In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody, but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line, provide added interest and variety, give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a main note. There are many types of ornaments, ranging from the addition of a single, short grace note before a main note to the performance of a virtuostic and flamboyant trill; the amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to little or none. The word agrément is used to indicate the French Baroque style of ornamentation. In the Baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody unornamented the first time and decorate it with additional flourishes and trills the second time. A harpsichord player performing a simple melodic line was expected to be able to improvise harmonically and stylistically appropriate trills and appoggiaturas.
Ornamentation may be indicated by the composer. A number of standard ornaments are indicated with standard symbols in music notation, while other ornamentations may be appended to the score in small notes, or written out as sized notes. A composer will have his or her own vocabulary of ornaments, which will be explained in a preface, much like a code. A grace note is a note written in smaller type, with or without a slash through it, to indicate that its note value does not count as part of the total time value of the bar. Alternatively, the term may refer more to any of the small notes used to mark some other ornament, or in association with some other ornament's indication, regardless of the timing used in the execution. In Spain, melodies ornamented upon repetition were called "diferencias", can be traced back to 1538, when Luis de Narváez published the first collection of such music for the vihuela. A trill known as a "shake", is a rapid alternation between an indicated note and the one above it.
In simple music, trills may be diatonic. The trill is indicated by either a tr or a tr~~, with the ~ representing the length of the trill, above the staff. At a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: In Baroque music, the trill is sometimes indicated with a + sign above or below the note. In the late 18th century, when performers play a trill, it always start from the upper note. However, " Koch expressed no preference and observed that it was scarcely a matter of much importance whether the trill began one way or the other, since there was no audible difference after the initial note had been sounded." Clive Brown writes that "Despite three different ways of showing the trills, it seems that a trill beginning with the upper note and ending with a turn was envisaged in each case."Sometimes it is expected that the trill will end with a turn, or some other variation. Such variations are marked with a few grace notes following the note that bears the trill indication. There is a single tone trill variously called trillo or tremolo in late Renaissance and early Baroque.
Trilling on a single note is idiomatic for the bowed strings. A mordent is a rapid alternation between an indicated note, the note above or below, the indicated note again; the upper mordent is indicated by a short thick tilde. As with the trill, the exact speed with which a mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but, at a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: Confusion over the meaning of the unadorned word mordent has led to the modern terms upper and lower mordent being used, rather than mordent and inverted mordent. Practice and nomenclature vary for all of these ornaments. In the Baroque period, a mordant was what came to be called an inverted mordent and what is now called a lower mordent. In the 19th century, the name mordent was applied to what is now called the upper mordent. Although mordents are now thought of as a single alternation between notes, in the Baroque period a mordant may have sometimes been executed with more than one alternation between the indicated note and the note below, making it a sort of inverted trill.
Mordents of all sorts might in some periods, begin with an extra inessential note, rather than with the principal note as shown in the examples here. The same applies to trills, which in the Baroque and Classical periods would begin with the added, upper note. A lower inessential note may or may not be chromatically raised to ma
Johann Georg Leopold Mozart was a German composer, conductor and violinist. Mozart is best known today as the father and teacher of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, for his violin textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, he was born in Augsburg, son of Johann Georg Mozart, a bookbinder, his second wife Anna Maria Sulzer. From an early age he sang as a choirboy, he attended a local Jesuit school, the St. Salvator Gymnasium, where he studied logic, theology, graduating magna cum laude in 1735, he moved on to a more advanced school, the St. Salvator Lyceum. While a student in Augsburg, he appeared in student theatrical productions as an actor and singer, became a skilled violinist and organist, he developed an interest, which he retained, in microscopes and telescopes. Although his parents had planned a career for Leopold as a Catholic priest, this was not Leopold's own wish. An old school friend told Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1777. My father thought the world of him, and how he hoodwinked the clerics about becoming a priest!"He withdrew from the St. Salvator Lyceum after less than a year.
