Judgment Day (2001)
Judgment Day was a professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by the World Wrestling Federation and sponsored by RC Cola. It was the third such annual event and took place on May 20, 2001, at the ARCO Arena in Sacramento, California. Seven professional wrestling matches; the main event was "Stone Cold" Steve Austin defending the WWF Championship against The Undertaker in a No Holds Barred match. The featured bouts on the undercard included Triple H defending the Intercontinental Championship against Kane in a Chain match, a two-out-of three falls match between Kurt Angle and Chris Benoit for Angle's 1996 Olympic Gold Medals; the event grossed over $670,000 in ticket sales from an attendance of 13,623, higher than the previous year's event. The event featured seven professional wrestling matches with outcomes predetermined by the WWF's creative writers. Wrestlers portrayed either a villainous or fan-favorite role as they followed a series of events which build tension, leading to a wrestling match.
The name of a wrestler's character was not always the person's birth name, as wrestlers use a stage name to portray their character. The main event at Judgment Day featured a No Holds Barred match, a match with no disqualifications nor countouts, in which Steve Austin defended the WWF Championship against The Undertaker; the buildup to the match began on the April 30 episode of Raw Is War, Austin retained the WWF Championship against Undertaker, though by disqualification after executing a low blow on Undertaker, thus resulting in the decision. In the following weeks, Undertaker attacked Austin, at one point taking his vest and the WWF Championship. Around that time, The Undertaker, received a phone call stating that his wife, had been involved in a car accident; the Undertaker found out that there had not been a car accident at all. The Undertaker began to hunt down. On the May 17 episode of SmackDown!, during Undertaker's match with Triple H, WWF Champion, "Stone Cold" Steve Austin appeared on the "Titantron" and admitted that he and Triple H were the ones who had made the phone call.
During the early part of the pay-per-view, Undertaker threatened to inflict bodily harm on Commissioner William Regal unless he made the title match No Holds Barred, which he did. The buildup to the "Two-out-of three falls Match" started after Chris Benoit stole Kurt Angle's medals by picking them up from the ring after throwing Angle over the top rope and out of the ring; this rivalry escalated more when Benoit announced that he was going to keep the gold medals in a "safe" and "warm" place, which turned out to be in the crotch of his tights. On the following SmackDown!, Angle faced Benoit and retrieved his medals, but when he went to kiss them he was repulsed by Benoit's crotch odor, which gave Benoit enough time to apply the Crippler Crossface on Angle. Angle dropped the medals and submitted, on the following Raw Is War Angle challenged Benoit to a Two-out-of-three falls match; the first fall would be a pinfalls-only match, the second a submission match. If the third fall was needed, it would be contested as a ladder match.
One main event at Judgment Day featured a Chain match, with Triple H defending his WWF Intercontinental Championship against Kane. The buildup to the match all started after WrestleMania X-Seven on the April 5 episode of SmackDown! when Triple H won the Intercontinental title by defeating Chris Jericho after WWF Commissioner William Regal interfered. Two weeks on SmackDown!, Triple H and Stone Cold Steve Austin interfered in Kane's WWF Hardcore Championship defense against Rhyno by injuring his left arm with multiple steel chair shots, enabling Rhyno to win the title. At Backlash, WWF Champion, "Stone Cold" Steve Austin and WWF Intercontinental Champion, Triple H defeated The Undertaker and Kane to win the WWF Tag Team Championship in a tag team match, in which Austin's WWF title and Triple H's Intercontinental title were on the line after interference from both Stephanie McMahon-Helmsley and her father Vince McMahon The following night on Monday Night's Raw Is War, Kane was scheduled to challenge "Stone Cold" Steve Austin for the WWF Championship, but Kane was attacked backstage by "Stone Cold" Steve Austin and Triple H before the match started.
