19th century, continued to claim, the areas southeast of Nis, including Macedonia, were Bulgarian populated.
Per Serbian newspaper, the future Bulgarian-Serbian frontier would extend from the Danube in North, along the Timok and "Bulgarian Morava", on the ridge of Shar Mountain towards the Black Drin River to the Lake of Ohrid in South. In 1867, a Bulgarian society, active in Bucharest approached the Serbian state with a draft-agreement; the Bulgarian side proposed the founding of a common Serbo-Bulgarian dual state, headed by the Serbian Prince. This state was to be named South Slav Tsardom and defined the territories that would constitute Bulgaria as follows: Moesia and Macedonia. Serbian Premier Garašanin accepted the Bulgarian proposal in a letter from June 1867, but he diplomatically refused to sign the document, fearing how representative this organisation had been. On the other hand, the establishment of this common state concerned other Bulgarian organisations, which perceived it as an implementation of Garašanin's expansionist plan called Načertanije. However, afterwards influenced by Načertanije's ideas, Serbian elites began to claim the transitional Bulgarians located south-east of Niš calling them Old Serbians.
After the war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Principality of Bulgaria was created, but the lands in the regions of Niš, Pirot and Vranje became a part of Serbia. It had homogenized and modernized these new territories and in this way it assimilated the "transitional Bulgarians" of the Timok and Morava river valleys toward the end of the nineteenth century. Afterwards Serbia turned its attention to the region of Macedonia. In 1878 Serbia became independent and pressure developed in the state for people from different ethnic groups to Serbianise religious denominations and their personal names. Serbianisation of identity along with cultural Serbianisation followed. Belgrade was reconstructed as a new capital by the Serb elite that removed elements of the Ottoman era. While Serb commonfolk looked for ways to aid the Serb cause and assist other Serbs still residing in areas ruled by the Muslim Ottoman Empire. Austro-Hungarian Serbs who had integrated within Serbia and promoted Serbianisation opened the country up to cultural and economic influences of Austria-Hungary in the 1880s.
In the late Ottoman period, representatives from Serbia such as the statesmen and historian Stojan Novaković encouraged a separate Slavic Macedonian identity through Macedonianism to counter Bulgarian influence and the "Bulgarian idea" to separate the local population from Bulgarians and instill the "Serbian idea". Serbianising directly the local Slavic population through propaganda and education was difficult due to strong Bulgarian sentiments at the time in the region; the spread and promotion of Serbian Macedonianism was seen by Serbs as the first move toward Serbianing the Macedonians. Following the First World War, the new Kingdom was reliant on patronage from the Serb monarchy that resulted in tendencies of centralisation and Serbianisation that other ethnic communities in the country opposed. In Belgrade a new government was formed after the war that Serbianised the gendarmerie and made non-Serbs in the country view the new Kingdom as a extension of the old Kingdom of Serbia. Prior to 1918 most pro-Yugoslav Croat linguists supported the linguistic ide
Francization or Francisation, Frenchification, or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population. The number of Francophones in the world has been rising since the 1980s. In 1985, there were 106 million Francophones around the world; that number rose to 173.2 million in 1997, 200 million in 2005, 220 million in 2010. and reached 274 million in 2014, Forecasts expect that the number of French speakers in Africa alone will reach 400 million in 2025, 715 million by 2050 and reach 1 billion and 222 million in 2060. The worldwide French speaking population is expected to multiply by a factor of 4, whereas the world population is predicted to multiply by a factor of only 1.5. According to the OIF, the figure of 220 million Francophones is "sous-évalué" or under-evaluated because it only counts people that can write and speak French fluently, thus excluding a large part of the countdown of the African population that does not know how to write.
French is the language in which the relative share of speakers is the world's fastest growing. The French Conseil économique, social et environnemental estimate that if the population that does not know how to write would be included as francophones the total number of French speakers passed the 500 million in the year 2000. In 2014, a study from the French Bank, Natixis Bank, claims that French will become the world's most spoken language by 2050; however critics of the study state that French coexists with other languages in many countries and that the estimations of the study are overstated. Out of 53 countries, Africa has 32 more than half. However, the most populous country on the continent, is predominantly English speaking; the Francophone zone of Africa is two times the size of the United States of America French was introduced in Africa by France and Belgium during the colonial period. The process of francization continued after the colonial period, so that English-speaking countries like Ghana or Nigeria feel strong French influences from their French-speaking neighbors.