Following a year's delay, he moved to Salzburg to resume his education, enrolling in November 1737 at the Benedictine University to study philosophy and jurisprudence. At the time Salzburg was the capital of an independent state within the Holy Roman Empire, now part of Austria. Except for periods of travel, Leopold spent the rest of his life there. Leopold received the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in 1738. However, in September 1739 he was expelled from the university for poor attendance, having "hardly attended Natural Science more than once or twice". In 1740, he began his career as a professional musician, becoming violinist and valet to one of the university's canons, Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis; this was the year of his first musical publication, the six Trio Sonatas, Opus 1. These were titled Sonate sei da chiesa e da camera, he continued producing a series of German Passion cantatas. In 1747 he married Anna Maria Pertl, who bore him seven children, although only two of them survived past infancy: Johann Leopold Joachim Maria Anna Cordula Maria Anna Nepomucena Walpurgis Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia, Nannerl Johann Karl Amadeus Maria Crescentia Francisca de Paula Johann Chrysostomus Wolfgang Amadeus In 1743 Leopold Mozart was appointed to a position in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
His duties included composition and the teaching of violin to the choirboys of the Salzburg cathedral. He was promoted in 1763 to deputy Kapellmeister, he rose no further. The question of whether Leopold was successful as a composer is debated; the Grove Dictionary says that as of 1756, "Mozart was well-known. His works circulated in German-speaking Europe." However, biographer Maynard Solomon asserts that he "failed to make his mark as a composer", Alfred Einstein "judged him to be an undistinguished composer". For discussion of Leopold's musical works, see below. Scholars agree, that Leopold was successful as a pedagogue. In 1755, he wrote his Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, a comprehensive treatise on violin playing; this work was published in 1756, went through two further German editions, as well as being translated into Dutch and French. Today, the work is consulted by musicians interested in 18th century performance practice; this work made a reputation in Europe for Leopold, his name begins to appear around this time in music dictionaries and other works of musical pedagogy.
Leopold discovered that his two children were musically gifted in about 1759, when he began with keyboard lessons for the seven-year-old Nannerl. The toddler Wolfgang began imitating his sister, at first picking out thirds on the keyboard and making rapid progress under Leopold's instruction. By 1762, the children were ready to work as concert performers, Leopold began taking the family on extensive concert tours, performing for both aristocracy and public, throughout central and western Europe; this tour included Munich, Presburg and the Hague together with a lengthy stay in London. The discovery of his children's talent is considered to have been a life-transforming event for Leopold, he once referred to his son as the "miracle which God let be born in Salzburg". Of Leopold's attitude, the Grove Dictionary says: The recognition of this'miracle' must have struck Leopold with the force of a divine revelation and he felt his responsibility to be not a father's and teacher's but a missionary's as well.
By "missionary", the Grove Dictionary refers to the family's concert tours. Scholars differ on. To be sure the children performed before large audiences and took in large sums, but the expenses of travel were very high, no money at all was made during the various times that Leopold and the children suffered serious illnesses. Mozart biographer Maynard Solomon takes the view that the tou
Jean-Henri d'Anglebert was a French composer and organist. He was one of the foremost keyboard composers of his day. D'Anglebert's father Claude Henry known as Anglebert was an affluent shoemaker in Bar-le-Duc. Nothing is known about the composer's early years and musical education. Since he at one time composed a tombeau for Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, it is possible that Chambonnières was his teacher—or at any rate a friend for whom D'Anglebert had much respect; the earliest surviving manuscript with D'Anglebert's music dates from 1650–1659. It contains music by Louis Couperin and Chambonnières, originated in their immediate circle; the earliest reference to D'Anglebert survives in his marriage contract from 11 October 1659. D'Anglebert married sister-in-law of the organist François Roberday. In the contract, he is described as bourgeois de Paris, suggesting that by 1659 he was well established in Paris. How he left Bar-le-Duc and settled in Paris remains unknown. D'Anglebert's career in Paris must have begun at the Jacobins church in Rue St. Honoré, where he was still organist in January 1660.
