John Dickson Carr
John Dickson Carr was an American author of detective stories, who published using the pseudonyms Carter Dickson, Carr Dickson and Roger Fairbairn. Carr is regarded as one of the greatest writers of so-called "Golden Age" mysteries, he was influenced in this regard by the works of Gaston Leroux and by the Father Brown stories of G. K. Chesterton, he was a master of the so-called locked room mystery, in which a detective solves impossible crimes. The Dr. Fell mystery The Hollow Man considered Carr's masterpiece, was selected during 1981 as the best locked-room mystery of all time by a panel of 17 mystery authors and reviewers, he was an author of historical mystery. A resident of England for a number of years, Carr is grouped among "British-style" mystery writers. Most of his novels had English settings country villages and estates, English characters, his two best-known fictional detective characters were both English. The son of Wooda Nicholas Carr, a U. S. congressman from Pennsylvania, Carr graduated from The Hill School in Pottstown during 1925 and Haverford College during 1929.
During the early 1930s, he relocated to England, where he married Clarice Cleaves, an Englishwoman. He began his mystery-writing career there, returning to the United States as an internationally known author during 1948. During 1950, his biography of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle earned Carr the first of his two Special Edgar Awards from the Mystery Writers of America, he was presented the MWA's Grand Master award during 1963. Carr was one of only two Americans admitted to the British Detection Club. During early spring 1963, while living in Mamaroneck, New York, Carr suffered a stroke, which paralyzed his left side, he continued to write using one hand, for several years contributed a regular column of mystery and detective book reviews, "The Jury Box", to Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine. Carr relocated to Greenville, South Carolina, he died there of lung cancer on February 28, 1977. Carr's two major detective characters, Dr. Fell and Sir Henry Merrivale, are superficially quite similar. Both are large, upper-class, eccentric Englishmen somewhere between middle-aged and elderly.
Dr. Fell, fat and walks only with the aid of two canes, was modelled on the British writer G. K. Chesterton and is at all times civil and genial, he has a great mass of untidy hair, covered by a "shovel hat" and he wears a cape. He lives in a modest cottage and does not have any official association with public authorities. Henry Merrivale or "H. M.", on the other hand, although stout and with a majestic "corporation", is active physically and is feared for his ill-temper and noisy rages. In a 1949 novel, A Graveyard To Let, for example, he demonstrates an unexpected talent for hitting baseballs improbable distances. A wealthy descendant of the "oldest baronetcy" in England, he is part of the Establishment and in the earlier novels is the director of the British Secret Service. In The Plague Court Murders he is said to be qualified as both a barrister and a medical doctor. In the earliest books the bald and scowling H. M. is a Churchillian figure and in the novels this similarity is somewhat more consciously evoked.
Many of the Merrivale novels, written using the Carter Dickson byline, rank with Carr's best work, including the much-praised The Judas Window. Many of the Fell novels feature two or more different impossible crimes, including He Who Whispers and The Case of the Constant Suicides; the novel The Crooked Hinge combines a impossible throat-slashing, witchcraft, a survivor of the ship Titanic, an eerie automaton modelled on Wolfgang von Kempelen's chess player, a case similar to that of the Tichborne Claimant into what is cited as one of the greatest classics of detective fiction. But Carr's biographer, Douglas G. Greene, notes that the explanation, like many of Carr's in other books stretches plausibility and the reader's credulity. Dr. Fell's own discourse on locked room mysteries in chapter 17 of The Hollow Man is acclaimed critically and is sometimes printed as a stand-alone essay in its own right. Besides Dr. Fell and Sir Henry Merrivale, Carr mysteries feature two other series detectives: Henri Bencolin and Colonel March.
