Rubber and PVC fetishism
Rubber fetishism, or latex fetishism, is the fetishistic attraction to people wearing latex clothing or, in certain cases, to the garments themselves. PVC fetishism is related to rubber fetishism, with the former referring to shiny clothes made of the synthetic plastic polyvinyl chloride and the latter referring to clothes made of rubber, thicker, less shiny, more matte than latex. PVC is sometimes confused with the shiny patent leather, a fetish material. Latex or rubber fetishists sometimes refer to themselves as "rubberists". Gay male rubberists tend to call themselves "rubbermen"; the terms "PVC", "vinyl" and "PU" tend to be used interchangeably by retailers for clothing made from shiny plastic-coated fabrics. These fabrics consist of a backing woven from polyester fibers with a surface coating of shiny plastic; the plastic layer itself is a blend of PVC and polyurethane, with 100% PVC producing a stiff fabric with a glossy shine and 100% PU producing a stretchy fabric with a silky shine.
A manufacturer's label may say, for example, 67% polyester, 33% polyurethane for a fabric that contains no PVC. The plastic layer is textured to look like leather, as opposed to smooth. One reason why latex or other tight shiny fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin" that acts as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. Thus, wearers of skin-tight latex or PVC garments may be perceived by the viewer as being naked, or coated in a shiny substance like paint. Latex and PVC can be polished to be shiny and can be produced in bright colours, adding further visual stimulus to add to the physical sensations produced by the material; the tightness of the garments may be viewed as a kind of sexual bondage. The smell of latex rubber is a turn-on for some rubber fetishists, such garments are impregnated with chemicals to enhance the odour; some rubberists enjoy the idea of exhibitionism and some fantasise about going out in public wearing fetish attire. Some do this in the more liberal areas.
A compelling reason that people are turned on by wearing rubber is its transformative abilities. As with any costume, a rubberist can imagine themselves having a new identity one that permits a different code of behavior. Latex fetishism sometimes involves dressing up in the material. Another common stereotype of is the image of a dominatrix wearing a skin-tight jet-black, latex or PVC catsuit; some latex enthusiasts are turned on by the wearing of draped latex garments such as cloaks. Other rubber paraphernalia, such as wet suits, gas masks, splash suits, galoshes, Wellington boots, rubber/plastic pants, diapers are often added to the scenario. Heavier fetishists attempt duplicating all kinds of "everyday wear" into a rubber counterpart; some PVC enthusiasts are turned on by PVC Hazmat suits and other forms of industrial protective clothing. For hygienic reasons, many sex toys such as dildos and butt plugs are made from rubber or similar materials, this is a factor in rubber fetishism; some rubber fetishists are medical fetishists or have an interest in klismaphilia.
A substantial industry exists to produce specialist latex or rubber fetish clothing garments for rubber enthusiasts. Lots of latex or rubber clothes appear on websites such as eBay, in recent years clothes made in PVC have been prevalent in young people's fashions in jackets and trousers. Several mainstream designers have made latex clothing; as fashions come round and round again, it would seem that PVC, latex and similar materials are appearing again in mainstream street fashions as well as continuing to be central to the fetish scene. Among the numerous specialist rubberist magazines devoted to this fetish are AtomAge, Dressing for Pleasure, Marquis, «O», Shiny International, Skin Two. PVC, vinyl and metal are two other shiny materials used for clothing from regular street wear to PVC hazmat suits and other forms of industrial protective clothing; as with latex, these materials became more noted as fetish material in early 1970s. During that era and garments made of PVC and vinyl were made and worn in public areas to some degrees.
