Sleep apnea spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder where a person has pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep. Each pause can last for a few seconds to a few minutes and they happen many times a night. In the most common form, this follows loud snoring. There may be a snorting sound as breathing resumes; because the disorder disrupts normal sleep, those affected may experience sleepiness or feel tired during the day. In children it may cause hyperactivity or problems in school. Sleep apnea may be either obstructive sleep apnea in which breathing is interrupted by a blockage of air flow, central sleep apnea in which regular unconscious breath stops, or a combination of the two. Obstructive is the most common form. Risk factors for OSA include being overweight, a family history of the condition, allergies, a small breathing airway, enlarged tonsils; some people with sleep apnea are unaware. In many cases it is first observed by a family member. Sleep apnea is diagnosed with an overnight sleep study.
For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes per hour must occur. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, breathing devices, surgery. Lifestyle changes may include avoiding alcohol, losing weight, stopping smoking, sleeping on one's side. Breathing devices include the use of a CPAP machine. Without treatment, sleep apnea may increase the risk of heart attack, diabetes, heart failure, irregular heartbeat and motor vehicle collisions. OSA affects 2 % of children, it affects males about twice as as females. While people at any age can be affected, it occurs most among those 55 to 60 years old. CSA affects less than 1% of people. A type of CSA was described in the German myth of Ondine's curse where the person when asleep would forget to breathe. People with sleep apnea have problems with excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired alertness, vision problems. OSA may increase risk for work-related accidents. If OSA is not treated, people are at increased risk such as diabetes. Death could occur from untreated OSA due to lack of oxygen to the body.
Due to the disruption in daytime cognitive state, behavioral effects may be present. These can include belligerence, as well as a decrease in attentiveness and energy; these effects may become intractable. There is evidence that the risk of diabetes among those with moderate or severe sleep apnea is higher. There is increasing evidence that sleep apnea may lead to liver function impairment fatty liver diseases; because there are many factors that could lead to some of the effects listed, some people are not aware that they have sleep apnea and are either misdiagnosed or ignore the symptoms altogether. Sleep apnea can affect people regardless of race, or age. However, risk factors include: being male obesity age over 40 large neck circumference enlarged tonsils or tongue small jaw bone gastroesophageal reflux allergies sinus problems a family history of sleep apnea deviated septumAlcohol and tranquilizers may promote sleep apnea by relaxing throat muscles. People who smoke tobacco have sleep apnea at three times the rate of people.
Central sleep apnea is more associated with any of the following risk factors: being male an age above 65 having heart disorders such as atrial fibrillation or atrial septal defects such as PFO strokeHigh blood pressure is common in people with sleep apnea. When breathing is paused, carbon dioxide builds up in the bloodstream. Chemoreceptors in the blood stream note the high carbon dioxide levels; the brain is signaled to awaken the person, which allows breathing to resume. Breathing will restore oxygen levels and the person will fall asleep again; this carbon dioxide build-up may be due to the decrease of output of the brainstem regulating the chest wall or pharyngeal muscles, which causes the pharynx to collapse. People with sleep apnea spend less time in REM sleep. Sleep apnea may be diagnosed by the evaluation of symptoms, risk factors and observation, but the gold standard for diagnosis is a formal sleep study. A study can establish reliable indices of the disorder, derived from the number and type of event per hour of sleep, associated to a formal threshold, above which a patient is considered as suffering from sleep apnea, the severity of their sleep apnea can be quantified.
Mild obstructive sleep apnea ranges from 5 to 14.9 events per hour, moderate OSA falls in the range of 15–29.9 events per hour, severe OSA would be a patient having over 30 events per hour. Despite this medical consensus, the variety of apneic events, the variability of patients' physiologies, the inherent shortcomings and variability of equipment and methods, this field is subject to debate. Within this context, the definition of an event depends on several factors and account for this variability through a multi-criteria decision rule described in several, sometimes conflicting, guidelines. One example of a adopted definition of an apnea includes a minimum 10-second interval between breaths, with either a neurological arousal or a blood oxygen desaturation of 3–4%
Calogero Lorenzo "Chazz" Palminteri is an American actor, screenwriter and playwright. He is best known for his Academy Award-nominated role for Best Supporting Actor in Bullets over Broadway, the 1993 film A Bronx Tale, based on his play of the same name, Special Agent Dave Kujan in The Usual Suspects, Primo Sidone in Analyze This and his recurring role as Shorty in Modern Family. Palminteri was born on May 15, 1952, in the Bronx, the son of Rose, a homemaker, Lorenzo Palminteri, a bus driver, he was raised in the Belmont neighborhood of the Bronx. Palminteri is of Sicilian origin, his grandparents, Calogero Palminteri and Rosa Bonfante, married in 1908, immigrated to the United States in 1910 from Menfi in the province of Agrigento, Sicily, he struggled to become a star, splitting his time between acting in off-Broadway plays and moonlighting as a bouncer, alongside Dolph Lundgren. His big break came in 1988 with the premiere of his autobiographical one-man show, A Bronx Tale, which he wrote after being fired from a club for refusing entry to talent agent Swifty Lazar.