A few of his novels do not feature a series detective. The most famous of these, The Burning Court, involves witchcraft, a body that disappears from a sealed crypt in suburban Philadelphia. Carr wrote in the short story format as well. Julian Symons, in Bloody Murder: From the Detective Story to the Crime Novel: A History, said: "Most of Carr's stories are compressed versions of his locked-room novels, at times they benefit from the compression; the best of them are in the Carter Dickson book, The Department of Queer Complaints, although this does not include the brilliantly clever H. M. story The House in Goblin Wood or a successful pastiche which introduces Edgar Allan Poe as a detective."During 1950, Carr wrote the novel, The Bride of Newgate, set during 1815 at the close of the Napoleonic Wars, one of the earliest full-length historical mysteries. The Devil in Velvet and Fire, Burn! are the two historical novels with which he said he himself was most pleased. With Adrian Conan Doyle, the youngest son of Arthur Conan Doyle, Car
James Allen Whitmore Jr. was an American film and television actor. During his career, Whitmore won three of the four EGOT honors: a Tony, a Grammy, an Emmy. Whitmore won a Golden Globe and was nominated for two Academy Awards. Born in White Plains, New York, to Florence Belle and James Allen Whitmore, Sr. a park commission official, Whitmore attended Amherst Central High School in Snyder, New York, for three years, before transferring to the Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut, on a football scholarship. He went on to study at Yale University, but he had to quit playing football after injuring his knees. After giving up football, he turned to the Yale Dramatic Society and began acting. While at Yale, he was a member of Skull and Bones, was among the founders of the Yale radio station. Whitmore graduated with a major in government from Yale University; when World War II broke out, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserve while finishing his degree. He graduated from Yale University in 1944 served in the United States Marine Corps in the South Pacific, emerged from the Marines as a lieutenant.
After World War II, Whitmore studied acting at the American Theatre Wing and the Actors Studio in New York. At this time, Whitmore met Nancy Mygatt, they married in 1947, the couple had three sons before their divorce in 1971. The eldest son, James III, found success as a television actor and director under the name James Whitmore, Jr; the second son, became the public spokesman for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. The youngest son, was a Forest Service Snow Ranger and firefighter before he launched his own construction company. In 1979, Whitmore and Mygatt remarried. Whitmore was married to actress Audra Lindley from 1972 until 1979, he co-starred in several stage performances with her both after their marriage. These included Elba. In 2001, he married author Noreen Nash. Whitmore is the grandfather of Survivor: Gabon contestant Matty Whitmore. In 2010, James Whitmore, Jr. and his two children, actress-director Aliah Whitmore and artist-production designer Jacob Whitmore, formed the theatre group Whitmore Eclectic.
They perform in California. In his years, Whitmore spent his summers in Peterborough, New Hampshire, performing with the Peterborough Players. Although not always politically active, in 2007, Whitmore generated some publicity with his endorsement of Barack Obama for U. S. President. In January 2008, Whitmore appeared in television commercials for the First Freedom First campaign, which advocates preserving "the separation of church and state" and protecting religious liberty. "An avid flower and vegetable gardener, Whitmore was known to TV viewers as the longtime commercial pitchman for Miracle-Gro garden products."A Democrat, he supported the campaign of Adlai Stevenson during the 1952 presidential election. Following World War II, Whitmore appeared on Broadway in the role of the sergeant in Command Decision. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer gave Whitmore a contract, but his role in the film adaptation was played by Van Johnson, his first major picture for MGM was Battleground, in a role, turned down by Spencer Tracy, to whom Whitmore bore a noted physical resemblance.
He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for this role, won the Golden Globe Award as Best Performance by an Actor In A Supporting Role. Other major films included Angels in the Outfield, The Asphalt Jungle, The Next Voice You Hear and Beyond, Kiss Me, Them!, Oklahoma!, Black Like Me, Guns of the Magnificent Seven, Tora! Tora! Tora!, Give'em Hell, Harry!, a one-man show for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of former U. S. President Harry S Truman. In the film Tora! Tora! Tora!, he played Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey. Whitmore appeared during the 1950s on many television anthology series, he was cast as Father Emil Kapaun in the 1955 episode "The Good Thief" in the ABC religion anthology series Crossroads. Other roles followed on Jane Wyman Presents the Fireside Theater, Lux Video Theatre, Kraft Theatre, Studio One in Hollywood, Schlitz Playhouse, Matinee Theatre, the Ford Television Theatre. In 1958, he carried the lead with Ward Bond.