In the media, the most obvious was the British TV programme The Avengers. Numerous underground fetish production houses were started, which published magazines such as "Shiny", "Shiny's International", "Rubberist", "Dressing for Pleasure", noted rubber fetish author Helen Henley and others of this time frame. Fashion designers such as Jean Paul Gaultier, Yves Saint Laurent, Pierre Cardin and André Courrèges have used PVC in their collections. Since 2010, the PVC has been the target of fashion not only for the female public but to the male public. In the film Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed, Velma wears an orange PVC outfit to look attractive, although she is uncomfortable in it. In the Batman film series, Batman's costume is of rubber; the artwork of Allen Jones has been influenced by the imagery of rubber fetishism and BDSM. In a scene from the film Two for the Road, the actress Audrey Hepburn appears wearing a shiny black PVC trouser suit designed by Michele
A rope is a group of yarns, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than constructed cord and twine. Rope may be constructed of any long, fibrous material, but is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibre ropes are stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, they have a higher tensile strength, they are more resistant to rotting than ropes created from natural fibers, can be made to float on water, but synthetic rope possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness, some can be damaged more by UV light. Common natural fibres for rope are manila hemp, linen, coir, jute and sisal. Synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, polyesters, polyethylene and acrylics; some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres. Wire rope is made of steel or other metal alloys. Ropes have been constructed of other fibrous materials such as silk and hair, but such ropes are not available.
Rayon is a regenerated fibre used to make decorative rope. The twist of the strands in a twisted or braided rope serves not only to keep a rope together, but enables the rope to more evenly distribute tension among the individual strands. Without any twist in the rope, the shortest strand would always be supporting a much higher proportion of the total load; the long history of rope means. In systems that use the "inch", large ropes over 1 inch diameter such as are used on ships are measured by their circumference in inches. In metric systems of measurement, nominal diameter is given in millimetres; the current preferred international standard for rope sizes is to give the mass per unit length, in kilograms per metre. However sources otherwise using metric units may still give a "rope number" for large ropes, the circumference in inches. Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, exploration, sports and communications, has been used since prehistoric times. To fasten rope, many types of knots have been invented for countless uses.
Pulleys redirect the pulling force to another direction, can create mechanical advantage so that multiple strands of rope share a load and multiply the force applied to the end. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes; the modern sport of rock climbing uses so-called "dynamic" rope, which stretches under load in an elastic manner to absorb the energy required to arrest a person in free fall without generating forces high enough to injure them. Such ropes use a kernmantle construction, as described below. "Static" ropes, used for example in caving and rescue applications, are designed for minimal stretch. The UIAA, in concert with the CEN, oversees testing. Any rope bearing a GUIANA or CE certification tag is suitable for climbing. Despite the hundreds of thousands of falls climbers suffer every year, there are few recorded instances of a climbing rope breaking in a fall. Climbing ropes, however, do cut when under load. Keeping them away from sharp rock edges is imperative. Rock climbing ropes come with either a designation for double or twin use.
A single rope is the most common and it is intended to be used by itself, as a single strand. Single ropes range in thickness from 9 mm to 11 mm. Smaller ropes wear out faster. Double ropes are thinner ropes 9 mm and under, are intended for use as a pair; these ropes offer a greater margin or security against cutting, since it is unlikely that both ropes will be cut, but they complicate belaying and leading. Double ropes are reserved for ice and mixed climbing, where there is need for two ropes to rappel or abseil, they are popular among traditional climbers, in the UK, due to the ability to clip each rope into alternating pieces of protection. Twin ropes are not to be confused with doubles; when using twin ropes, both ropes are clipped into the same piece of protection, treating the two as a single strand. This would be favourable in a situation; however new lighter-weight ropes with greater safety have replaced this type of rope. The butterfly coil is a method of carrying a rope used by climbers where the rope remains attached to the climber and ready to be uncoiled at short notice.