Therefore, The Undertaker replaced Kane in the WWF Title match and defeated "Stone Cold" Steve Austin by disqualification, but did not win the WWF Title because of the disqualification. Afterward, Kane came down to the ring to save The Undertaker from the assault given to him by "Stone Cold" Steve Austin and Triple H, but Kane ended up being put out of action for two weeks after "Stone Cold" Steve Austin and Triple H targeted his left arm. Kane returned on the May 10 episode of SmackDown! and saved Undertaker from an assault by Austin. On the May 14 episode of Raw Is War, Triple H announced a chain match for the WWF Intercontinental title between himself and Kane at Judgment Day. Before the event began, a dark match took place on Heat. In another dark match, The Holly Cousins defeated Kaientai; the event opened with WWF commissioner William Regal facing Rikishi. Regal performed a Regal Cutter on Rikishi to win the match. Next, Kurt Angle faced Chris Benoit in a Two-out-of-three falls match for Angle's Olympic Gold Medal, with the first fall being a Singles match.
Angle performed Rolling German Suplexes on Benoit, mocking Benoit, attempted a Diving Headbutt but Benoit avoided. Benoit performed an Angle Slam on Angle to win the first fall; the second fall was a Submission match. Angle performed an Angle Slam on Benoit and forced Benoit to submit to the Ankle Lock to win the second fa
A liquid-crystal display is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words and seven-segment displays, as in a digital clock, they use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements. LCDs can either be on or off, depending on the polarizer arrangement. For example, a character positive LCD with a backlight will have black lettering on a background, the color of the backlight, a character negative LCD will have a black background with the letters being of the same color as the backlight. Optical filters are added to white on blue LCDs to give them their characteristic appearance.
LCDs are used in a wide range of applications, including LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, indoor and outdoor signage. Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches and mobile telephones, including smartphones. LCD screens are used on consumer electronics products such as DVD players, video game devices and clocks. LCD screens have replaced bulky cathode ray tube displays in nearly all applications. LCD screens are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, with LCD screens available in sizes ranging from tiny digital watches to large television receivers. LCDs are being replaced by OLEDs, which can be made into different shapes, have a lower response time, wider color gamut infinite color contrast and viewing angles, lower weight for a given display size and a slimmer profile and lower power consumption. OLEDs, are more expensive for a given display size due to the expensive electroluminescent materials or phosphors that they use.
Due to the use of phosphors, OLEDs suffer from screen burn-in and there is no way to recycle OLED displays, whereas LCD panels can be recycled, although the technology required to recycle LCDs is not yet widespread. Attempts to increase the lifespan of LCDs are quantum dot displays, which offer similar performance as an OLED display, but the Quantum dot sheet that gives these displays their characteristics can not yet be recycled. Since LCD screens do not use phosphors, they suffer image burn-in when a static image is displayed on a screen for a long time, e.g. the table frame for an airline flight schedule on an indoor sign. LCDs are, susceptible to image persistence; the LCD screen can be disposed of more safely than a CRT can. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment more efficiently than CRTs can be. By 2008, annual sales of televisions with LCD screens exceeded sales of CRT units worldwide, the CRT became obsolete for most purposes.
Each pixel of an LCD consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which are perpendicular to each other. Without the liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second polarizer. Before an electric field is applied, the orientation of the liquid-crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device, the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist; this induces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer; this light will be polarized perpendicular to the second filter, thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black.
By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray. Color LCD systems use the same technique, with color filters used to generate red and blue pixels; the optical effect of a TN device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, TN displays with low information content and no backlighting are operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage; as most of 2010-era LCDs are used in television sets and smartphones, they have high-resolution matrix arrays of pixels to display arbitrary images using backlighting with a dark background. When no image is displayed, different arrangements are used. For this purpose, TN LCDs are operated between parallel polarizers, whereas IPS LCDs feature crossed polarizers. In many applications IPS LCDs have replaced TN LCDs, in particular in smartphones su
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For
Comfort Eagle is the fourth studio album by American alternative rock band Cake. It was released on July 2001 on Columbia Records, their first with the company. All tracks written by John McCrea. In its opening week, Comfort Eagle sold about 72,000 copies, debuting at number 13 on the Billboard 200. On February 2, 2003 the album was certified gold by the RIAA for shipments of half a million copies. Comfort Eagle was well received by critics, with reviewers noting the album's similarity to the band's previous albums, for better or worse. AlbumSingle Comfort Eagle at Discogs
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in a walled indoor arena. Indoor soccer, as it is most known in the United States and Canada, was developed in these two countries as a way to play soccer during the winter months, when snow would make outdoor play difficult. In those countries, gymnasiums are adapted for indoor soccer play. In other countries the game is played in either indoor or outdoor arenas surrounded by walls, is referred to by different names. Indoor soccer has different regulations from other versions of association football designed for indoor play, such as futsal and five-a-side football. Unlike futsal, played on wooden or ceramic surfaces, indoor soccer is played on synthetic turf. Indoor soccer courts are delimited by walls instead of lines, there are no player throw-ins. FIFA, the international body that oversees international association football competitions, does not sanction the synthetic turf version of indoor soccer, having developed its own code of indoor football.