French became the most spoken language in Africa after Arabic and Swahili in 2010. The number of speakers changed rapidly between 1992 and 2002, with the number of learners of French in sub-Saharan and southeastern Africa increasing by 60.37%, from 22,33 million to 34,56 million people. A similar trend in the Maghreb region is occurring. However, the figures provided by the OIF for the Maghreb region were combined with those of the Middle East; the exact count for the Maghreb countries alone is not possible, but an increase was observed from 10.47 million to 18 million people learning French between 1992 and 2002 where French is not an official language. Consideration should be given to the number of French speakers in each country to get an idea of the importance the French language holds in Africa. List of counties with French as a non official language that have decided to join the OIF in view of frenchifying their countries: Cape Verde Egypt Ghana Guinea Bissau Mozambique São Tomé and Príncipe The French language plays an important role in Africa, serving more and more as a common language or mother tongue.
The African Academy of Languages was established in 2001 to manage the linguistic heritage. Francophone African countries counted 370 million inhabitants in 2014; this number is expected to reach between 700 and 750 million by 2050. There are more francophones in Africa than in Europe. Vietnam and Laos were once part of French Indochina, part of the French Empire. French influence, including buildings and cuisine have been influenced from this, but they are still distinct in their own cultures. Great Britain, therefore the English language, was francized during the Middle Ages; this was a result of the conquest of England by William the Conqueror from Normandy in 1066, a king who spoke French and imposed the French language in England. Old English became the language of the poor population and French the language of the court and wealthy population, it is said. Today, it is estimated that 70 % to 72 % of the English language comes from Latin, it is easy to observe this tendency in the cooking world.
The names of living farm animals have Anglo-Saxon roots. However, the names of cooked animals, once served to the wealthier, have Old French origins: Pig – Pork from the Old French porc Cow – Beef from the Old French bœuf Chicken – Poultry from the Old French pouletrie or pouleThere is an incomplete list of French expressions used in English, containing however only pure French expressions: List of French expressions in English Francization is a designation applied to a number of ethnic assimilation policies implemented by French authorities from the French Revolution to present; these policies aimed to impose or to maintain the dominance of French language and culture by encouraging or compelling people of
Afro-Arabs are people of mixed Arab and African descent as well as groups from Sub-Saharan Africa who have adopted Arab culture. Most Afro-Arabs inhabit the Swahili Coast in the African Great Lakes region. Afro-Arab communities were founded in the Nile Valley, as Arabs conquered these lands and arabised the local Nilotic people. Most Afro-Arabs in the Sudans were of Nilotic and Bantu origins, influenced by the old Arabian civilization in language and culture only. In the Maghreb region of North Africa, the black Tuareg can be found, they are Arabised to a great extent and they are another group of Afro-Arabs who are of black Berber origin. Moreover, the Toubou people are a further group of Black Negroes who have adopted Islam and who have adopted Arab culture in the Arab countries that they live in, like Libya and Sudan. By around the 10th century CE, Arabs had established commercial settlements on the Swahili Coast; the Portuguese conquered these trading centers after the discovery of the Cape Road.
From the 1700s to the early 1800s, Muslim forces of the Sultanate of Muscat reseized these market towns on the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar. In these territories, the Oman Arabs helped convert the local "African" populations to Islam; the African populations thereby established Afro-Arab communities by adopting Arab culture, despite the fact they have no Arab ancestry. It's worth noting that all of them converted to IslamIn the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, descendants of people from the Swahili Coast perform traditional Liwa and Fann At-Tanbura music and dance; the mizmar is performed by Afro-Arabs in the Tihamah and Hejaz regions of Saudi Arabia. The ancestors of these Negros were brought to the Arabian Gulf as slaves, but today they are recognised citizens of the Persian Gulf States, despite the fact that they do not have any Arab ancestry. In addition, Stambali of Tunisia and Gnawa music of Morocco are both ritual music and dances, which in part trace their origins to West African musical styles.
Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781456723569. Hinde, Sidney Langford; the Fall of the Congo Arabs. London: Methuen & Co. Mazrui, Alamin M.. Debating the African Condition: Race and culture conflict. Africa World Press. ISBN 9781592211456. Mazrui, Ali A.. The Politics of Gender and the Culture of Sexuality: Western and African Perspectives. University Press of America. ISBN 9780761864035. Arab Slave Trade Afo-Arab relations and the Arab Slave Trade "Black Africans in West Asia" - a cited ColorQ.org essay Prof. Helmi Sharawy, Arab Culture and African Culture: ambiguous relations, paper extracted from the book The Dialogue between the Arab culture and other cultures', Arab League, Educational and Scientific Organisation, Tunis, 1999. Resolution on Afro-arab Co-operation of The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, 23, February 23–28, 1987. African Union/league of Arab States Inter-secretariat Consultative Meeting On Afro-arab Cooperation, Addis Ababa: 10–12 May 2005.
Maho M. Sebiane, « Le statut socio-économique de la pratique musicale aux Émirats arabes unis: la tradition du leiwah à Dubai », Chroniques yéménites, 14, 2007.. Afro-Arabian origins of the Early Yemenites and their Conquest and Settlement of Spain
Armenians in the Middle East
The Armenians in the Middle East are concentrated in Iran, Cyprus, Syria and Palestine, although well-established communities exist in Iraq, Egypt and other countries of the area, including, of course, Armenia itself. The Armenians of the Middle East speak the western dialect of the Armenian language and the majority are adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church, with smaller Catholic and Protestant minorities. There is a sizable Armenian population in the thousands in Palestine and the Palestinian territories the Armenian Quarter in Jerusalem with a history that goes back 2,000 years. Armenians in Lebanon have the most freedoms, compared to other regions in the area that have large number of Armenians. Armenians have always kept a certain political and economic contact with the Middle East; the Armenian royalty had always kept close contact with neighbouring Persia. In the 1st century B. C. Tigranes the Great, the King of Kings of the Armenian Empire, ruled over a significant part of the region.
Armenians have a millennia long native history in the region, are part of the indigenous inhabitants of northwestern Iran, as well as many of the oldest Armenian churches and monasteries are located there. During the Middle Ages, Armenians established a new kingdom in Cilicia, which despite its strong European influence, not unlike Cyprus, was considered as being part of the Levant, thus in the Middle East. There were Armenian communities in the Edessa region, Northern Syria, Jerusalem and have played a direct role in many key events, such as the Crusades; the Armenians presence in northern Persia/Iran continued to increase. However their presence notably strengthened in 1604–1605, when Shah Abbas of the Safavid Empire deported 250,000–300,000 Armenians deeper into Persia; the Armenians, notably those of Iran, were recognized as being astute businessmen and were renowned throughout the World. During the Ottoman period, the Levantine Armenian communities had diminished in number because of previous conflicts, such as the Mamluk invasion of Cilicia, Tamerlane's invasion of Syria, so on.
From the 16th century until 1828, all of Eastern Armenia, which includes all of the modern-day Republic of Armenia, were part of Qajar Iran, alongside the rest of Transcaucasia and parts of the North Caucasus. As a result of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Iran irrevocably lost Eastern Armenia to neighbouring Imperial Russia, while the terms stipulated the rights of the Tsar to make a call for Iran's large Armenian community to settle in the newly conquered Caucasian territories of Russia. Many tens of thousands of Armenians relocated. A year after, per the Treaty of Adrianople of 1829 concluded with Ottoman Turkey, the Tsar gained the same rights now for the extant Ottoman Armenian population, again many tens of thousands moved; as a result of this, the number of Armenians in the Middle East, who all lived either in Qajar Iran or the Ottoman Empire, became reduced. Many Ottoman Armenians forcefully came to the Levant and Mesopotamia while many strengthened the large Armenian community in neighboring Iran, while others moved to Russia and other parts of the world, as they fled during the Armenian Genocide, during which 1.5 million Armenians perished.
In contemporary times, the Armenians in the region lived through and were forced to participate in many conflicts, such as the Arab–Israeli conflict, the Lebanese Civil War, under Saddam Hussein in the Iran–Iraq War during the 1980s and the first Gulf War of 1990–91. Because of political turmoil and tension in the region, many Middle Eastern Armenians have emigrated to the Western Europe, the United States, Canada and the Persian Gulf states. Although a good quantity have left the region, they never have lost their foothold in the Orient. Armenians in Bahrain number around 50, living in the capital, Manama, they come from Syria, attracted by the economic opportunities provided by the country. The Armenians in Bahrain are Armenian Apostolics belonging to the Armenian Apostolic Church and under the jurisdiction of the Holy See of Cilicia; the Catholicossate of the Great House of Cilicia has established the "Diocese of Kuwait and the Persian Gulf Countries" headquartered in Kuwait, but serving the Armenians in the Persian Gulf including Bahrain.