Another method of carrying a rope is the alpine coil. Rope is an aerial acrobatics circus skill, where a performer makes artistic figures on a vertical suspended rope. Tricks performed on the rope are, for example, drops and hangs, they must be strong. See Corde lisse; the use of ropes for hunting, fastening, carrying and climbing dates back to prehistoric times. It is that the earliest "ropes" were occurring lengths of plant fibre, such as vines, followed soon by the first attempts at twisting and braiding these strands together to form the first proper ropes in the modern sense of the word. Impressions of cordage found on fired
Satin is a weave that has a glossy surface and a dull back, one of three fundamental types of textile weaves along with plain weave and twill. The satin weave is characterized by four or more fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. Floats are missed interfacings, for example where the warp yarn lies on top of the weft in a warp-faced satin; these floats explain the high luster and sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibres. Satin is a warp-faced weaving technique in which warp yarns are "floated" over weft yarns, although there are weft-faced satins. If a fabric is formed with a satin weave using filament fibres such as silk, polyester or nylon, the corresponding fabric is termed a satin, although some definitions insist that the fabric be made from silk. If the yarns used are short-staple yarns such as cotton, the fabric formed is considered a sateen. Many variations can be made including a granite weave and a check weave.
Satin is used in apparel: women's lingerie, nightgowns and evening gowns, but in boxer shorts and neckties. It is used in the production of pointe shoes for use in ballet. Other uses include interior furnishing fabrics and bed sheets. During the Middle Ages, satin was made of silk. Satin became famous in Europe during the twelfth century; the name derives its origin from the Chinese port city of Quanzhou. During the latter part of the Middle Ages, it was a major shipping port of silk, using the maritime Silk Road to reach Europe, it was used in the Arabian countries. Fabrics created from satin weaves are more flexible, with better draping characteristics than plain weaves, allowing them to be formed around compound curves, useful in carbon-fiber composites manufacturing. In a satin weave, the fill yarn passes over multiple warp yarns before interlacing under one warp yarn. Common satin weaves are: 4-harness satin weave called crowfoot satin, in which the fill yarn passes over three warp yarns and under one warp yarn.
It is more pliable than a plain weave. 5-harness satin weave. 8-harness satin weave, in which the fill yarn passes over seven warp yarns and under one warp yarn, is the most pliable satin weave and forms most around compound curves. Antique satin is a type of satin-back shantung, woven with unevenly spun weft yarns. Baronet or baronette has a rayon or silk front, similar to georgette. Charmeuse is a draping satin-weave fabric with a dull reverse. Double face satin is woven with a glossy surface on both sides, it is possible for both sides albeit using the same colors. Duchess satin is a luxurious, stiff satin. Faconne is jacquard woven satin. Farmer's satin or Venetian cloth is made from mercerised cotton. Gattar is satin made with a cotton weft. Messaline is loosely woven. Polysatin or poly-satin is an abbreviated term for polyester satin. Slipper satin is medium - to heavy-weight fabric. Sultan is a worsted fabric with a satin face. Surf satin was a 1910s American trademark for a taffeta fabric used for swimsuits.
Shaeffer, Claire. Sew Any Fabric. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 9781440222627. Shaeffer, Claire. Claire Shaeffer's Fabric Sewing Guide. Cincinnati, Ohio: Krause Publications. ISBN 1440223424. Media related to Satin at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of satin at Wiktionary
Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer, invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia; the name "spandex" is an anagram of the word "expands". It is the preferred name in North America. Brand names for spandex include Lycra, Acepora, Creora, INVIYA, ROICA and Dorlastan, ESPA. Dupont textiles scientist Joseph C. Shivers was determined to find a fiber to replace rubber in garments, he made a breakthrough in the early 1950s when he used an intermediate substance to modify Dacron polyester. This modification produced a stretchy fiber. After nearly a decade of research the fiber was perfected in 1959. Called Fiber K, DuPont chose the more rich trade name Lycra to distinguish its brand of spandex fiber. Spandex fibers are produced in four ways: melt extrusion, reaction spinning, solution dry spinning, solution wet spinning. All of these methods include the initial step of reacting monomers to produce a prepolymer.