In August 1660 he succeeded Henri Dumont as harpsichordist to Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, the King's younger brother. He kept the position until at least 1668, but in the meantime, in 1662, he bought the reversion of the post of harpsichordist from Chambonnières, disgraced at the court, he served as royal harpsichordist until his son Jean-Baptiste-Henry became his reversioner in 1674. After 1679 D'Anglebert served Dauphine Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, who died in 1690. D'Anglebert died the following year, on 23 April, his only published work, Pièces de clavecin, appeared just two years before, in 1689. The rest of his music—mostly harpsichord works, but five fugues and a quatuor for organ—survives in manuscripts. D'Anglebert's principal work is a collection of four harpsichord suites published in 1689 in Paris under the title Pièces de clavecin; the volume is dedicated to Marie Anne de Bourbon, a talented amateur harpsichordist who studied under François Couperin. Apart from its contents, which represents some of the finest achievements of the French harpsichord school, Pièces de clavecin is important on several other counts.
The collection was beautifully engraved with utmost care, which set a new standard for music engraving. Furthermore, D'Anglebert's table of ornaments is the most sophisticated before Couperin's, it formed the basis of J. S. Bach's own table of ornaments, provided a model for other composers, including Rameau. D'Anglebert's original pieces are presented together with his arrangements of Lully's orchestral works. D'Anglebert's arrangements are, once again, some of the finest pieces in that genre, show him experimenting with texture to achieve an orchestral sonority. Most of D'Anglebert's other pieces survive in two manuscripts, one of which contains, apart from the usual dances, harpsichord arrangements of lute pieces by composers such as Ennemond Gaultier, Denis Gaultier, René Mesangeau, they are unique pieces, for no such arrangements by other major French harpsichord composers are known. The second manuscript contains more experimental pieces by D'Anglebert, in which he tried to invent a tablature-like notation for keyboard music to simplify the notation of style brisé textures.
D'Anglebert's only surviving organ works are a quatuor. The fugues all elaborate on variations of the same subject; the quatuor, one of the few surviving pieces of its kind, is built around three themes derived from the Kyrie Cunctipotens. Ledbetter, David. "Jean Henry D'Anglebert". In Deane L. Root. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Jean-Henri D'Anglebert bio, Classical Net. Free scores by Jean-Henri d'Anglebert at the International Music Score Library Project Kunst der Fuge: Jean-Henri d'Anglebert - MIDI files
Christopher Simpson was an English musician and composer associated with music for the viola da gamba. Simpson was born between 1602 and 1606 at Egton, Yorkshire, he was the eldest son of Christopher Sympson, a Yorkshireman, described as a cordwainer but, the manager of a theatre company patronised by wealthy Yorkshire Catholics. It is thought that Sympson senior may have preferred to portray himself at times as a simple craftsman, rather than a high-profile Catholic sympathiser, at a time when Catholics were harshly persecuted in England. There is a theory that Christopher Simpson, the musician, could have been the same Simpson, educated as a Jesuit in continental Europe and was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1629. However, Simpson's death in 1669 is at odds with the evidence that the Jesuit Simpson lived until 1674. Simpson fought in the English Civil War, on the Royalist side and, in 1642, was a quarter-master in the army of the Earl of Newcastle. Following the siege of York, Simpson took refuge at the manor of Sir Robert Bolles, at Scampton, where Bolles employed him as a resident musician and tutor to his son John.
Simpson remained in the Bolles' household for the remainder of his life. His will was made on 5 May 1669 and was proved in London on 29 July 1669, it seems that he died at Sir John Bolles' house in Holborn, London, or at Scampton Hall. Simpson made a small contribution to John Playford's work A Brief Introduction to the Skill of Musick but is best known for his own book, The Division Viol, or the Art of Playing upon a Ground, a set of practical instructions, organised into three sections: Of the Viol it self, with Instructions how to Play upon it; the second edition is a parallel text in English and Latin, thus addressing both the British and continental European markets. It was a successful publication and continued to appear in new editions for sixty years after the death of its author. With the revival of early music during the 20th century, renewed interest in the viol, Simpson's book was read with renewed interest by those who sought to rediscover the "authentic" technique for playing the instrument.
