Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, sensational and designed to appeal to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization. Characters are simply drawn, may appear stereotyped. Melodramas are set in the private sphere of the home, focus on morality and family issues and marriage with challenges from an outside source, such as a "temptress”, an aristocratic villain. In scholarly and historical musical contexts, melodramas are Victorian dramas in which orchestral music or song was used to accompany the action; the term is now applied to stage performances without incidental music, movies and radio broadcasts. In modern contexts, the term "melodrama" is pejorative, as it suggests that the work in question lacks subtlety, character development, or both. By extension, language or behaviour which resembles melodrama is called melodramatic; the term originated from the early 19th-century French word mélodrame. It is derived from Greek μέλος, melos, "song, strain", French drame, drama.
Melodrama originated in the 5th century BC. The relationship of melodrama to realism is complex; the protagonists of melodramatic works may either be ordinary people who are caught up in extraordinary events, or exaggerated and unrealistic characters. Peter Brooks writes that melodrama, in its high emotions and dramatic rhetoric, represents a "victory over repression." According to Singer, late Victorian and Edwardian melodrama combined a conscious focus on realism in stage sets and props with "anti-realism" in character and plot. Melodrama in this period strove for "credible accuracy in the depiction of incredible, extraordinary" scenes. Novelist Wilkie Collins is noted for his attention to accuracy in detail in his works, no matter how sensational the plot. Melodramas put most of their attention on the victim and a struggle between good and evil choices, such as a man being encouraged to leave his family by an "evil temptress". Other stock characters are the "fallen woman", the single mother, the orphan and the male, struggling with the impacts of the modern world.
The melodrama examines family and social issues in the context of a private home, with its intended audience being the female spectator. Melodrama looks back at ideal, nostalgic eras, emphasizing "forbidden longings". Melodramas are rooted in medieval morality plays; the melodrama approach was revived in the 18th and 19th-century French romantic drama and the sentimental novels that were popular in both England and France. These dramas and novels focused on moral codes in regards to family life and marriage, they can be seen as a reflection of the issues brought up by the French Revolution, the industrial revolution and the shift to modernization. Many melodramas were about a middle-class young woman who experienced unwanted sexual advances from an aristocratic miscreant, with the sexual assault being a metaphor for class conflict; the melodrama reflected post-industrial revolution anxieties of the middle class, who were afraid of both aristocratic power brokers and the impoverished working class "mob".
Beginning in the 18th century, melodrama was a technique of combining spoken recitation with short pieces of accompanying music. In such works and spoken dialogue alternated, although the music was sometimes used to accompany pantomime; the earliest known examples are scenes in J. E. Eberlin's Latin school play Sigismundus; the first full melodrama was Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Pygmalion, the text of, written in 1762 but was first staged in Lyon in 1770. The overture and an Andante were composed by Rousseau, but the bulk of the music was composed by Horace Coignet. A different musical setting of Rousseau's Pygmalion by Anton Schweitzer was performed in Weimar in 1772, Goethe wrote of it approvingly in Dichtung und Wahrheit. Pygmalion is a monodrama, written for one actor; some 30 other monodramas were produced in Germany in the fourth quarter of the 18th century. When two actors have involved the term duodrama may be used. Georg Benda was successful with his duodramas Ariadne auf Naxos and Medea.
The sensational success of Benda's melodramas led Mozart to use two long melodramatic monologues in his opera Zaide. Other and better-known examples of the melodramatic style in operas are the grave-digging scene in Beethoven's Fidelio and the incantation scene in Weber's Der Freischütz. After the English Restoration of Charles II in 1660, most British theatres were prohibited from performing "serious" drama, but were permitted to show comedy or plays with music. Charles II issued letters patent to permit only two London theatre companies to perform "serious" drama; these were the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and Lisle's Tennis Court in Lincoln's Inn Fields, the latter of which moved to the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden in 1720. The two patent theatres closed in the summer months. To fill the gap, the Theatre Royal, Haymarket became a third patent theatre in London in 1766. Further letters patent were granted to one theatre in each of several other English towns and cities. To get around the restriction, other theatres presented dramas that were underscored with music and, borrowing the French term, called it melodrama.
