Battle of Lovcha
The Battle of Lovcha, or Loftcha, was a battle of the Russo-Turkish War which occurred during the siege of Plevna. Russian forces reduced the fortress at Lovcha, which had protected Plevna's communication and supply lines. In July 1877, shortly after the siege of Plevna began, the garrison's commander, Osman Pasha, received 15 battalions of reinforcements from Sofia, he chose to use these reinforcements to fortify Lovcha, which protected his lines of support running from Orchanie to Plevna. After the failure of the first two attempts to storm the city of Plevna, the Russians brought up significant reinforcements, the investing army now totaled 100,000. Intent on cutting Osman's communications and supply lines, General Alexander Imerentinsky was sent out with 22,703 Russian troops to seize Lovcha. On September 1 Generals Alexander Imerentinsky, Mikhail Skobelev, Vladimir Dobrowolski reached Lovcha and attacked the city. Fighting continued for the next two days. Osman marched out of Plevna to the relief of Lovcha, but on September 3, before he could reach Lovcha, it fell to the Russians.
Survivors of the battle were organized into 3 battalions. After the loss of Lovcha, these additional troops brought Osman's force up to 30,000, the largest it would be during the siege; the Russians settled on the strategy of a complete investment of Plevna, with the loss of its major supply route, the fall of Plevna was inevitable. Battles of the Russo-Turkish War Compton's Home Library: Battles of the World CD-ROM Бръняков Б. Действията около град Ловеч през Освободителната война 1877 -1878 г. Печатница „ Светлина “, Ловеч, 1928 г
Panayot Pipkov was a Bulgarian composer. He studied music in Milan and taught in Lovech and Sofia, he was the father of composer Lyubomir Pipkov. Pipkov Glacier in Antarctica is named after Panayot Pipkov and Lyubomir Pipkov
Petar Kanchev Hubchev is a Bulgarian football manager and former player, in charge of the Bulgaria national team. He was part of the Bulgarian squad that reached the semi-finals of the 1994 World Cup and played at the Euro 1996. Born in the village of Glozhene, Lovech Province, Hubchev began his career as a centre-back at Osam Lovech and being called up for the national team while still playing in the B Group, he made his debut for the Bulgaria national team on 25 April 1984 in a match against Greece. Hubchev was subsequently bought by Levski Sofia in 1989, he stayed until 1994, winning two national cups. His success during the 1994 World Cup led him to a move to German club Hamburger SV, a team which he captained for a brief period, he played for Eintracht Frankfurt until 2001, where he finished his professional career at the age of 38 and continued as an assistant manager and reserves manager, having played 128 matches and scored two goals in the German Bundesliga, as well as 44 matches in the 2.
Bundesliga with another two goals. In 2002, Hubchev became the assistant manager of the Bulgaria national team under head coach Plamen Markov, as he helped Bulgaria qualify for the Euro 2004, he continued afterwards as an assistant manager under new Bulgaria national team manager Hristo Stoichkov, briefly worked as a Slavia Sofia manager in 2005. From the summer of 2009 he went on to manage Chernomorets Pomorie, a feeder club of Chernomorets Burgas at the time in the Bulgarian B Group. Hubchev managed the team to a surprise appearance in the 2010 Bulgarian Cup Final by eliminating Minyor Pernik with 2–0 in the quarter-final and Kaliakra Kavarna respectively. Chernomorets Pomorie players were the second ones from a B Group side in the Bulgarian Cup history to appear in the final of the competition since Chernomorets Burgas' similar achievement in 1989. Chernomorets Pomorie lost the final 0–1 against Beroe Stara Zagora when Doncho Atanasov scored a late goal just before extra time was to commence.
In 2011, he was appointed as a manager of Botev Plovdiv, but was shortly released after unsatisfying results. In January 2012, he was appointed as a sports director at Beroe Stara Zagora. In October 2012, Hubchev was announced as the new head coach of Beroe Stara Zagora; the same season he guided the team to a Bulgarian Cup triumph against Levski Sofia in the final, combined with a Super Cup brace against domestic title holders Ludogorets Razgrad. In the follow-up 2014–15 A Group, he led Beroe Stara Zagora to a historic second place in the final league ranking by securing crucial wins at home against title contenders Levski Sofia and CSKA Sofia, alongside Lokomotiv Sofia and Slavia Sofia. Beroe Stara Zagora avoided losing against these four in the away league matches in Sofia respectively. Hubchev was released from his duties in April 2016, following a 0–2 home loss against CSKA Sofia in a first leg Bulgarian Cup semi-final match, with the management of the club proclaiming him to be the most successful manager Beroe Stara Zagora has had in the club's history.