Armenians maintain a notable presence of about 3,500 people in Cyprus centered in Nicosia, but with communities in Limassol and Larnaca. Armenians in Egypt are a community with a long history, they are a minority with their own language, schools and social institutions. The number of Armenians in Egypt is decreasing due to migrations to other countries and a return migration to Armenia, they number about 6000 concentrated in the two largest Egyptian cities. Armenians in Iran are one of the largest Armenian communities in the world. There are about 150,000-300,000 Armenian Iranians, they live in Tehran and Jolfa district. The Armenian-Iranians were influential and active in the modernization of Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. After the Iranian Revolution, many Armenians immigrated to Armenian diasporic communities in North America and western Europe. Today the Armenians are Iran's largest Christian religious minority; the Armenian community has been resident in the Holy Land for two millennia.
After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and the
Slovakization or Slovakisation is a form of forced cultural assimilation process during which non-Slovak nationals give up their culture and language in favor of the Slovak one. This process has relied most on intimidation and harassment by state authorities. In the past the process has been aided by deprivation of collective rights for minorities and ethnic cleansing, but in the last decades its promotion has been limited to the adoption of anti-minority policies and anti-minority hate speech; the process itself is limited to Slovakia, where Slovaks constitute the absolute majority by means of population and legislation power as well. Slovakization is most used in relation to Hungarians, who constitute the most prominent minority of Slovakia, but it affects Germans, Ukrainians and Jews; the process of slovakization was present in the Kingdom of Hungary ever since the appearance of the Slovak nation itself, but up until the foundation of Czechoslovakia the process was voluntary. This early form of slovakization can be observed in detail in noble families' personal correspondence.
Another example of pre-World War I Slovakization is the assimilation of the Habans, a Hutterite group settled in the Nagylévárd area in the 16th century, into the Slovak majority. The accelerated, forced nature of slovakization began with the defeat of the remaining Hungarian armies in 1919, which laid foundations to the creation of Czechoslovakia, a state in which the Slovaks have gained a de facto political power for the first time in the nation's history; the Paris Peace Conference concluded by the Treaty of Trianon in 1920 set the southern border of Czechoslovakia for strategic and economic reasons much further south than the Slovak-Hungarian language border. Hungarian-populated areas were annexed to the newly created state. Czechoslovakia provided a large education network for the Hungarian minority. Hungarians, for example, had 31 kindergartens, 806 elementary schools, 46 secondary schools, 576 Hungarian libraries at schools in the 1930s and a Department of Hungarian literature was created at the Charles University of Prague.
The number of Hungarian elementary schools increased from 720 in 1923/1924 to the above number 806. The Hungarian University in Bratislava/Pozsony was closed after formation of Czechoslovakia According to the 1910 census conducted by the Central Statistical Office of Hungary, there were 884,309 people with Hungarian as a mother tongue, constituting 30.2% of the population, in what is now Slovakia compared to the 9.7% number recorded in the 2001 census, amounting to a 3 fold decrease in the percentage of Hungarians. The first Slovak census in 1919 in what is now Slovakia recorded 689,565 Hungarians constituting 23.59% of the population. According to the first Czechoslovak census in 1921 there were 650,597 Hungarians in Slovakia, constituting 21.68% of the population. The Czechoslovak census of 1930 recorded 571,952 Hungarians. All censuses from the period are disputed, some give conflicting data for example in Kosice according to the Czechoslovak censuses 15-20% of the population was Hungarian.
However, during the parliamentary elections the Ethnic Hungarian parties got 35-45% of the total votes. The whole matter is complicated by the fact that there was a high percentage of bilingual and "Slovak-Hungarian" persons who could claim being both Slovak and Hungarian. Slovak sources do not deny that many Hungarian teachers, postmen, policemen and civil clerks were forced to leave or left for Hungary voluntarily, the numbers however are unclear but census do show a rapid decline in the number of people with Hungarian as a mother tongue; some teachers and civil servants were expelled from Czechoslovakia while some left due to the harsh circumstances. There are many examples of Hungarians; the high number of refugees necessitated entire new housing projects in Budapest, which gave shelter to refugees numbering at least in the ten-thousands. Under the Austro-Hungarian Empire there was strong anti-Hungarian sentiment among certain sections of the Czech and Slovak population and unsurprisingly, this persisted to some extent in Czechoslovakia once it was formed.