In the 1960-1961 television season, Whitmore starred in his own ABC crime drama, The Law and Mr. Jones, in the title role, with Conlan Carter as legal assistant C. E. Carruthers and Janet De Gore as Jones' secretary; the program ran in the 10:30 pm Eastern half-hour slot on Friday. It returned in April 1962 for 13 additional episodes on Thursdays. In 1963, Whitmore played Captain William Benteen in The Twilight Zone episode "On Thursday We Leave for Home." He appeared twice in Twelve O'Clock High. In 1965, Whitmore guest-starred as Col. Paul "Pappy" Hartley in Season 1, Episode 32 "The Hero" and as Col. Harry Connelly in 1966 Season 3, Episode 12 "The Ace", he appeared in an episode of Combat! Titled "The Cassock", as a German officer masquerading as a Catholic priest. In 1967, he guest-starred as a security guard in The Invaders episode, "Quantity: Unknown"; that same year, Whitmore appeared on an episode of ABC's Custer starring Wayne Maunder in the title role. In 1968, he appea
All About Eve
All About Eve is a 1950 American drama film written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, produced by Darryl F. Zanuck, it was based on the 1946 short story "The Wisdom of Eve" by Mary Orr, although screen credit was not given for it. The film stars Bette Davis as Margo Channing, a regarded but aging Broadway star. Anne Baxter plays Eve Harrington, an ambitious young fan who insinuates herself into Channing's life threatening Channing's career and her personal relationships; the film co-stars George Sanders, Celeste Holm, features Gary Merrill, Hugh Marlowe, Thelma Ritter, Marilyn Monroe in one of her earliest roles, Gregory Ratoff, Barbara Bates and Walter Hampden. Praised by critics at the time of its release, All About Eve received a record 14 Academy Award nominations and won six, including Best Picture. All About Eve is the only film in Oscar history to receive four female acting nominations. Considered to be one of the greatest films of all time, All About Eve was selected in 1990 for preservation in the United States National Film Registry and was among the first 50 films to be registered.
All About Eve appeared at #16 on AFI's 1998 list of the 100 best American films. Margo Channing is one of the biggest stars on Broadway, but having just turned forty she is worried about what her advancing age will mean for her career. After a performance of Margo's latest play, Aged in Wood, Margo's close friend Karen Richards, wife of the play's author Lloyd Richards, brings in a besotted fan, Eve Harrington, to meet Margo. Eve tells the group gathered in Margo's dressing room—Karen, Margo's boyfriend Bill Sampson, a director, eight years her junior, Margo's maid Birdie —that she followed Margo's last theatrical tour to New York after seeing her perform in San Francisco, she tells an engrossing story of growing up poor in Wisconsin and losing her young husband in World War II. Moved, Margo befriends Eve, takes her into her home, hires her as her assistant, leaving Birdie, who instinctively dislikes Eve, feeling put out. Eve insinuates herself into Margo's life, acting as her secretary and adoring fan.
She seems to anticipate Margo's every need, including placing a long-distance phone call to Bill when Margo forgets his birthday. Margo becomes distrustful and bitter towards her after she catches Eve taking a bow to an empty theatre while pretending to wear Margo's costume for Aged in Wood. Margo asks her producer, Max Fabian, to hire Eve at his office, but instead Eve manages to become Margo's understudy without Margo's knowledge; as Margo's irritation grows, Karen feels sorry for Eve. In hopes of humbling Margo, Karen arranges for her to miss a performance of Aged in Wood, so Eve will have to give the performance in her place. Eve invites the city's theatre critics, including the acerbic Addison DeWitt, to attend that evening's performance, a triumph for her. After that evening's performance, Eve tries to seduce Bill. Instead, Addison takes her under his wing and interviews her for a column that criticizes Margo for not making way for new talents like Eve. Margo and Karen are furious; that evening and Bill announce their engagement at dinner with the Richardses in the Cub Room of the Stork Club.