The accompanying portrait of Simpson appears in The Division Viol. In the first edition, he is depicted wearing a hat but, in editions, the picture has been modified to show him bare-headed, as here; the picture illustrates some of the characteristic techniques of viol-playing. For instance, it is clear that the bow is held underhand, unlike the technique used for the modern cello or violin, it can be seen that the second and third finger of the right hand rest on the bow-hair, allowing them to be used to vary the tension of the bow during playing. Simpson wrote a short guide to musical composition in 1665: The Principles of Practical Musick and expanded this into his 1667 publication A Compendium of Practical Musick. Few of Simpson's musical compositions appeared in print during his lifetime, except those included as examples in his books; some of his compositions survive in manuscript form. For example, he composed two sets of fantasias entitled The Monthes and The Seasons, which both consist of one treble and two bass viol parts, with continuo.
The Seasons was recorded with extensive liner notes about the piece. All his surviving instrumental works are for viol ensembles or for the solo viol, an instrument about which he wrote that "a viol in the hands of an excellent violist may be reckon'd amongst the best of musical instruments. To play extempore to a ground is the highest perfection of it". Christopher Simpson: The Division-Violist: or An Introduction to the Playing upon a Ground, printed by William Godbid, sold by John Playford, Facsimile reprint edited with introduction by Nathalie Dolmetsch, London: J. Curwen, 1955 Percy Scholes: Oxford Companion to Music, OUP Margaret Urquhart: Chelys Volume 21 "Was Christopher Simpson a Jesuit?", 1992, Viola da Gamba Society Publications H. C. G. Matthews and Brian Harrison: The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-861366-0 Free scores by Christopher Simpson at the International Music Score Library Project
John Playford was a London bookseller, minor composer, member of the Stationers' Company, who published books on music theory, instruction books for several instruments, psalters with tunes for singing in churches. He is best known today for his publication of The English Dancing Master in 1651. Playford was born in the younger son of John Playford, he served an apprenticeship with publisher John Benson from 1639/40 to 1647, after which he opened a shop in the porch of Temple Church. Playford was clerk to the church, resided with his wife Hannah over the shop until 1659, he was, it appears temporarily in partnership with John Benson in 1652, with Zachariah Watkins in 1664 and 1665. Under the Commonwealth, for some years of Charles II's reign, Playford monopolised the business of music publishing in England, his shop was the meeting-place of musical enthusiasts. Bookseller and member of the Stationers' Company, Playford published books on music theory, instruction books for several instruments, psalters with tunes for singing in churches.
He is best known today for his publication of The English Dancing Master in 1651, during the period of the Puritan-dominated Commonwealth. This work contains both instructions for English country dances; this came about after Playford, working as a war correspondent, was captured by Cromwell's men and told that, if he valued his freedom, he might consider a change of career. Although many of the tunes in the book are attributed to him today, he did not write any of them. Most were popular melodies. During the Restoration period, on the other hand, he endeavoured to encourage serious tastes. In 1662 he dedicated the'Cantica Sacra' to Queen Henrietta Maria, he regretfully observed in 1666 that'all solemn musick was much laid aside, being esteemed too heavy and dull for the light heels and brains of this nimble and wanton age,' and he therefore ventured to'new string the harp of David' by issuing fresh editions of his'Skill of Music,' with music for church service, in 1674, and, in 1677,'The Whole Book of Psalms' in which he gave for the first time the church tunes to the cantus part.
In typographical technique Playford's most original improvement was the invention in 1658 of'the new-ty'd note.' These were quavers or semiquavers connected in pairs or series by one or two horizontal strokes at the end of their tails, the last note of the group retaining in the early examples the characteristic up-stroke. Hawkins observes. In 1665 he caused every semibreve to be barred in the dance tunes. However, Playford clung to old methods. Playford's printers were: Thomas Harper, 1648–1652. By 1665 Playford and his wife moved from the Temple to a large house opposite Islington Church, where Mrs. Playford kept a boarding-school until her death in October 1679. By November 1680, Playford had established himself in a house in Arundel Street'near the Thames side, the lower end, over against the George.' He suffered from a long illness in that year, retired, leaving the main running of the business to his son Henry Playford. He brought out, in his own name, a collection of catches in 1685, he died in Arundel Street about November 1686.