Once the prepolymer is formed, it is reacted further in various ways and drawn out to make the fibers. The solution dry spinning method is used to produce over 94.5% of the world's spandex fibers, the process has five steps: 1. The first step is to produce the prepolymer; this is done by mixing a macroglycol with a diisocyanate monomer. The two compounds are mixed in a reaction vessel to produce a prepolymer. A typical ratio of glycol to diisocyanate is 1:2. 2. The prepolymer is further reacted with an equal amount of diamine; this reaction is known as chain extension reaction. The resulting solution is diluted with a solvent to produce the spinning solution; the solvent helps make the solution thinner and more handled, it can be pumped into the fiber production cell. 3. The spinning solution is pumped into a cylindrical spinning cell where it is cured and converted into fibers. In this cell, the polymer solution is forced through a metal plate called a spinneret; this causes the solution to be aligned in strands of liquid polymer.
As the strands pass through the cell, they are heated in the presence of solvent gas. This process causes the liquid polymer to form solid strands. 4. As the fibers exit the cell, an amount of solid strands are bundled together to produce the desired thickness; each fiber of spandex is made up of many smaller individual fibers that adhere to one another because of the natural stickiness of their surface. 5. The resulting fibers are treated with a finishing agent which can be magnesium stearate or another polymer; this treatment aids in textile manufacture. The fibers are transferred through a series of rollers onto a spool. In the post World War II era, DuPont Textiles Fibers Department, formed in 1952, became its most popular division, dominating the synthetic fiber market worldwide. At this time, women began to emerge as a significant group of consumers because of their need for underwear and hosiery. DuPont conducted market research to find out what women wanted from textiles began developing fibers to meet their needs.
The "need" was a better fiber solution for women's girdles, which were made of rubber at the time. DuPont became interested in developing a synthetic elastic fiber in the 1930s, perfected by chemist Joseph Shivers in 1959. Spandex's transformative nature allowed it to be incorporated into other garments besides girdles and undergarments. DuPont launched an extensive publicity campaign for its Lycra brand, taking advertisements and full-page ads in top women's magazines such as Vogue, Harper Bazaar, Mademoiselle, McCalls, Ladies Home Journal, Good Housekeeping. Fashion's original style icon, Audrey Hepburn helped catapult the brand on and off-screen in the late 50's. By the mid-1970s, girdle sales began to drop with the emergence of the Women's Liberation Movement. Girdles came to be associated with anti-independence and emblematic of an era, passing away. DuPont was not ready to abandon a market that they were reliant on. In response, DuPont reimagined; this expansion furthered at the 1968 Winter Olympic Games when the French ski team wore Lycra garments to compete.
This popularized the brand as essential athletic wear because of its flexible and lightweight material. The fiber proved to be popular in mid-thigh-length shorts worn by cyclists. By the 1980s, the fitness trend had reached its height in popularity and fashionistas began wearing shorts on the street. Spandex proved such a popular fiber in the garment industry that by 1987 DuPont had trouble meeting worldwide demand. In the 1990s a variety of other items made with Spandex proved popular, including a successful line of body-shaping foundation garments sold under the trade name Bodyslimmers; as the decade progressed, pants and shoes were being made with spandex blends, mass-market retailers like Banana Republic were using it for menswear. The elasticity and strength (stretching up t
Cock and ball torture
Cock and ball torture or penis torture is a sexual activity involving application of pain or constriction to the male genitals. This may involve directly painful activities, such as genital piercing, wax play, genital spanking, ball-busting, genital flogging, urethral play, tickle torture, erotic electrostimulation or kicking; the recipient of such activities may receive direct physical pleasure via masochism, or emotional pleasure through erotic humiliation, or knowledge that the play is pleasing to a sadistic dominant. Many of these practices carry significant health risks. "Ball-busting" is a form of CBT in which a man has his testicles kicked, punched or squeezed. In addition to its occasional role in BDSM pornography, Tamakeri is a separate genre in Japan. Like many of the other activities in this article, it carries significant health risks, including the possibility of permanent damage to the testicles through testicular trauma. A ball stretcher is a sex toy, used to elongate the scrotum and provide a feeling of weight pulling the testicles away from the body.