Eve, dining at a nearby table with DeWitt, calls Karen into the ladies' room and, after first appearing regretful, tells her to either ask Lloyd to give her the part of Cora—the lead in Lloyd's next play, Footsteps on the Ceiling—or she will reveal Karen's role in Margo's missed performance. Before Karen can talk with Lloyd, Margo announces to everyone's surprise that she does not wish to play Cora and would prefer to continue in Aged in Wood. Eve is cast as Cora. Just before the out-of-town premiere of Footsteps on the Ceiling at the Shubert in New Haven, Eve presents Addison with her next plan: to marry Lloyd, she claims, has come to her professing his love and his eagerness to leave his wife for her. Now, Eve exults, Lloyd will write brilliant plays showcasing her. Angered that Eve believes she can manipulate him as as she does everyone else, Addison reveals he knows that her back story is all lies, her real name is Gertrude Slescynski, she was never married, she had been paid to leave town over an affair with her boss.
Addison blackmails Eve, informing her that she will not be marrying anyone else. A year Eve is a shining Broadway star headed for Hollywood. At an awards banquet, she thanks Margo, Bill and Karen with characteristic effusion, while all four stare back at her coldly. Eve skips a party in her honor, returns home alone, where she encounters Phoebe —a high-school-aged fan—who has slipped into her apartment and fallen asleep; the young girl professes her adoration and begins at once to insinuate herself into Eve's life, offering to pack Eve's trunk for Hollywood. While Eve rests in the other room, Phoebe dons the elegant robe that Eve wore to the banquet and poses in front of a multi-paned mirror, holding the award as if it were a crown. Bette Davis as Margo Channing Anne Baxter as Eve Harrington George Sanders as Addison DeWitt Celeste Holm as Karen Richards Gary Merrill as Bill Sampson Hugh Marlowe as Lloyd Richards Thelma Ritter as Birdie Gregory Ratoff as Max Fabian Marilyn Monroe as Miss Casswell Barbara Bates as Phoebe Walter Hampden as aged actor Franklyn Farnum as Sarah Siddons Awards guest The story of All About Eve originated in an anecdote related to Mary Orr by actress Elisabeth Bergner.
Harold Pinter was a British playwright, screenwriter and actor. A Nobel Prizewinner, Pinter was one of the most influential modern British dramatists with a writing career that spanned more than 50 years, his best-known plays include The Birthday Party, The Homecoming, Betrayal, each of which he adapted for the screen. His screenplay adaptations of others' works include The Servant, The Go-Between, The French Lieutenant's Woman, The Trial, Sleuth, he directed or acted in radio, stage and film productions of his own and others' works. Pinter was born and raised in Hackney, east London, educated at Hackney Downs School, he was a keen cricket player, acting in school plays and writing poetry. He did not complete the course, he was fined for refusing national service as a conscientious objector. Subsequently, he continued training at the Central School of Speech and Drama and worked in repertory theatre in Ireland and England. In 1956 he married actress Vivien Merchant and had a son, born in 1958, he left Merchant in 1975 and married author Lady Antonia Fraser in 1980.