The Theatres Act 1843 allowed all the theatres to play drama. In t
"Real life" is a phrase used in literature to distinguish between the real world and fictional or idealized worlds, in acting to distinguish between performers and the characters they portray. More it has become a popular term on the Internet to describe events, people and interactions occurring offline, it is used as a metaphor to distinguish life in a vocational setting as opposed to an academic one. When used to distinguish from fictional worlds or universes against the consensus reality of the reader, the term has a long history: Authors, as a rule, attempt to select and portray types met with in their entirety, but these types are more real than real life itself. In her 1788 work, Original Stories from Real Life; as phrased by Gary Kelly, writing about the work, "The phrase ‘real life’ strengthens ‘original’, excluding both the artificial and the fictional or imaginary."Similarly, the phrase can be used to distinguish an actor from a character, e.g. "In real life, he has a British accent" or "In real life, he lives in Los Angeles."
There is a related but distinct usage among role-players and historical reenactors, to distinguish the fantasy or historical context from the actual world and the role-player or actor from the character, e.g. "What do you do in real life?" or "Where do you live in real life?" On the Internet, "real life" refers to life offline. Online, the initialism "IRL" stands for "in real life", with the meaning "not on the Internet". For example, while Internet users may speak of having "met" someone that they have contacted via online chat or in an online gaming context, to say that they met someone "in real life" is to say that they encountered them at a physical location. Some, arguing that the Internet is part of real life, prefer to use "away from the keyboard", e.g. the documentary TPB AFK. Some sociologists engaged in the study of the Internet have predicted that someday, a distinction between online and offline worlds may seem "quaint", noting that certain types of online activity, such as sexual intrigues, have made a full transition to complete legitimacy and "reality".
The initialism "RL" stands for "real life" and "IRL" for "in real life." For example, one can speak of "meeting IRL" someone whom one has met online, such as in "LMIRL". It may be used to express an inability to use the Internet for a time due to "RL problems"; some internet users use the idioms "face time", "meatspace", or "meat world", which contrast with the term "cyberspace". "Meatspace" has appeared in science fiction literature. Some early uses of the term include a post to the Usenet newsgroup austin.public-net in 1993 and an article in The Seattle Times about John Perry Barlow in 1995. The term entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 2000; the phrase is used to distinguish academic life from work in other sectors, in a manner similar to the term "real world". A person with experience in "real life" or the "real world" has experience beyond book-learning, it may be used pejoratively, to distinguish other insular subcultures, work environments, or lifestyles from more traditional social and professional activities.
The terms "real life" and "the real world" may be used to describe adulthood and the adult world as distinct from childhood and adolescence. Meatspace from the Jargon File. Meatspace from Oxford Dictionaries Online "Origin of the term meatspace?". Retrieved 2008-04-02. "Word Spy - meatspace". Retrieved 2008-04-02
Kitchen sink realism
Kitchen sink realism is a British cultural movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s in theatre, novels and television plays, whose protagonists could be described as "angry young men" who were disillusioned with modern society. It used a style of social realism, which depicted the domestic situations of working class Britons, living in cramped rented accommodation and spending their off-hours drinking in grimy pubs, to explore controversial social and political issues ranging from abortion to homelessness; the harsh, realistic style contrasted with the escapism of the previous generation's so-called "well-made plays". The films and novels employing this style are set in poorer industrial areas in the North of England, use the accents and slang heard in those regions; the film It Always Rains on Sunday is a precursor of the genre, the John Osborne play Look Back in Anger is thought of as the first of the genre. The gritty love-triangle of Look Back in Anger, for example, takes place in a cramped, one-room flat in the English Midlands.