This can be enjoyable for the wearer as it can make an orgasm more intense, as testicles are prevented from moving up. Intended to make one's testicles permanently hang much lower than before, this sex toy can be harmful to the male genitals as the circulation of blood can be cut off if over-tightened. While leather stretchers are most common, other models consist of an assortment of steel rings that fastens with screws, causing additional but only mildly uncomfortable weight to the wearer's testicles; the length of the stretcher may vary from 1-4 inches. A more dangerous type of ball stretcher can be home-made by wrapping rope or string around one's scrotum until it is stretched to the desired length. A ball crusher is a device made from either metal or clear acrylic that squeezes the testicles by turning a nut or screw. How tight it is clamped depends on the pain tolerance of the person it is used on. A ball crusher is combined with bondage, either with a partner or by oneself. A parachute is a small collar made from leather, which fastens around the scrotum, from which weights can be hung.
It is conical in shape, with three or four short chains hanging beneath, to which weights can be attached. Used as part of cock and ball torture within a BDSM relationship, the parachute provides a constant drag, a squeezing effect on the testicles. Moderate weights of 3–5 kg can be suspended during bondage, though much heavier weights are used. Smaller weights can be used. A humbler is a BDSM physical restraint device used to restrict the movement of a submissive male participant in a BDSM scene; the humbler consists of a testicle cuff device that clamps around the base of the scrotum, mounted in the centre of a bar that passes behind the thighs at the base of the buttocks. This forces the wearer to keep his legs folded forward, as any attempt to straighten the legs slightly pulls hard on the scrotum, causing considerable discomfort. A testicle cuff is a ring-shaped device around the scrotum between the body and the testicles which when closed does not allow the testicles to slide through it.
A common type has two connected cuffs, one around the scrotum and the other around the base of the penis. They are just one of many devices to restrain the male genitalia. A standard padlock may be locked around the scrotum; some passive men enjoy the feeling of being "owned", while dominant individuals enjoy the sense of "owning" their partners. Requiring such a man wear testicle cuffs symbolizes that his sexual organs belong to his partner, who may be either male or female. There is a level of humiliation involved; the cuffs may form part of a sexual fetish of the wearer or his partner. However, these are extreme uses of testicle cuffs. More conventionally, the device pulls down the testicles and keeps them there during stimulation, which has a number of benefits: Making the penis appear longer. Pulling the testicles down and away from the base of the penis stretches the skin over the base of the penis and pubic bone, exposing the additional inch or so of penile shaft, hidden from view. Improving sexual arousal.
While some men may be aroused by the feeling of being "owned", the physical feeling of stretching the ligaments that suspend the testicles has an effect similar to the more common practice of stretching one's legs and pointing the toes. Preventing the testicles from lifting up so far that they become lodged under the skin adjacent to the base of the penis, a condition which can be uncomfortable if the testicle is squashed by the slap of skin during thrusting in sexual intercourse. Delaying or intensifying ejaculation by preventing the testicles from rising to the "point of no return", it is much harder to reach an orgasm. A cock harness is a penile sex toy designed to be worn around scrotum, its function is similar to that of a cock ring. These devices are associated with BDSM activities; the Gates of Hell is a male chastity device made up of multiple cock rings that can be used for CBT. Kali's Teeth is a metal bracelet with interior spikes that closes around the penis and can be used for preventing or punishing erections.
Loss of blood flow is one of the biggest risks in cock and ball torture, which can be seen with loss of color and edemas. Bondage in which the testicles are
Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. Simple devices such as blindfolds or hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing, while more complex devices can cut off the sense of smell, taste, and'gravity'. Sensory deprivation has been used in psychological experiments. Short-term sessions of sensory deprivation are described as conducive to meditation. A related phenomenon is perceptual deprivation called the Ganzfeld effect. In this case a constant uniform stimulus is used instead of attempting to remove the stimuli. Sensory deprivation techniques were developed by some of the armed forces within NATO, as a means of interrogating prisoners within international treaty obligations; the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the use of the five techniques by British security forces in Northern Ireland amounted to a practice of inhumane and degrading treatment. There are two basic methods of restricted environmental stimulation therapy: chamber REST and flotation REST.
