Offset overhand bend
The offset overhand bend is a knot used to join two ropes together. The offset overhand bend is formed by holding two rope ends next to each other and tying an overhand knot in them as if they were a single line. Due to its common use in several fields, this bend has become known by many names, such as thumb knot, openhand knot, one-sided overhand knot or flat overhand bend, though the terms "one-sided" and "flat" are considered incorrect. Long used by weavers to join the ends of yarn, the offset water knot is old, it was one of the knots identified among the possessions of Ötzi the Iceman, who dates from 3300 BC. The knot is tied in a slipped form by mechanical balers to bind straw and hay, but this bend is not practical to use as a binding knot when tied by hand. In rock climbing, the offset water knot is a favored knot for joining two ropes for a rappel longer than half the length of the ropes. There is controversy over its safety, as it can fail by capsizing under high loads, some American climbers refer to it as the European Death Knot, abbreviated to EDK.
Failure of this knot has been implicated in some near-misses. Many sources argue that this is misnomer, the knot is safe for abseiling/rappelling, since this doesn't generate such high forces, the knot, being on one side of the twin lines used in abseil, sees only half of this force, they believe that with proper attention given to dressing and cinching the knot, the risk of capsizing is unlikely. Several sources recommend adding a second overhand as close as possible to the first for most situations, which maintains most of the benefits of the single overhand, while preventing it from capsizing. Formed in most line, the offset overhand bend is jam resistant at nominal loads of one person; the jamming threshold is thought to be 3kN. The instability threshold is thought to be 5kN – that is, a capsizing event becomes probable as loads approach 500kg, it is critically important to pay close attention to dressing and cinching of the knot before attempting to abseil. That is, climbers must exercise due diligence when tying this knot – by pulling on each of the 4 rope segments –, necessary to achieve a properly compacted and cinched dressing state.
There is no room for carelessness. Despite questions about this knot's security, it does present some advantages for use in rappels; because the knot is offset from the axis of tension, it can translate more over rough surfaces and 90 degree edges than other knots. Since a stuck rope on a descent represents a serious hazard to climbers, these advantages, along with ease of tying, have led to its popularity, it is recommended by some sources with the caveats that the tails be of sufficient minimum length, the knot be diligently dressed and tightened by pulling individually on all four rope segments, subjected only to moderate rappelling loads. Furthermore, # 1410 can be rotated to crush the tails. All testers appear to only examine this knot in its mid-rotation state, it is theorized that this mid-rotation state is in fact the orientation where the structure is most vulnerable to capsizing. A new round of testing is long overdue to investigate the potential benefits of rotating the structure to induce a choking effect.
In addition, when tying the offset overhand bend using different rope diameters, the thinner diameter rope must be positioned underneath the larger diameter rope. This tactic further inhibits any likelihood of capsizing; the Offset figure-eight bend, a similar knot using the figure-eight knot, has been used in the belief that its greater size and complexity brings more security. But testing and more than one fatal failure indicate the figure-eight variant to be less secure, more prone to capsize at lower loads, in capsizing uses more of the ends than does a capsizing overhand bend. Moreover, while there is one obvious proper dressing of the Overhand Bend, there are a couple of dressings for the Offset Figure Eight Bend. List of bend knots List of knots
Double fisherman's knot
The double fisherman's knot or grapevine knot is a bend, or a knot used to join two lengths of rope. This knot and the triple fisherman's knot are the variations used most in climbing and search and rescue; the knot is formed by tying a double overhand knot, in its strangle knot form, with each end around the opposite line's standing part. A primary use of this knot is to form high strength slings of cord for connecting pieces of a climber's protection system; this knot, along with the basic fisherman's knot can be used to join the ends of a necklace cord. The two strangle knots are left separated, in this way the length of the necklace can be adjusted without breaking or untying the strand. A study of 8 different bends using climbing ropes concluded "the Double Fisherman's Knot seemed to be the best joining knot"; the butterfly bend held under more weight, but "almost impossible to untie after a significant load of about 1,000 lb was applied". Dyneema/Spectra's high lubricity leads to poor knot-holding ability and has led to the recommendation to use the triple fisherman's knot rather than the traditional double fisherman's knot in 6 mm Dyneema core cord to avoid a particular failure mechanism of the double fisherman's, where first the sheath fails at the knot the core slips through.
List of bend knots List of knots Double Fisherman's Knot Video
Single carrick bend
The name single carrick bend has been used and recommended by many different people to refer to different knots with a similar general form to the carrick bend. All of these knots are weaker and less secure for the purpose of a bend, the connection of two rope ends. Several have other properties. Knots carrying the name single carrick bend can be characterised as being able to be arranged flat so that they look the same as the carrick bend except for variations in which ropes go under which at the intersections. Knots which have been called single carrick bend in various knotting books include the reef knot, the sheet bend, the granny knot, the thief knot, several arrangements that fail to form a knot at all, fall apart. List of bend knots List of knots
A Zeppelin bend is a general-purpose bend knot. It is a secure tied, jam-resistant way to connect two ropes. Though its simplicity and security may be matched by other bends, it is unique in the ease with which it is untied after heavy loading, by pulling the opposing bridges away from each other. Both names for this knot stem from its alleged use to moor airships: a Zeppelin being a rigid-bodied type of airship, Charles Rosendahl being the US Navy officer who insisted it be used to moor airships under his command; the zeppelin bend is a new bend. Despite being praised by some sources as a nearly ideal bend knot, it is not well known; the original publication of The Ashley Book of Knots does not include this knot. Budworth names a similar-looking decorative knot as the "blimp knot". Zeppelin bend is difficult to tie while ropes are under tension, difficult to tighten either main part, during or after tying, by pulling through the knot; the zeppelin is therefore tied with two loose ends ending with a simple knot on each, but woven to each other in a pattern specific to Zeppelin.