Palminteri has had acclaimed dramatic performances in films such as A Bronx Tale, The Usual Suspects, The Perez Family and Diabolique, as well as comedic roles in films such as Oscar, Analyze This, Down to Earth. During its run, he appeared in many advertisements for Vanilla Coke, in which he portrayed a mob boss who would threaten celebrities if they did not praise the taste of the product in question, let them walk away with the Vanilla Coke to "reward their curiosity", touching on its slogan at the time. Palminteri has voiced characters in various animated films, the most notable being Smokey in Stuart Little and Woolworth in Hoodwinked, he made his directorial debut with an episode of Oz the television film Women vs. Men and the 2004 feature film Noel. Palminteri's recent acting efforts include A Guide to Recognizing Your Saints, Running Scared, Arthur and the Minimoys. In 2004, he received the "Indie Hero Award" from the Method Fest Independent Film Festival for his artistic achievements in film.
Palminteri starred on Broadway in A Bronx Tale, the semiautobiographical one-man show he first performed at Theatre West in Los Angeles in 1989. The Broadway production, directed by Jerry Zaks and with music by John Gromada, began previews October 4, 2008, at the Walter Kerr Theatre and opened on October 25, running for 18 weeks. Palminteri plays 18 roles in A Bronx Tale, which depicts a rough childhood on the streets of the Bronx; the play ran for two months at Playhouse 91 in 1989. Robert De Niro saw this show there and made his directorial debut with the big-screen version, co-starring with Palminteri. Palminteri starred opposite Kenny D'Aquila in Unorganized Crime. Palminteri always appreciated the shot that Robert De Niro gave him, so he in turn agreed to star in D'Aquila's mafia-themed drama. Palminteri is performing in the Broadway musical version of A Bronx Tale since May 2018. On January 20, 2010, Palminteri guested on Modern Family and played the same character on the November 2, 2011, episode.
Palminteri has reprised the role twice more in season 5. In June 2010, Palminteri began guest-starring on the TNT crime drama Rizzoli & Isles as Frank Rizzoli, Sr, he guest starred twice on the CBS drama Blue Bloods as Angelo Gallo, a mob lawyer and childhood friend of main character Frank Reagan. Palminteri portrayed deceased mobster Paul Castellano in the 2001 TV film Boss of Bosses. In 2011, Palminteri opened a restaurant, Chazz: A Bronx Original, in Baltimore's Little Italy neighborhood. However, the restaurant closed in 2015. Palminteri opened an Italian restaurant, Chazz Palminteri Ristorante Italiano, in New York City on Second Avenue. Palminteri did the voice acting for the Call of Duty: Black Ops II character Sal De Luca in the zombies map Mob of the Dead, his likeness was used for the character as well. Palminteri lives in New York, he describes himself as devout Roman Catholic. He has two children, he is a self-avowed New York Yankees fan. 2007 – A Bronx Tale – performer 2013 – Human – performer and writer 2016 – A Bronx Tale – writer and performer 1989 – A Bronx Tale – writer and performer 2002 – The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui – Ernesto Roma Official website A Bronx Tale on Broadway | The Official Website AskChazz.com Chazz Palminteri on IMDb
Santa Maria del Rosario a Portamedina is a church located on Via Rosario in Portamedina in the Quartieri Spagnoli of the historic center of Naples, Italy. The church was founded in 1568 by the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, church and cloister were completed in the 17th century. From 1724 to 1742, the complex underwent reconstruction, which gives the site its present shape, external rococo decoration, internal stucco details; this was carried out by either Domenico Antonio Vaccaro or his followers. In 1929, the conservatory of the Dominican order was transferred to nuns of the Compagnia di Maria and in 1937 it was recognized as a school. During the twentieth century, the complex was altered; the facade facing a narrow street, has an ornate stucco portico. The interior is a centralized with two chapels, a rectangular apse, no dome. At present, the church is closed to the public. AA. VV. Napoli: Montecalvario questione aperta, Clean edizioni, Italy