Sleepwalking known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness. It is classified as a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family, it occurs during slow wave sleep stage, in a state of low consciousness, with performance of activities that are performed during a state of full consciousness. These activities can be as benign as talking, sitting up in bed, walking to a bathroom, consuming food, cleaning, or as hazardous as cooking, driving a motor vehicle, violent gestures, grabbing at hallucinated objects, or homicide. Although sleepwalking cases consist of simple, repeated behaviors, there are reports of people performing complex behaviors while asleep, although their legitimacy is disputed. Sleepwalkers have little or no memory of the incident, as their consciousness has altered into a state in which memories are difficult to recall. Although their eyes are open, their expression is glazed over; this may last from 30 seconds to 30 minutes. Sleepwalking occurs during slow-wave sleep of non-rapid eye movement sleep cycles.
It occurs within the first third of the night when slow-wave sleep is most prominent. It will occur once in a night, if at all. Sleepwalking is characterized by: partial arousal during non-rapid eye movement sleep during the first third of the night dream content that may or may not be recalled when awake dream-congruent motor behavior that may be simple or complex impaired perception of the environment impaired judgement and problem-solving; the sleepwalker's eyes are open but may appear as a glassy-eyed stare or blank expression and pupils are dilated. They are disoriented, consequent to awakening: the sleepwalker may be confused and perplexed, might not know why or how they got out of bed, they may talk while sleepwalking, but the talk does not make sense to the observer. There are varying degrees of amnesia associated with sleepwalking, ranging from no memory at all, vague memories or a narrative. In the study "Sleepwalking and Sleep Terrors in Prepubertal Children" it was found that, if a child had another sleep disorder – such as restless leg syndrome or sleep-disorder breathing – there was a greater chance of sleepwalking.
The study found that children with chronic parasomnias may also present SDB or, to a lesser extent, RLS. Furthermore, the disappearance of the parasomnias after the treatment of the SDB or RLS periodic limb movement syndrome suggests that the latter may trigger the former; the high frequency of SDB in family members of children with parasomnia provided additional evidence that SDB may manifest as parasomnias in children. Children with parasomnias are not systematically monitored during sleep, although past studies have suggested that patients with sleep terrors or sleepwalking have an elevated level of brief EEG arousals; when children receive polysomnographies, discrete patterns should be sought. Children's respiration during sleep should be monitored with nasal cannula or pressure transducer system or esophageal manometry, which are more sensitive than the thermistors or thermocouples used in many laboratories; the clear, prompt improvement of severe parasomnia in children who are treated for SDB, as defined here, provides important evidence that subtle SDB can have substantial health-related significance.
Noteworthy is the report of familial presence of parasomnia. Studies of twin cohorts and families with sleep terror and sleepwalking suggest genetic involvement of parasomnias. RLS and SDB have been shown to have familial recurrence. RLS has been shown to have genetic involvement. Sleepwalking may accompany the related phenomenon of night terrors in children. In the midst of a night terror, the affected person may wander in a distressed state while still asleep, examples of sufferers attempting to run or aggressively defend themselves during these incidents have been reported in medical literature. In some cases, sleepwalking in adults may be a symptom of a psychological disorder. One study suggests higher levels of dissociation in adult sleepwalkers, since test subjects scored unusually high on the hysteria portion of the "Crown-Crisp Experiential Index". Another suggested that "A higher incidence has been reported in patients with schizophrenia and anxiety neuroses". Patients with migraine headaches or Tourette syndrome are 4–6 times more to sleepwalk.
Most sleepwalkers had injuries at some point during sleepwalking minor injuries such as cuts or bruises. In rare occasions, sleepwalkers have fractured bones and died as the result of a fall. Sleepwalkers may face embarrassment of being found naked in public; the cause of sleepwalking is unknown. A number of, as yet unproven, hypotheses are suggested for why it might occur, including: delay in the maturity of the central nervous system, increased slow wave sleep, sleep deprivation and excessive tiredness. There may be a genetic component to sleepwalking. One study found that sleepwalking occurred in 45% of children who have one parent who sleepwalked, in 60% of children if both parents sleepwalked. Thus, heritable factors may predispose an individual to sleepwalking, but expression of the behavior may be influenced by environmental factors. Genetic studies using common fruit flies as experimental models reveal a link between night sleep and brain development mediated by evolutionary conserved transcription factors such as AP-2 Sleepwalking may be inherited as an autosomal d
Lamar Johnson is an American man from Baltimore, arrested and wrongfully convicted of first-degree murder in 2005. Although physical evidence was used in the courtroom it had no DNA link to Johnson. But, through this and eyewitness testimonies, Johnson was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison. Johnson served 13 years in jail until he was exonerated through help from the Maryland Conviction Integrity Unit, Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project, attorney David Benowitz. On March 26, 2004, Carlos Sawyer, 31, was murdered in the McElderry Park neighborhood in Baltimore. Three shots were fired in the middle of the day on a street corner with about 30 witnesses. A 911 tip pointed the police in the direction of the assailant, who has a particular nickname: "Boo Boo." This tip came hours after the fatal attack. Police followed the lead and found Lamar Johnson, who at the time was incorrectly identified by this nickname; this connection made. Johnson was tried for first-degree murder. At the end of the trial in 2005, Johnson was sentenced to life in prison.