Butterfly bend, Hunter's bend, Ashley's bend weave one simple knot on either end but use their own different patterns. Form a loop in each of the ends of rope. Overlay one loop on the other, such that the working end of each rope faces "outwards" or away from the other hitch. Pull either loose end once around the loop in the other rope, through the "tunnel" created by the two hitches. Repeat with the other loose end. Pull on all four rope parts to tighten the knot. To untie, pull on the two turns that go round the standing parts. Another method of remembering this knot is to visualize a "69". To tie the knot, follow the steps below: Make a "6" with the line in your left hand, it is important that the working end winds up on top of the standing end for the "6". Make a "9" with the line in your right hand. Make sure that the standing part crosses over the working end of the "9". While keeping both "numbers" intact, place the "6" over the "9", with the circle parts of each number lining up. Pass the "tail" of the "6" down, over itself, up through the middle part of your "69".
Pass the "tail" part of the "9" up over itself and down through the middle part of your "69". Pull each standing end while ensuring that the working ends are not pulled from the "69" holes. Having on both ends, an elbow of the end rather than the end itself, cross the knot center, gives a single or double slipped version, it is still easier to untie by pulling the opposing bridges away from each other rather than by pulling the slipped end. The slipped Zeppelin bend can be locked by pushing ends through the eye of its own slip on the opposite side. If instead of two ends, one ties two bights of the same rope 3 reliable loops are created; these versions have the same advantage with less curvature nearest the main ropes, thus having a higher break strength and being as easy to untie. This is a way to shorten the rope, and/or to isolate up to 3 weak rope sections near each other. List of bend knots List of knots Zeppelin loop
Hunter's bend is a knot used to join two lines. It consists of interlocking overhand knots, can jam under moderate strain, it is topologically similar to the Zeppelin bend. When assessed against other bends In stress tests using paracord, it was found to be "not as strong as the blood knot, similar to the reverse figure of eight and stronger than the fisherman's bend, sheet bend or reef knot". In October 1978, an article in The Times presented it as a newly invented knot credited to Dr. Edward Hunter, he had used it for years to tie broken shoelaces before discovering its originality through a friend in the 1970s. When it appeared on the front page, it led to much publicity for the knot and to the formation of the International Guild of Knot Tyers, it was pointed out by Amory Bloch Lovins that the knot had been presented in Knots for Mountaineering by Phil D. Smith in the 1950s; the tying of the bend was described as a modification to the alpine butterfly bend. Smith had devised the knot in 1943 while working on the San Francisco waterfront and had called it a "rigger's bend".
Although not documented in the original 1944 print of The Ashley Book of Knots, it was added in 1979 as entry #1425A. Zeppelin bendList of bend knotsList of knots Alternative steps to tie a Hunter's Bend
Triple fisherman's knot
The triple fisherman's knot is a bend knot, used to join two ends of rope together. It is an extension of the double fisherman's knot and is recommended for tying slippery, stiff ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and aramid cored ropes. Tying the triple fisherman's knot is nearly identical to the double fisherman's, except for a third wrap before passing the end through each half of the knot. Testing has shown that a failure mode exists at high loads with the double fisherman's knot in ropes using Spectra and Technora cores; the sheath of the rope separates at the knot, the high-lubricity core slips through the double fisherman's knot. Although the increase in ultimate strength is small, the triple fisherman's knot does not exhibit this behavior; this has led to the recommendation to use the triple fisherman's knot to avoid this particular failure mechanism. The triple fisherman's knot should not be confused with the "triple-T fisherman's knot", more akin to a one-sided overhand bend and has different properties than the triple fisherman's knot.
List of bend knots List of knots
Bowline on a bight
The Bowline on a bight is a knot which makes a pair of fixed-size loops in the middle of a rope. Its advantage is; this knot can replace the figure-eight knot. However, it is critical to use a strong backup knot with plenty of tail beyond the knot. 2011 testing shows. Cavers and canyoneers ought to fasten their cow-tail carabiner through both loops. European cavers advocate the use of a figure eight twisted version of the Bowline on a bight; this knot can be used to provide a toe hold in the middle of a rope. It is sometimes used in sport climbing to tie into two anchor bolts independently; this knot is convenient when a dependable loop is required but neither end of the line is available. It's commonly used as a seat while being hoisted as there are two secure loops as opposed to the traditional one loop bowline. In theory, this knot would make hoisting many people with one line possible; this knot is popular in caving as it allows the load to be spread between two anchor points, reducing the stress placed on them and providing a backup should one fail.
Known as the Y-hang it allows for a free-hang descent and can be adjusted to avoid waterfalls or rub points. As mentioned earlier, this knot can replace the figure-eight knot when tying into a climbing harness by tying a regular bowline knot and re-threading it, such as is done with a figure eight knot. However, it is critical to use a strong backup knot with plenty of tail beyond the knot, as the knot may untie during long climbs; the advantage of using this knot instead of the figure eight knot is that it can be untied after a severe fall. The bight of rope is used to make a bowline in the usual way. However, the bowline is not completed by going on round the standing end and tucking the bight back down beside itself. Instead, the bight is opened up to allow the whole knot to pass through it; when tightened, the bight now embraces. "Bowline on a bight using rope". Animated Knots