In chamber REST, the subject lies on a bed in a dark and sound-reducing room for up to 24 hours. Their movement is restricted by the experimental instructions, but not by any mechanical restraints. Food and toilet facilities are provided in the room and are at the discretion of the tester, who can communicate with the participants using an open intercom. Subjects are allowed to leave the room. Chamber REST affects psychological psychophysiological processes. In flotation REST, the room contains a pool; the flotation medium consists of a skin-temperature solution of water and Epsom salts at a specific gravity that allows for the patient to float supine without worry of safety. In fact, to turn over while in the solution requires "major deliberate effort." Fewer than 5% of the subjects tested leave before the session duration ends, around an hour for flotation REST. For the first 40 minutes, it is possible to experience itching in various parts of the body; the last 20 minutes end with a transition from beta or alpha brain waves to theta, which occur before sleep and again at waking.
In a float tank, the theta state can last for several minutes without the subject losing consciousness. Some use the extended theta state as a tool for enhanced problem solving. Spas sometimes provide commercial float tanks for use in relaxation. Flotation therapy has been academically studied in the US and in Sweden with published results showing reductions of both pain and stress; the relaxed state involves lowered blood pressure, lowered levels of cortisol, maximal blood flow. Apart from physiological effects, REST seems to have positive effects on performance. Several differences exist between flotation and chamber REST. For example, with the presence of a medium in flotation REST, the subject has reduced tactile stimulation while experiencing weightlessness; the addition of Epsom salts to attain the desired specific gravity may have a therapeutic effect on hypertonic muscles. Since one of the main results of chamber REST is a state of relaxation, the effects of chamber REST on arousal are less clear-cut, which can be attributed to the nature of the solution.
Due to the inherent immobilization, experienced in flotation REST, which can become uncomfortable after several hours, the subject is unable to experience the session durations of chamber REST. This may not allow the subject to experience the changes in attitudes and thinking that are associated with chamber REST. Additionally, the research questions asked between each technique are different. Chamber REST questions stemmed from research that began in the 1950s and explored a variety of questions about the need for stimulation, nature of arousal and its relationship with external stimulation. Practitioners in this area have explored its utility in the treatment of major psychiatric dysfunctions such as substance abuse. On the contrary, flotation REST was seen as more of a recreational tool as it was tested more for its use with stress-related disorders, pain reduction and insomnia. Numerous studies have debated which method is a more effective treatment process, only one has explored this statistically.
Nineteen subjects, all of whom used chamber or flotation REST to induce relaxation or treat smoking, alcohol intake or chronic pain were analyzed. The statistic of interest, d, is a measure of the size of the treatment effect. For reference, d = 0.5 is considered d = 0.8 a large effect. The 19 subjects who underwent chamber REST had d=0.53 and six flotation REST subjects showed d=0.33. Additionally, when examining subjects undergoing REST treatment and REST in conjunction with another treatment method, there was little difference. However, Flotation REST has the advantage of a lower duration required; the use of REST has been explored in aiding in the cessation of smoking. In studies ranging between 12 months and five years, 25% of REST patients achieved long-term abstinence. REST, when combined with other effective smoking cessation methods (for ex
Neoprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range. Neoprene is sold either as solid rubber or in latex form and is used in a wide variety of applications, such as laptop sleeves, orthopaedic braces, electrical insulation and sheet applied elastomeric membranes or flashings, automotive fan belts. Neoprene is produced by free-radical polymerization of chloroprene. In commercial production, this polymer is prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization. Polymerization is initiated using potassium persulfate. Bifunctional nucleophiles, metal oxides, thioureas are used to crosslink individual polymer strands. Neoprene was invented by DuPont scientists on April 17, 1930 after Dr Elmer K. Bolton of DuPont attended a lecture by Fr Julius Arthur Nieuwland, a professor of chemistry at the University of Notre Dame. Nieuwland's research was focused on acetylene chemistry and during the course of his work he produced divinyl acetylene, a jelly that firms into an elastic compound similar to rubber when passed over sulfur dichloride.