Shelagh Delaney's 1958 play A Taste of Honey, is about a teenage schoolgirl who has an affair with a black sailor, gets pregnant, moves in with a gay male acquaintance. The conventions of the genre have continued into the 2000s, finding expression in such television shows as Coronation Street and EastEnders. In art, "Kitchen Sink School" was a term used by critic David Sylvester to describe painters who depicted social realist–type scenes of domestic life; the cultural movement was rooted in the ideals of social realism, an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities. Many artists who subscribed to social realism were painters with socialist political views. While the movement has some commonalities with Socialist Realism, another style of realism, the "official art" advocated by the governments of the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries, the two had several differences. While social realism is a broader type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern, Socialist realism is characterized by the glorified depiction of socialist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat, in a realistic manner.
Unlike Socialist realism, social realism is not an official art produced by, or under the supervision of the government. The leading characters are often'anti-heroes' rather than part of a class to be admired, as in Socialist realism. Protagonists in social realism are dissatisfied with their working class lives and the world, rather than being idealised workers who are part of a Socialist utopia in the process of creation; as such, social realism allows more space for the subjectivity of the author to be displayed. Social realism developed as a reaction against Romanticism, which promoted lofty concepts such as the "ineffable" beauty and truth of art and music, turned them into spiritual ideals; as such, social realism focused on the "ugly realities of contemporary life and sympathized with working class people the poor.". In the United Kingdom, the term "kitchen sink" derived from an expressionist painting by John Bratby, which contained an image of a kitchen sink. Bratby did bathroom-themed paintings, including three paintings of toilets.
Bratby's paintings of people depicted the faces of his subjects as desperate and unsightly. Kitchen sink realism artists painted everyday objects, such as trash cans and beer bottles; the critic David Sylvester wrote an article in 1954 about trends in recent English art, calling his article "The Kitchen Sink" in reference to Bratby's picture. Sylvester argued that there was a new interest among young painters in domestic scenes, with stress on the banality of life. Other artists associated with the kitchen sink style include Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch and Jack Smith. Before the 1950s, the United Kingdom's working class were depicted stereotypically in Noël Coward's drawing room comedies and British films. Kitchen sink realism was seen as being in opposition to the "well-made play", the kind which theatre critic Kenneth Tynan once denounced as being set in "Loamshire", of dramatists like Terence Rattigan. "Well-made plays" were a dramatic genre from nineteenth-century theatre which found its early 20th-century codification in Britain in the form of William Archer's Play-Making: A Manual of Craftmanship, in the United States with George Pierce Baker's Dramatic Technique.
Kitchen sink works were created with the intention of changing all that. Their political views were labeled as radical, sometimes anarchic. John Osborne's play Look Back In Anger depicted young men in a way, similar to the then-contemporary "Angry Young Men" movement of film and theatre directors; the "angry young men" were a group of working and middle class British playwrights and novelists who became prominent in the 1950s. Following the success of the Osborne play, the label "angry young men" was applied by British media to describe young writers who were characterised by a disillusionment with traditional British society; the hero of Look Back In Anger is a graduate. It dealt with social alienation, the claustrophobia and frustrations of a provincial life on low incomes; the impact of this work inspired Arnold Wesker and Shelagh Delaney, among numerous others, to write plays of their own. The English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre, headed by George Devine
American Splendor is a series of autobiographical comic books written by Harvey Pekar and drawn by a variety of artists. The first issue was published in 1976 and the most recent in September 2008, with publication occurring at irregular intervals. Publishers have been, at various times, Harvey Pekar himself, Dark Horse Comics, DC Comics; the comics have been adapted into a number of theatrical productions. Despite comic books in the United States being traditionally the province of fantasy-adventure and other genre stories, Pekar felt that the medium could be put to wider use: When I was a little kid, I was reading these comics in the'40s, I kind of got sick of them because after a while, they were just formulaic. I figured there was some kind of a flaw that keeps them from getting better than they are, when I saw Robert Crumb's work in the early'60s, when he moved from Philadelphia to Cleveland, he moved around the corner from me, I thought'Man, comics are where it's at'. Pekar's philosophy of the potential of comics is expressed in his repeated statement that'comics are words and pictures.