His will was written on 5 Nov. 1686, neither signed nor witnessed, only proved in August 1694, the handwriting being identified by witnesses. He was buried in the Temple Church as he desired, although the registers do not record his name. Henry Purcell and John Blow attended the funeral. Several elegies upon his death were published. Playford's original compositions were few and slight, included some vocal and instrumental pieces in the following collections:'Catch... or the Musical Companion,' 1667. After Playford's death, his only surviving son, Henry Playford carried on the business at the shop near the Temple Church. In partnership with Robert Carr, Henry published three books of'The Theatre of Musick. In 1694, he sold his copyright i n'The Dancing Master' to John Heptinstall. From 1696 to 1703, Playford traded in the "Temple Exchange"'over against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street.' He employed as printers, John Playford the younger, 1685. Around 1701 he instituted weekly clubs for the practice of music, which flourished in Oxford as well as in London.
Playford, in order to meet competition from purveyors of cheap music, established, in 1699, a music concert to be held three evenings in the week at a coffee house. Here his music was to be sold, might be heard at the request of any prospective purchaser, he complained of the expense of good-quality paper, of the scandalous abuse of selling single songs at a penny a piece, a practice'which hindered good collections.' In 1703 Pla
In classical music from Western culture, a third is a musical interval encompassing three staff positions, the major third is a third spanning four semitones. Along with the minor third, the major third is one of two occurring thirds, it is qualified as major because it is the larger of the two: the major third spans four semitones, the minor third three. For example, the interval from C to E is a major third, as the note E lies four semitones above C, there are three staff positions from C to E. Diminished and augmented thirds span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones; the major third may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the fourth and fifth harmonics. The major scale is so named because of the presence of this interval between its tonic and mediant scale degrees; the major chord takes its name from the presence of this interval built on the chord's root. A major third is different in different musical tunings: in just intonation corresponds to a pitch ratio of 5:4 or 386.31 cents.
The older concept of a ditone made a dissonantly wide major third with the ratio 81:64. The septimal major third is 9:7, the undecimal major third is 14:11, the tridecimal major third is 13:10. A helpful way to recognize a major third is to hum the first two notes of "Kumbaya" or of "When the Saints Go Marching In". A descending major third is heard at the starts of "Goodnight, Ladies" and "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot". In equal temperament three major thirds in a row are equal to an octave; this is sometimes called the "circle of thirds". In just intonation, three 5:4 major thirds are less than an octave. For example, three 5:4 major thirds from C is B♯; the difference between this just-tuned B♯ and C, like that between G♯ and A♭, is called a diesis, about 41 cents. The major third is classed as an imperfect consonance and is considered one of the most consonant intervals after the unison, perfect fifth, perfect fourth. In the common practice period, thirds were considered interesting and dynamic consonances along with their inverses the sixths, but in medieval times they were considered dissonances unusable in a stable final sonority.
A diminished fourth is enharmonically equivalent to a major third. For example, B–D♯ is a major third. B–E♭ occurs in the C harmonic minor scale; the major third is used in guitar tunings. For the standard tuning, only the interval between the 3rd and 2nd strings is a major third. In an alternative tuning, the major-thirds tuning, each of the intervals are major thirds. Decade, compound just major third Ear training List of meantone intervals
Jacques Champion de Chambonnières
Jacques Champion de Chambonnières was a French harpsichordist and composer. Born into a musical family, Chambonnières made an illustrious career as court harpsichordist in Paris and was considered by many of his contemporaries to be one of the greatest musicians in Europe. However, late in life Chambonnières fell out of favor at the court and lost his position, he died in poverty, but at an advanced age, not before publishing a number of his works. Today Chambonnières is considered one of the greatest representatives of the early French harpsichord school. Chambonnières was born in Paris, most in 1601 or 1602. Little information survives concerning his childhood and early youth; the Champion family included many musicians, most notably Thomas Champion, Chambonnières's grandfather, whom Marin Mersenne described as "the greatest contrapuntist of his time." Chambonnières's father named Jacques, was a keyboard player and a composer. Although he was not as regarded as Thomas, Mersenne still praised his keyboard skills, John Bull dedicated a work to him.