As of match played 25 March 2019 Levski SofiaA Group: 1992–93, 1993–94 Bulgarian Cup: 1991–92, 1992–93 Chernomorets PomorieBulgarian Cup runners-up: 2009–10Beroe Stara ZagoraA Group runners-up: 2014–15 Bulgarian Cup: 2012–13 Bulgarian Supercup: 2013 Petar Houbchev at fussballdaten.de Petar Houbchev at eintracht-archiv.de Profile at LevskiSofia.info
Municipalities of Bulgaria
The 28 provinces of Bulgaria are divided into 265 municipalities. Municipalities comprise multiple towns and settlements and are governed by a mayor, elected by popular majority vote for a four-year term, a municipal council, elected using proportional representation for a four-year term; the creation of new municipalities requires that they must be created in a territory with a population of at least 6,000 and created around a designated settlement. They must be named after the settlement that serves as the territory's administrative center, among other criteria; the council of a municipality is further permitted to create admininistrative subdivisions: mayoralties and wards or quarters. Mayoralties are overseen by elected mayors and comprises one or more villages or towns. Settlements are overseen by a manager appointed by the mayor of a municipality and thus have fewer responsibilities and less power than a mayoralty. Wards are overseen by elected mayors and must include a population of at least 25,000.
Like municipalities themselves and wards are designated administrative-territorial units, as they have their own elected officials. Settlements, are designated territorial units since their leaders are appointed. Bansko Municipality Belitsa Municipality Blagoevgrad Municipality Garmen Municipality Gotse Delchev Municipality Hadzhidimovo Municipality Kresna Municipality Petrich Municipality Razlog Municipality Sandanski Municipality Satovcha Municipality Simitli Municipality Strumyani Municipality Yakoruda Municipality Aytos Municipality Burgas Municipality Kameno Municipality Karnobat Municipality Malko Tarnovo Municipality Nesebar Municipality Pomorie Municipality Primorsko Municipality Ruen Municipality Sozopol Municipality Sredets Municipality Sungurlare Municipality Tsarevo Municipality Balchik Municipality Dobrich Municipality Dobrichka Municipality General Toshevo Municipality Kavarna Municipality Krushari Municipality Shabla Municipality Tervel Municipality ) Dryanovo Municipality Gabrovo Municipality Sevlievo Municipality Tryavna Municipality Dimitrovgrad Municipality Harmanli Municipality Haskovo Municipality Ivaylovgrad Municipality Lyubimets Municipality Madzharovo Municipality Mineralni Bani Municipality Simeonovgrad Municipality Stambolovo Municipality Svilengrad Municipality Topolovgrad Municipality Ardino Municipality Chernoochene Municipality Dzhebel Municipality Kardzhali Municipality Kirkovo Municipality Krumovgrad Municipality Momchilgrad Municipality Boboshevo Municipality Bobov Dol Municipality Dupnitsa Municipality Kocherinovo Municipality Kyustendil Municipality Nevestino Municipality Rila Municipality Sapareva Banya Municipality Treklyano Municipality Apriltsi Municipality Letnitsa Municipality Lovech Municipality Lukovit Municipality Teteven Municipality Troyan Municipality Ugarchin Municipality Yablanitsa Municipality Berkovitsa Municipality Boychinovtsi Municipality Brusartsi Municipality Chiprovtsi Municipality Georgi Damyanovo Municipality Lom Municipality Medkovets Municipality Montana Municipality Valchedram Municipality Varshets Municipality Yakimovo Municipality Batak Municipality Belovo Municipality Bratsigovo Municipality Lesichovo Municipality Panagyurishte Municipality Pazardzhik Municipality Peshtera Municipality Rakitovo Municipality Sarnitsa Municipality Septemvri Municipality Strelcha Municipality Velingrad Municipality Brezn
Lovech is a city in north-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the Lovech Province and of the subordinate Lovech Municipality; the city is located about 150 kilometres northeast from the capital city of Sofia. Near Lovech are the towns of Pleven and Teteven; the name is derived from the Slavic root lov, "hunting" + the Slavic suffix -ech. Lovech is situated in the Forebalkan area of northern Bulgaria, on both sides of the river Osam, unifies both mountainous and plain relief; the eastern part of the town is surrounded by a 250 m high plateau, where the largest park in Lovech, Stratesh, is located, the southwestern part is surrounded by the hills Hisarya and Bash Bunar. In the northwest the relief changes to the plains of the neighbouring Pleven Province; the average altitude of Lovech is about 200 m above mean sea level. The highest point of the town is Akbair Hill at 450 m. In Stratesh Park, the highest place in the town, there are a great number of lilac bushes seen from the whole town, which are a wonderful view in the spring.