You can do anything with words and pictures'. In an interview with Walrus Comix, Pekar described how the idea of producing his own comic book developed. In 1972 when Crumb was visiting him in Cleveland, Pekar showed him his story ideas. Not only did Crumb agree to draw some of them but offered to show them to other artists to draw. By 1975, Pekar decided to publish his own comic book; the stories in American Splendor concern the everyday life of Pekar in Cleveland, Ohio. Situations covered include Pekar's job as a file clerk at a Veteran's Administration hospital and his relations with colleagues and patients there. There are stories about Pekar and his relations with friends and family, including his third wife Joyce Brabner and their adopted daughter Danielle. Other stories concern everyday situations such as Pekar's troubles with his car, his health, his concerns and anxieties in general. Several issues give accounts of Pekar's becoming a recurring guest on the NBC television show Late Night with David Letterman, including a 1987 interview segment in which Pekar criticized Letterman for ducking criticism of General Electric, the parent company of NBC.
American Splendor sometimes departs from Pekar's own life, with stories about jazz musicians, the artists for his comics, a three-issue miniseries American Splendor: Unsung Hero, which chronicles the Vietnam experience of Pekar's African-American co-worker Robert McNeill. As Pekar was not an artist himself, was incapable of "drawing a straight line", according to a line in the film version of his story, he recruited his friend, underground comics artist Robert Crumb, to help create a comics series. Besides Crumb, other notable American Splendor illustrators include Alison Bechdel, Brian Bram, Chester Brown, Alan Moore, David Collier, Gary Dumm, Frank Stack, Drew Friedman, Dean Haspiel, Val Mayerik, Josh Neufeld, Spain Rodriguez, Joe Sacco, Gerry Shamray, Jim Woodring, Joe Zabel, Ed Piskor, Greg Budgett. Issues employed a new crop of artists, including Ty Templeton, Richard Corben, Hunt Emerson, Eddie Campbell, Gilbert Hernandez, Ho Che Anderson, Rick Geary. Pekar produced seventeen issues of American Splendor from 1976 to 1993 — each May — which, except for the last few issues, he self-published and self-distributed.
By keeping back issues in print and available, Pekar continued to receive income on previously-completed work, although at the time some of them were published, according to his Comics Journal interview, he was losing thousands of dollars per year on the books. Starting in 1994, additional American Splendor were published by Dark Horse Comics, although these issues are not numbered, they include the two-issue American Splendor: Windfall and several themed issues such as American Splendor: Transatlantic Comics and American Splendor: On the Job. In September 2006, a four-issue American Splendor mini-series was published by the DC Comics imprint Vertigo. A second four-issue miniseries was published by DC in 2008. Many stories from American Splendor have been collected into trade paperbacks from various publishers, their material not overlapping. American Splendor: The Life and Times of Harvey Pekar ISBN 0-345-46830-9 More American Splendor ISBN 0-385-24073-2 The New American Splendor Anthology ISBN 0-941423-64-6 American Splendor Presents: Bob & Harv's Comics, with R. Crumb ISBN 1-56858-101-7 American Splendor: Unsung Hero, with David Collier ISBN 1-59307-040-3 Best of American Splendor ISBN 0-345-47938-6 American Splendor: Another Day ISBN 978-1-4012-1235-3 American Splendor: Another Dollar Pekar wrote two larger works which carry the American Splendor label, Our Movie Year, a collection of comics written about or at the time of the American Splendor film, Ego & Hubris: The Michael Malice Story, a biography of the early life of the author Michael Malice.
Pekar wrote two graphic novels which are not labeled American Splendor but which should arguably be considered part of it: Our Cancer Year, co-written with Pekar's wife Joyce Brabner and illustrated by Frank Stack, covering the year when Pekar was diagnosed with cancer. Our Cancer Year, with Joyce Brabner and Frank Stack ISBN 1-56858-011-8 American Sp
Guy de Maupassant
Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and pessimistic terms. Maupassant was a protégé of Gustave Flaubert and his stories are characterized by economy of style and efficient, effortless dénouements. Many are set during the Franco-Prussian War of the 1870s, describing the futility of war and the innocent civilians who, caught up in events beyond their control, are permanently changed by their experiences, he wrote some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books, one volume of verse. His first published story, "Boule de Suif", is considered his masterpiece. Henri-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant was born 5 August 1850 at the Château de Miromesnil (Castle Miromesnil, near Dieppe in the Seine-Inférieure department in France, he was the first son of Laure Le Poittevin and Gustave de Maupassant, both from prosperous bourgeois families.