After DuPont purchased the patent rights from the university, Wallace Carothers of DuPont took over commercial development of Nieuwland's discovery in collaboration with Nieuwland himself. Arnold Collins at DuPont focused on monovinyl acetylene and allowed it to react with hydrogen chloride gas, manufacturing chloroprene. DuPont first marketed the compound in 1931 under the trade name DuPrene, but its commercial possibilities were limited by the original manufacturing process, which left the product with a foul odor. A new process was developed, which eliminated the odor-causing byproducts and halved production costs, the company began selling the material to manufacturers of finished end-products. To prevent shoddy manufacturers from harming the product's reputation, the trademark DuPrene was restricted to apply only to the material sold by DuPont. Since the company itself did not manufacture any DuPrene-containing end products, the trademark was dropped in 1937 and replaced with a generic name, neoprene, in an attempt "to signify that the material is an ingredient, not a finished consumer product".
DuPont worked extensively to generate demand for its product, implementing a marketing strategy that included publishing its own technical journal, which extensively publicized neoprene's uses as well as advertising other companies' neoprene-based products. By 1939, sales of neoprene were generating profits over $300,000 for the company. Neoprene resists degradation more than synthetic rubber; this relative inertness makes it well suited for demanding applications such as gaskets and corrosion-resistant coatings. It can be used as a base for adhesives, noise isolation in power transformer installations, as padding in external metal cases to protect the contents while allowing a snug fit, it resists burning better than hydrocarbon based rubbers, resulting in its appearance in weather stripping for fire doors and in combat related attire such as gloves and face masks. Because of its tolerance of extreme conditions, neoprene is used to line landfills. Neoprene's burn point is around 260 °C. In its native state, neoprene is a pliable rubber-like material with insulating properties similar to rubber or other solid plastics.
Neoprene foam is produced in either closed-cell or open-cell form. The closed-cell form is less compressible and more expensive; the open-cell form can be breathable. It is manufactured by foaming the rubber with nitrogen gas, where the tiny enclosed and separated gas bubbles can serve as insulation. Nitrogen gas is most used for the foaming of Neoprene foam due to its inertness, flame resistance, large range of processing temperatures. Neoprene is used as a load bearing base between two prefabricated reinforced concrete elements or steel plates as well to evenly guide force from one element to another. Neoprene is a popular material in making protective clothing for aquatic activities. Foamed neoprene is used to make fly fishing waders and wetsuits, as it provides excellent insulation against cold; the foam is quite buoyant, divers compensate for this by wearing weights. Thick wet suits made at the extreme end of their cold water protection are made of 7 mm thick neoprene. Since foam neoprene contains gas pockets, the material compresses under water pressure, getting thinner at greater depths.
A recent advance in neoprene for wet suits is the "super-flex" variety, which mixes spandex into the neoprene for greater flexibility. Neoprene waders are about 5 mm thick, in the medium price range as compared to cheaper materials such as nylon and more expensive waterproof fabrics made with breathable membranes. Competitive swimming wetsuits are made of the most expanded foam; the downside is. Neoprene has become a favorite material for lifestyle and other home accessories including laptop sleeves, tablet holders, remote controls, mouse pads, cycling chamois. In this market, it sometimes competes with LRPu, a sturdier but less-used material; the Rhodes piano used hammer tips made of neoprene in its electric pianos, after changing from felt hammers around 1970. Neoprene is used for speaker cones and drum practice pads."4 Great Drum Mutes". Making Music. February 2