Due to this, Lovech is well known as the town of the lilacs. According to the census, held in February, 2011, Lovech is populated by 36,600 inhabitants within city limits. In the 1880s the population of Lovech numbered about 7,000. Since it started growing decade by decade because of the migrants from the rural areas and the surrounding smaller towns, with a peak in the period 1987-1991 when exceeded 50,000 residents. After this time, the population has started decreasing in consequence of the poor economic situation in the Bulgarian provinces during the 1990s that led to a new migration in the direction of the country capital Sofia and abroad. According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows: Bulgarians: 32,706 Turks: 919 Gypsies: 411 Others: 120 Indefinable: 201 Undeclared: 2,243 Total: 36,600 The ethnic composition of Lovech Municipality is 43,223 Bulgarians, 2,321 Turks and 665 Gypsies among others. Following the census of 1926 Professor Anastas Ishirkov noted the homogeneity of the population, 95% of Bulgarian origin.
Lovech is one of the oldest towns in Bulgaria. Traces of human activities from ancient times were found in the region in the caves near the town; the reason was the comfortable location between the mountains and the flat country, the presence of a river. The first inhabitants of the town were the Thracian tribe of the Meldi, whose traces date back to the 4th or 3rd centuries BC, they founded their capital, called Melta, in the area, situated at the place of today's neighbourhood and architecture reserve Varosha. When the Balkans were occupied by the Roman Empire, a military station called Prezidium was founded near the modern town, situated at an important strategic position on one of the main Roman roads. Parts of this road are to be seen in the territory of Lovech today; the former Roman citadel Hisarya, situated on the hill of the same name, was the place where in 1187 the peace treaty between the Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire was signed and the returning of Bulgaria on the European map was declared, marking the beginning of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
In the 12th century Lovech was one of the most famous towns in Bulgaria. The Turkish invasion in the middle of the 14th century did not pass the town, but the Hisarya fortress was captured last of all, in 1446, although for a long time after that the town enjoyed some privileges such as a prohibition on Turkish people to settle in the town or to take Bulgarian children as janissaries. In the 17th century Lovech was once again an important trade centre and one of the richest towns in Bulgaria, a reason for the town being called Altın Lofça at the time. In the times of revolutionary organisations against the Ottoman rule, Lovech was the centre of operations of the Internal Revolutionary Organisation of Vasil Levski, called the Secret Revolutionary Committee, he was arrested by the Turkish military in a village near Lovech called Kakrina and hanged in Sofia. The biggest museum of Vasil Levski in Bulgaria containing many personal items such as notebooks and weapon is situated in the old town part of Lovech.
Between 1872 and 1874, the Bulgarian master-builder Nikola Fichev, known as Kolyu Ficheto, built the famous Covered Bridge over the river Osam, the only one of its kind in the Balkans. The bridge was burned out in 1925, but rebuilt in 1931. Now it connects the new and the old part of the town and it's full of cafes, small restaurants and many souvenir shops. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, an important battle was held at Lovech, known as the Battle of Lovcha; the war and several plagues and migrations in Wallachia drastically reduced the population. There was a substantial number of victims from the Bulgarian population. Many Turkish families were expelled by the Russian army and the Muslims of Lovech known to be "Lofçalılar" have immigrated to several parts of Turkey. In more recent times, Lovech was the place where modern foreign language education in Bulgaria started. Taking over from the American college established there in 1881, the first foreign language school in Bulgaria was set up in Lovech in 1950.
Three languages were taught in this school: English and German. However soon after that the teaching of English and French was moved to Sofia and Varna founding the first language schools in these cities: the First English Lang
PFC Litex Lovech
Litex is a Bulgarian professional association football club from the town of Lovech, which competes in the Second League. The club was founded in 1921 as Hisarya Football Club; the club's home ground is the Lovech Stadium, which has a capacity of 8,100 seats, electric floodlights and permission to stage European matches. As one of the successful Bulgarian clubs outside the capital Sofia, Litex have won the domestic championship four times and the Bulgarian Cup on four different occasions. Together with CSKA Sofia and Levski Sofia, Litex was the third football club to represent the country in the European Club Association; the club was founded in 1921 as Hisarya and began playing league football two years in 1923. Over the years, the club has changed its name several times. From 1957 it was named Karpachev, before becoming Osam in 1979. Under that name the club played in the B Group, the second division of Bulgarian football and was near to promotion several times. A notable player during this period was Plamen Linkov, who broke the club's appearance record, playing 575 matches and scoring 167 goals respectively.