Pinter's career as a playwright began with a production of The Room in 1957. His second play, The Birthday Party, closed after eight performances, but was enthusiastically reviewed by critic Harold Hobson, his early works were described by critics as "comedy of menace". Plays such as No Man's Land and Betrayal became known as "memory plays", he appeared as an actor in productions of his own work on film. He undertook a number of roles in works by other writers, he directed nearly 50 productions for stage and screen. Pinter received over 50 awards and other honours, including the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2005 and the French Légion d'honneur in 2007. Despite frail health after being diagnosed with oesophageal cancer in December 2001, Pinter continued to act on stage and screen, last performing the title role of Samuel Beckett's one-act monologue Krapp's Last Tape, for the 50th anniversary season of the Royal Court Theatre, in October 2006, he died from liver cancer on 24 December 2008. Pinter was born on 10 October 1930, in Hackney, east London, the only child of British parents of Jewish Eastern European descent: his father, Hyman "Jack" Pinter was a ladies' tailor.
Pinter believed an aunt's erroneous view that the family was Sephardic and had fled the Spanish Inquisition. Research by Lady Antonia Fraser, Pinter's second wife, revealed the legend to be apocryphal. Pinter's family home in London is described by his official biographer Michael Billington as "a solid, red-brick, three-storey villa just off the noisy, traffic-ridden thoroughfare of the Lower Clapton Road". In 1940 and 1941, after the Blitz, Pinter was evacuated from their house in London to Cornwall and Reading. Billington states that the "life-and-death intensity of daily experience" before and during the Blitz left Pinter with profound memories "of loneliness, bewilderment and loss: themes that are in all his works."Pinter discovered his social potential as a student at Hackney Downs School, a London grammar school, between 1944 and 1948. "Partly through the school and through the social life of Hackney Boys' Club... he formed an sacerdotal belief in the power of male friendship. The friends he made in those days—most Henry Woolf, Michael Goldstein and Morris Wernick—have always been a vital part of the emotional texture of his life."
A major influence on Pinter was his inspirational English teacher Joseph Brearley, who directed him in school plays and with whom he took long walks, talking about literature. According to Billington, under Brearley's instruction, "Pinter shone at English, wrote for the school magazine and discovered a gift for acting." In 1947 and 1948, he played Macbeth in productions directed by Brearley. At the age of 12, Pinter began writing poetry, in spring 1947, his poetry was first published in the Hackney Downs School Magazine. In 1950 his poetry was first published outside the school magazine, in Poetry London, some of it under the pseudonym "Harold Pinta". Pinter was an atheist. Pinter broke the Hackney Downs School sprinting record, he was a cricket enthusiast. In 1971, he told Mel Gussow: "one of my main obsessions in life is the game of cricket—I play and watch and read about it all the time." He was chairman of the Gaieties Cricket Club, a supporter of Yorkshire Cricket Club, devoted a section of his official website to the sport.
One wall of his study was dominated by a portrait of himself as a young man playing cricket, described by Sarah Lyall, writing in The New York Times: "The painted Mr. Pinter, poised to swing his bat, has a wicked glint in his eye. Pinter approved of the "urban and exacting idea of cricket as a bold theatre of aggression." After his death, several of his school contemporaries recalled his achievements in sports cricket and running. The BBC Radio 4 memorial tribute included an essay on cricket. Other interests that Pinter mentioned to interviewers are family and sex, drinking and reading. According to Billington, "If the notion of male loyalty, competitive rivalry and fear of betrayal forms a constant thr
A mystery film is a genre of film that revolves around the solution of a problem or a crime. It focuses on the efforts of the detective, private investigator or amateur sleuth to solve the mysterious circumstances of an issue by means of clues and clever deduction; the plot centers on the deductive ability, confidence, or diligence of the detective as they attempt to unravel the crime or situation by piecing together clues and circumstances, seeking evidence, interrogating witnesses, tracking down a criminal. Suspense is maintained as an important plot element; this can be done through the use of the soundtrack, camera angles, heavy shadows, surprising plot twists. Alfred Hitchcock used all of these techniques, but would sometimes allow the audience in on a pending threat draw out the moment for dramatic effect; this genre has ranged from early mystery tales, fictional or literary detective stories, to classic Hitchcockian suspense-thrillers to classic private detective films. A related film subgenre is spy films.