There was no physical evidence that connected Johnson nor a clear motive for the crime provided by the prosecution. Eyewitnesses testified. Starting in 2008, Lamar Johnson began filing with the court of appeals to overturn his conviction; the Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project, a subset of the Innocence Network, picked up Johnson's case and began re-investigating. This process found new eyewitnesses that had not been interviewed or seen as important; the MAIP team re-tested physical evidence used in the original case and visited the crime scene multiple times. A joint motion was filed in 2016 by the State Attorney's Office Chief of Conviction Integrity Unit Lauren Lipscomb, Attorney David Benowitz, the MAIP. Judge Charles Peters presided over the case; the case review covered new testimonies where the original eyewitnesses explained that Johnson "looked similar" to the shooter, but may not have been him. An altercation between Carlos Sawyer and another person that occurred the same day as his death was brought up in questioning from a different witness This witness had not been interviewed during the original case.
This witness confirmed the fight was between Sawyer and someone, not Johnson. On September 19, 2017, Lamar Johnson's case was reviewed in a writ of actual innocence hearing. Judge Peters overturned Johnson's first degree gun convictions. After serving 13 years of his life sentence, Lamar Johnson walked out of the courtroom a free man; the MAIP was involved with this case for over 6 years. This was the first case of its kind in Maryland to help get a wrongly convicted person out of jail and has set precedent for other cases. List of wrongful convictions in the United States Innocence Project Innocence Network Homepage The Baltimore City State's Attorney's Office
The Korail Class 361000 trains are commuter electric multiple units in South Korea used on the Gyeongchun Line. Class 361000 trains were manufactured and delivered in 2010 to provide service on the Gyeongchun Line. All trains use IGBT use passive cooling with a heat pipe; the trains are equipped with regenerative braking, reducing energy consumption and simplifying train inspection, they use electric door motors. The Class 361000 trains sport a white-colored interior. All trains have LCD monitor displays installed on the top of each car; the end cars have a space for wheelchairs. The Class 361000 trains share the same cabin design with the first batch Class 331000 trains, as they were derived from those trains. Stop notifiers are installed. Dead section notifiers are installed; the Class 361000 trains are organized in the following formation: TC-M-M'-T-T-M-M'-TC The symbols are defined below. M' car: Pantograph, main transformer, motor M car: Motor, controller TC car: Secondary power device, air compressor, cabin T car: trailer The cars of each trainset are numbered to correspond to the type of car each car is: 3610XX - Tc 3611XX - M 3612XX - M' 3613XX - T 3614XX - T 3615XX - M 3616XX - M' 3619XX - Tc The Class 361000 trains are stored at the Pyeongnae train depot, a few kilometers north of Pyeongnae–Hopyeong Station.
The Class 361000 trains were numbered 361-01~361-15, but only 14 trains run in service on the Gyeongchun Line at this time. The trains have smoother exterior bodies like the first batch Class 331000 trains. Trains 361-14~361-15 were introduced on the Gyeongchun Line in 2010 along with the other 13 trains, but when the Jungang Line's Class 321000 trains were shortened from 8 to six cars in October 2011, the trains were repainted and redeployed onto the Jungang Line in May 2012 until late 2013, when all the Class 321000 trains were extended back to eight cars. Starting in October 2014, the trains were taken to Hyundai-Rotem's Changwon factory to convert the two trains into Class 311000 trainsets 311-90~311-91, had two newly made cars attached in the middle of the trains. In April 2017, train 361-15 was taken out of service from Line 1, was transferred back to the Gyeongchun Line as train 361-14. Korail Gyeongchun Line