It seemed to hit the city of Pressburg most intensely. One of the first measures brought by Samuel Zoch, the newly appointed župan of the city was the forced disbandment of the only Hungarian university in Czechoslovakia, the intimidation of its professors by the police in 1919 after the formation of the new country. Most of the professors and former students left Pressburg for Budapest. Zoch had stated "...but the question of minorities will be solved only after our public perception of morality will condemn ethnic oppression just as much as the oppression of religion". According to Varsik, the university was not closed by the župan because local politicians did not have such powers. Elisabeth University was founded in 1912 and began teaching only in 1914; the university was not the only Hungarian graduate school in the territory of contemporary Slovakia, but it had to serve to all students from Upper Hungary inhabited by Slovak maj
Arabized Berber denotes an inhabitant of the Maghreb region in northwestern Africa, whose native language is a local dialect of Arabic and whose origins are Berber. The expression holds that most populations in North Africa are of Berber heritage, including those inhabiting Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Mauritania; the widespread language shift from Berber to Arabic happened, at least due to the privileged status that the Arabic language has been given in the states of North Africa, from the Arab conquest in 652 up until the European conquest in the twentieth century, as well as the migration of the Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym tribes to North Africa. Medieval Arabic sources refer to North Africa as Bilad Al Barbar or'Land of the Berbers' prior to the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb; this designation may have given rise to the term Barbary Coast, used by Europeans until the 19th century to refer to coastal Northwest Africa. But the cultural impact of Islam was big as it was the only boost for the spread of the Arabic language.
Since the populations were affiliated with the Arab Muslim culture, North Africa was starting to be referred to by the Arabic speakers as Al-Maġrib since it was considered as the western part of the known world. For historical references, medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers used to refer to Morocco as Al-Maghrib al Aqşá, disambiguating it from neighboring historical regions called Al-Maghrib al Awsat and Al-Maghrib al Adna. Though many of these cities have been linguistically Arabized, from a historic point of view it is accepted that the core population of North Africa is Berber. More than rural areas, the cities were a melting pot of different ethnicities, so the city dwellers are more to have non-pure Berber ancestry. By tracing the history of certain Maghrebian areas, historians are able to make assertions about its inhabitants. For instance though Casablanca and Rabat were both built and settled by Berbers, we know that the area's original inhabitants were ousted by the Almohads and subsequently resettled with nomadic Banu Hilal Arabs.
Other, traditionally Berber, cities like Tangiers and Marrakesh have never had such a drastic repopulation, so that we can assume that its inhabitants today are of Berber stock. Although these cities have for centuries now been linguistically Arabized, their culture and identity have not been through that process; the cities of Tangiers, Tetouan and Marrakesh still have a strong regional Berber aspect to them and their inhabitants do not consider themselves to be ethnically Arab though their language might be today's Moroccan-Arabic. According to Berber nationalists, although a North African may only speak Maghrebi Arabic as opposed to a Berber language, this person is still Berber since he or she is ancestrally of Berber origin, it is a response from Berber activists to those Algerians and Moroccans who self-identify as "Arab" because of their Arabic tongue. North Africa was Arabized with the spread of Islam in the 7th century AD, when the liturgical language Arabic was first brought to the Maghreb.
However, the identity of northwestern Africa remained Berber for a long time thereafter. Additionally though the process of Arabization began with these early invasions, many large parts of North Africa were only Arabized like the Aurès mountains in the 19th and 20th centuries. Although, the fertile plains of North Africa seem to have been Arabized in the 11th century with the emigration of the Banu Hilal tribes from Arabia; the mass education and promotion of Arabic language and culture through schools and mass media, during the 20th century, by the Arabist governments of North Africa, is regarded as the strongest Arabization process in North Africa ever. Various population genetics studies along with historians such as Gabriel Camps and Charles-André Julien lend support to the idea that the bulk of the gene pool of modern maghrebis, irrespective of linguistic group, is derived from the Berber populations of the pre-Islamic period. Kabylism Algerianism Berberism Tamazgha Maghreb Muslim conquest of the Maghreb Berbers and Islam Berbers