Mystery films focus with solving a crime or a puzzle. The mystery revolves around a murder which must be solved by policemen, private detectives, or amateur sleuths; the viewer is presented with a series of suspects, some of whom are "red herrings," –persons who have motive to commit the crime but did not do it–, attempts to solve the puzzle along with the investigator. At times the viewer is presented with information not available to the main character; the central character explores the unsolved crime, unmasks the perpetrator, puts an end to the effects of the villainy. The successful mystery film adheres to one of two story types, known as Closed; the Closed mystery conceals the identity of the perpetrator until late in the story, adding an element of suspense during the apprehension of the suspect, as the audience is never quite sure who it is. The Open mystery, in contrast, reveals the identity of the perpetrator at the top of the story, showcasing the "perfect crime" which the audience watches the protagonist unravel at the end of the story, akin to the unveiling scenes in the Closed style.
Mystery novels have proven to be a good medium for translation into film. The sleuth forms a strong leading character, the plots can include elements of drama, character development and surprise twists; the locales of the mystery tale are of a mundane variety, requiring little in the way of expensive special effects. Successful mystery writers can produce a series of books based on the same sleuth character, providing rich material for sequels; until at least the 1980s, women in mystery films have served a dual role, providing a relationship with the detective and playing the part of woman-in-peril. The women in these films are resourceful individuals, being self-reliant, determined and as duplicitous, they can provide the triggers for the events that follow, or serve as an element of suspense as helpless victims. The earliest mystery films reach back to the silent era; the first detective film is cited as Sherlock Holmes Baffled, a short Mutoscope reel created between 1900 and 1903 by Arthur Marvin.
It is the earliest-known film to feature the character of detective Sherlock Holmes, albeit in a recognisable form. In France, the popular Nick Carter detective novels inspired the first film serial, Nick Carter, le roi des détectives; this six-episode series was followed with Nouveaux aventures de Nick Carter in 1909. Louis Feuillade created the popular Fantômas serial based on the best-selling serial novel about a super-criminal pursued by a stubborn inspector Juve. Dujardin wears a mask and costume similar to Fantomas' in an apparent tribute in The Artist, a nostalgic 2011 film about silent cinema.) Detective serials by Feuillade include The Vampires, Tih Minh, Barrabas. Feuillade's films, which combined realism, poetic imagery, pure fantasy, influenced the American The Perils of Pauline, directors such as René Clair, Surrealists such as André Breton; the earliest true mystery films include The Gold Bug from France, The Murders in the Rue Morgue. Both are derived from stories by Edgar Allan Poe, appropriate as Poe is credited with creating modern detective fiction as well as the first private detective character, C.
Auguste Dupin. Universal Pictures renamed him Pierre Dupin in Murders in the Rue Morgue, an atmospheric horror-mystery starring Bela Lugosi; the film was remade twice more in 1953 and 1971. Poe's second Dupin story, The Mystery of Marie Rogêt, was filmed in 1942. More The Raven presented a fictionalized account of the last days of Poe's life. Here, the author pursues a mysterious serial killer whose murders are directly inspired by his stories. Charles Dickens' unfinished novel The Mystery of Edwin Drood was completed by another author and adapted to the screen. Two films, now believed lost, were made in 1909 and 1914. Universal produced The Mystery of Edwin Drood; the story was remade again in 1993. Universal, known for its long list of classic horror films created the first supernatural horror-whodunit hybrid with Night Monster. American author Mary Roberts Rinehart, is credited with inventing the "Had-I-But-Known" school of mystery writing, her 1920 "old dark house" novel The Bat was filmed as The Bat, as The Bat Whispers, a third time a remake, The Bat, starring Vincent Price.
Another movie based on a play, The Cat and the Canary, pioneered the "co
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i