Indoor soccer is most popular in the United States and Mexico, with several amateur and professional leagues functioning. While internationally less popular than futsal, indoor soccer is played at the league level in many countries outside North America; the World Minifootball Federation is the governing body of indoor soccer at the international level, having replaced the International Fast Football Federation. The term minifootball, coined in Europe, has been adopted by the WMF as a standard international name for the sport. Indoor soccer is played throughout the world; the international federation dedicated to promoting the sport is the World Minifootball Federation based in the Czech Republic. The WMF replaced the International Fast Football Federation, based in Mexico and the United States. There are regional federations who govern the sport including: African Minifootball Federation, Asian Minifootball Confederation, Confederacion Panamericana de Minifutbol, European Minifootball Federation, Oceania Minifootball Federation.
During its existence, FIFRA organized several indoor soccer tournaments for national teams, including the Indoor Soccer World Championship. The only edition of this tournament took place in Mexico in 1997. No other indoor soccer world championship was held until 2015, when the WMF organized the first WMF World Cup in the United States; the second WMF World Cup took place in Tunisia in 2017. A world cup for Under-21 players was held in Prague with the Czech team taking the title. Star Sixes, an indoor six-a-side football tournament for national teams from around the world, was held in the O2 Arena in London in 2017. Held outside the auspices of the WMF, this tournament featured players which participated in the association football national teams of their home countries. A total of twelve teams participated, with France winning the title, it is intended to make Star Sixes a recurring event. A second edition took place with England winning the title. Indoor soccer is a common sport in the United States and Canada, with both amateur and professional leagues, due to the short season for outdoor soccer in Canada and the Northern United States, the ubiquity of arenas built for ice hockey and basketball which can be converted to indoor soccer.
It is popular in Northern Canada due to the unplayable outdoor conditions and its appearance in the Arctic Winter Games. Indoor soccer or futbol rapido has become a popular sport in Mexico, being included as part of the Universiada and the CONADEIP, in which university school teams from all over Mexico compete. In Mexico, "indoor" soccer fields are built outdoors. In 2012 an eight-team indoor soccer league was launched, which consists of former professional association football players from Liga MX. Indoor soccer is known in Brazil with several current regional leagues. Formal national leagues have formed in Bolivia, Uruguay and Peru. However, the most common variation of indoor soccer played in Brazil is Futsal. Indoor soccer is played in several European countries. In the United Kingdom, Masters Football is the most well-known competition. Tournaments among Masters teams are played. In Spain, some over-30 ex-professionals represent their clubs in the Liga Fertiberia which plays a five-a-side variant.
There is a European indoor soccer federation known as the European Minifootball Federation. EMF organize the European Minifootball Championship every year and in recent years countries have established official national minifootball associations to help them further organize and develop it. EMF organize variations of six-a-side football and this could come in different shapes and sizes from a large custom-built facility with multiple pitches or an 11-a-side pitch temporarily split into smaller pitches; this is not to be confused with the term used in Russia and some other former Soviet countries, where the term mini-fo
A bed is a piece of furniture, used as a place to sleep or relax. Most modern beds consist of a soft, cushioned mattress on a bed frame, the mattress resting either on a solid base wood slats, or a sprung base. Many beds include a box spring inner-sprung base, a large mattress-sized box containing wood and springs that provide additional support and suspension for the mattress. Beds are available in many sizes, ranging from infant-sized bassinets and cribs, to small beds for a single person or adult, to large queen and king-size beds designed for two people. While most beds are single mattresses on a fixed frame, there are other varieties, such as the murphy bed, which folds into a wall, the sofa bed, which folds out of a sofa, the bunk bed, which provides two mattresses on two tiers. Temporary beds include the folding camp cot; some beds contain neither a padded mattress nor a bed frame, such as the hammock, considered one of the most comfortable places to rest while swaying side to side. Some beds are made for animals.