The title Chambonnières belonged to Chambonnières's maternal grandfather: it was the name of a small manor in the commune of Le Plessis-Feu-Aussoux. Chambonnières must have received early music lessons from his father, but apart from that nothing is known about the young harpsichordist's education. What is known, however, is that Chambonnières was for a long time the only child of an aging father—Jacques Champion was around 50 when Chambonnières was born—and received much attention. By 1611 Chambonnières must have been showing considerable musical talents, for in September of that year he received the reversion of his father's court position; some ten years about 1621/22, Chambonnières married his first wife Marie Leclerc. He continued receiving generous financial support from his father until some time in the mid-1620s, when Jacques Champion's wife unexpectedly gave birth to two more children: a daughter and another son. Jacques mindful of both the diminishing family fortune and his elder son's selfish character, sought to distribute the remaining money and resources in a fair manner.
In 1631 he completed and signed a document that has since became one of the most important sources of biographical information on the Champion family: a déclaration which detailed family circumstances and, among other things, ordered Chambonnières to pay 3000 livres to his mother and sister as a repayment for the court position and other benefits provided to him by his father. With support from his father, Chambonnières was working at the court since his late teens. By 1632 he had the title of gentilhomme ordinaire de la Chambre du Roy, he rose to great fame in the early 1630s, first as harpsichordist and a little as a dancer. His first public performance was in the Ballet de la marine, on 25 February 1635, before the King himself. In 1637 Chambonnières's salary was the same as his father's, soon after the latter's death in 1642 Chambonnières became the only harpsichordist, his activities were not limited to providing music for the court, however. In 1641 he organized a series of paying concerts—perhaps the first of such kind in France—which continued well into the 1650s.
The earliest relevant notarial act, from 17 October 1641, specifies that ten musicians were to perform every Wednesday and Saturday at noon for a year. Both vocal and instrumental works were performed, but no details survive on the nature of the music or the instruments used. Chambonnières augmented his income by teaching becoming an important influence on the subsequent development of the French harpsichord school, as well as composers abroad, such as Johann Jakob Froberger. Among his pupils were Jacques Hardel and Jean-Henri d'Anglebert, but he was important for his contribution to the establishment of the Couperin musical dynasty. About 1650/51 Louis Couperin and his brothers gave a small private concert at Chambonnières's Le Plessis-Feu-Aussoux manor, to celebrate the older composer's name day, their playing and their music so impressed Chambonnières that he extended all kinds of support to the Couperins and the three soon had active careers in Paris. Chambonnières's wife died in the early 1650s.
He married his second wife Marguerite Ferret, daughter of a law court usher, on 16 December 1652. As the Fronde civil war went on, Chambonnières's career was still on the rise, he continued augmenting his income by giving concerts and teaching, at one point considered going on a tour of Brabant. A series of concerts titled. Chambonnières's dancing career continued, too: on 23 February 1653 he danced in the Ballet royal de la nuit, side by side with the young Louis XIV and Jean-Baptiste Lully, on 14 April 1654 he participated in the ballet inserted into Carlo Caproli's opera Le nozze di Peleo e di Theti. Chambonnières's harpsichord works were appearing in manuscript collections dating from the late 1650s, but he had not yet published any of his music. Chambonnières's financial situation ceased to be stable in the early 1650s, when the Fronde armies laid the Brie region to waste; the first serious losses, must have occurred in 1657, when a lawsuit was brought that resulted in the sale of Chambonnières's manor and land at Le Plessis-Feu-Aussoux, for a comparatively small sum.
In the summer his wife Marguerite obtained a decree of separate maintenance and sold s