In 1990, after Bulgaria's transition to market economy owned company LEX became the main sponsor of the club. During the same year, the new owners changed the name of the football club to LEX; the 1993–94 B Group proved to be impressive for the club, as the team finished first in the second division and qualified for the A Group, a notable milestone never done before in the club's history. LEX's debut season in the A Group was noteworthy, as the team ranked 11th at the end of the season; the next season however proved to be unsuccessful and the club, renamed Lovech, was relegated to the B Group. In June 1996, the club was purchased by Grisha Ganchev, petrol businessman and a citizen of Lovech, it was renamed to Litex; the takeover was followed by a flurry of bids for high-profile players. Ferario Spasov was named as the new Litex coach, he led the club back to the A Group at their first attempt. During the 1996–97 season Litex reached the quarter-finals of the Bulgarian Cup and the final of the Bulgarian League Cup, lost after a penalty shoot-out.
In 1997, Litex was promoted for the second time to the top division and became Bulgarian champions, finishing the season 5 points ahead of the second-placed Levski Sofia, unprecedented before in the Bulgarian football history. The striker of the team Dimcho Belyakov became top goalscorer with his 21 goals contributed during the season. In addition, midfielder Stoycho Stoilov received the Best Player of the League award; the club's first participation in the European club tournaments was promising, with Litex eliminating Swedish club Halmstads BK after 4-3 on both ties and reaching the second qualifying round, where it was knocked out by the Russian powerhouse Spartak Moscow. A year Litex defended their league title, losing only two league games during the course of the season, they became the first provincial club to win back-to-back league titles since the 1920s. During their campaign, Litex inflicted the biggest defeat in CSKA Sofia's history, an 8-0 thrashing at the Lovech Stadium. During the first decade of the 21st century, Litex won the Bulgarian Cup four times - in 2001 after defeating Velbazhd Kyustendil 1-0 in extra time, in 2004 against CSKA after a penalty shoot-out, in 2008 after a 1-0 win over Cherno More Varna, in 2009, after a 3-0 thrashing over Pirin Blagoevgrad.
In early August 2007, Litex signed a three-year sponsorship and advertising contract with Bulgarian mobile operator GLOBUL and started the 2007–08 season with the logo of the mobile service i-mode on the team's kits. In December 2007, Litex became the first Bulgarian club to have a branded mobile phone game, Litex Football. Before the start of the 2008–09 season, Litex lost the Bulgarian Supercup final with 0-1 from CSKA Sofia afer a goal from Kiril Kotev in the 65th minute. A season Litex again failed to win the Bulgarian Supercup final, this time against domestic title holders Levski Sofia. In 2009–10, Litex became champions of Bulgaria for the third time in their history, finishing the season with 12 points advantage than the runners-up CSKA Sofia. On August 12, 2010, Litex defeated Beroe 2–1 to secure the Bulgarian Supercup, the last possible remaining domestic trophy never won before by the club. In 2010–11 Litex retained their fourth league title, securing the championship after a 3–1 away win against Lokomotiv Sofia on May 21, 2011.
In the summer of 2015, Grisha Ganchev stepped down from his position as an owner, only to reallocate his main investments to Bulgarian football club CSKA Sofia, struggling financially with unpaid debts during the time. As a result, his son Danail took over at Litex, with previous shareholder Bulgarian joint stock company Sport 96 remaining in the club as a subsidiary of Litex Commerce JSC. On December 16, 2015, the Bulgarian Football Union expelled Litex Lovech from the A Group; the decision was taken in response to an incident that occurred during Litex Lovech's December 12 tie with Levski Sofia, when chairman Stoycho Stoilov controversially pulled the squad off the pitch in protest of 2 players being sent off at a score of 1-0 for the Lovech club. On January 20, 2016 the team was administratively relegated to the B Group for the upcoming 2016-17 season. Litex's players however were allowed to complete their participation in the Bulgarian Cup and could finish the 2015-16 season with the club's reserve squad, Litex Lovech II, playing in the B Group.
On 27 May 2016, the legal firm that represented PFC Chavdar Etropole - "PFC Chavdar EAD" was renamed to "PFC CSKA-1948 AD". On 6 June 2016 the legal firm that represented PFC Litex Lovech - "PFC Lit
Joseph I of Bulgaria
Exarch Joseph I, was a Bulgarian Exarch from 1877 to 1915. His grave, marked by a white cross and a bed of flowers, is located just outside the western wall of St Nedelya Church in Sofia