Beds may have a headboard for resting against, may have side rails and footboards. "Headboard only" beds may incorporate a "dust ruffle", "bed skirt", or "valance sheet" to hide the bed frame. To support the head, a pillow made of a soft, padded material is placed on the top of the mattress; some form of covering blanket is used to insulate the sleeper bed sheets, a quilt, or a duvet, collectively referred to as bedding. Bedding is the removable non-furniture portion of a bed, which enables these components to be washed or aired out. Early beds were little more than piles of some other natural material. An important change was raising them off the ground, to avoid drafts and pests. 23-5 million years ago, before the advent of humans, apes began creating beds composed of a sleeping platform including a wooden pillow. Bedding dated around to 3600 BC was discovered in South Africa; the bedding consists of sedge and other monocotyledons topped with the leaves of Cryptocarya woodii Engl. Beds found in a preserved northern Scottish village, which were raised boxes made of stone and topped with comfortable fillers, were dated to between 3200 BC and 2200 BC.
The Egyptians had high bedsteads which were ascended by steps, with bolsters or pillows, curtains to hang around. The elite of Egyptian society such as its pharaohs and queens had beds made of wood, sometimes gilded. There was a head-rest as well, semi-cylindrical and made of stone, wood, or metal. Ancient Assyrians and Persians had beds of a similar kind, decorated their furniture with inlays or appliques of metal, mother-of-pearl, ivory; the adjacent image showcases a headrest. Headrests like this were used in life to support the head while sleeping, they are found supporting a mummy's head in the coffin. This headrest was made for the tomb, since the offering prayer has been inscribed on the supporting column, although the prayer may have been added after the death of the owner; the oldest account of a bed is that of Odysseus: a charpoy woven of rope plays a role in the Odyssey. A similar bed can be seen at the St Fagans National History Museum in Wales. Odysseus gives an account of how he crafted the nuptial bed for himself and Penelope, out of an ancient, huge olive tree trunk that used to grow on the spot before the bridal chamber was built.
His detailed description persuades the doubting Penelope that the shipwrecked, aged man is indeed her long-lost husband. Homer mentions the inlaying of the woodwork of beds with gold and ivory; the Greek bed had a wooden frame, with a board at the head and bands of hide laced across, upon which skins were placed. At a period the bedstead was veneered with expensive woods; the pillows and coverings became more costly and beautiful. Folding beds, appear in the famous Ancient Greek vase paintings. Roman mattresses were stuffed with hay, or wool. Feathers were used towards the end of the Republic. Small cushions were sometimes at the back; the bedsteads could only be ascended by the help of steps. They were arranged for two people, had a board or railing at the back, as well as the raised portion at the head; the counterpanes were sometimes costly purple embroidered with figures in gold. The bedsteads themselves were of bronze inlaid with silver, Elagabalus had one of solid silver. In the walls of some houses at Pompeii bed niches are found which were closed by curtains or sliding partitions.
Ancient Romans had various kinds of beds for repose. These included: lectus cubicularis, or chamber bed, for normal sleeping lectus genialis, the marriage bed, it was much decorated, was placed in the atrium opposite the door lectus discubitorius, or table bed, on which they ate—for they ate while lying on their left sides—there being three people to one bed, with the middle place accounted the most honorable position lectus lucubratorius, for studying and a lectus funebris, or emortualis, on which the dead were carried to the pyre The ancient Germans lay on the floor on beds of leaves covered with skins, or in a kind of shallow chest filled with leaves and moss. In the early Middle Ages they laid carpets on the floor or on a bench against the wall, placed upon them mattresses stuffed with f