His mother urged his father when they married in 1846 to obtain the right to use the particule or form "de Maupassant" instead of "Maupassant" as his family name, in order to indicate noble birth. Gustave discovered a certain Jean-Baptiste Maupassant, conseiller-secrétaire to the King, ennobled in 1752, he obtained from the Tribunal Civil of Rouen by decree dated 9 July 1846 the right to style himself "de Maupassant" instead of "Maupassant" and this was his surname at the birth of his son Guy in 1850. When Maupassant was 11 and his brother Hervé was five, his mother, an independent-minded woman, risked social disgrace to obtain a legal separation from her husband, violent towards her. After the separation, Laure Le Poittevin kept her two sons. With the father's absence, Maupassant's mother became the most influential figure in the young boy's life, she was an exceptionally well-read woman and was fond of classical literature Shakespeare. Until the age of thirteen, Guy lived with his mother, at Étretat, in the Villa des Verguies, between the sea and the luxuriant countryside, he grew fond of fishing and outdoor activities.
At age thirteen, his mother next placed her two sons as day boarders in a private school, the Institution Leroy-Petit, in Rouen—the Institution Robineau of Maupassant's story La Question du Latin—for classical studies. From his early education he retained a marked hostility to religion, to judge from verses composed around this time he deplored the ecclesiastical atmosphere, its ritual and discipline. Finding the place to be unbearable, he got himself expelled in his next-to-last year. In 1867, as he entered junior high school, Maupassant made acquaintance with Gustave Flaubert at Croisset at the insistence of his mother. Next year, in autumn, he was sent to the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen where he proved a good scholar indulging in poetry and taking a prominent part in theatricals. In October 1868, at the age of 18, he saved the famous poet Algernon Charles Swinburne from drowning off the coast of Étretat; the Franco-Prussian War broke out soon after his graduation from college in 1870.
In 1871, he left Normandy and moved to Paris where he spent ten years as a clerk in the Navy Department. During this time his only recreation and relaxation was boating on the Seine on Sundays and holidays. Gustave Flaubert took him under his protection and acted as a kind of literary guardian to him, guiding his debut in journalism and literature. At Flaubert's home, he met Émile Zola and the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, as well as many of the proponents of the realist and naturalist schools, he wrote and played himself in a comedy in 1875, "À la feuille de rose, maison turque". In 1878, he was transferred to the Ministry of Public Instruction and became a contributing editor to several leading newspapers such as Le Figaro, Gil Blas, Le Gaulois and l'Écho de Paris, he devoted his spare time to short stories. In 1880 he published what is considered his first masterpiece, "Boule de Suif", which met with instant and tremendous success. Flaubert characterized it as "a masterpiece that will endure."
This was Maupassant's first piece of short fiction set during the Franco-Prussian War, was followed by short stories such as "Deux Amis", "Mother Savage", "Mademoiselle Fifi". The decade from 1880 to 1891 was the most fertile period of Maupassant's life. Made famous by his first short story, he worked methodically and produced two or sometimes four volumes annually, his talent and practical business sense made him wealthy. In 1881 he published his first volume of short stories under the title of La Maison Tellier. In 1883 he finished 25,000 copies of which were sold in less than a year, his second novel Bel Ami, which came out in 1885, had thirty-seven printings in four months. His editor, commissioned him to write more stories, Maupassant continued to produce them efficiently and frequently. At this time he wrote what many consider to be Pierre et Jean. With a natural aversion to society, he loved retirement and meditation, he traveled extensively in Algeria, England, Sicily and from each voyage brought back a new volume.
He cruised on his private yacht Bel-Ami, named after his novel. This life did not prevent him from making friends among the literary celebrities of his day: Alexandre Dumas, fils had a paternal affection for him.