Amsterdam Nieuw-West is a borough comprising the most western neighborhoods of the city of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The borough was created in 2010 after a merger of the former boroughs Osdorp, Geuzenveld-Slotermeer, in 2013, the borough had almost 142,000 inhabitants. Most of the neighborhoods of Amsterdam Nieuw-West were built after 1950 under an urban expansion plan. Centrally located within the borough is Sloterplas lake and the Sloterpark, Nieuw-West is a sprawling, high-density suburban residential area in the west of Amsterdam. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Sloten, Amsterdam. The plans for the expansion of the city date back to 1935. The neighborhoods in Nieuw-West are designed on the basis of the garden city principles, most of these neighborhoods, known as the Westelijke Tuinsteden were built in the 1950s and 1960s. At the heart of the borough is Sloterplas, a lake, the lake was created as a result of sand extractions needed for the development of the garden city neighborhoods.
The oldest garden city neighborhoods are Slotermeer, Slotervaart, Overtoomse Veld, in the 1990s, a few additional neighborhoods were developed, Nieuw Sloten and De Aker. Since 2001, the borough has been subject to urban renewal projects. Under the Richting Parkstad 2015 plan, thousands of homes were demolished and replaced by new developments, with the renewal projects, the original garden city ideas have been partially abandoned. The city of Amsterdam subsequently decided to apply the same status to the northeast and southwest of Slotermeer, central Osdorp, since the 2014 municipal elections, the district councils have been abolished and replaced by smaller, but still directly elected district committees. The district committees are elected every four years, on the day as the citys central municipal council. Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council. The district committee of Amsterdam Nieuw-West consists of 15 members, the committee was elected on March 19,2014.
Six national political parties and three parties are represented on the committee. In April 2014, the elected its executive committee. Executive committee chair is Achmed Baâdoud, the members are Ronald Mauer
A neighbourhood, or neighborhood, is a geographically localised community within a larger city, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members, the Old English word for neighbourhood was neahdæl. ”Most of the earliest cities around the world as excavated by archaeologists have evidence for the presence of social neighbourhoods. Historical documents shed light on life in numerous historical preindustrial or nonwestern cities. Neighbourhoods are typically generated by social interaction among people living near one another, in this sense they are local social units larger than households not directly under the control of city or state officials. In addition to social neighbourhoods, most ancient and historical cities had administrative districts used by officials for taxation, record-keeping, administrative districts are typically larger than neighbourhoods and their boundaries may cut across neighbourhood divisions. In some cases, administrative districts coincided with neighbourhoods, for example, in the T’ang period Chinese capital city Chang’an, neighbourhoods were districts and there were state officials who carefully controlled life and activity at the neighbourhood level.
Neighbourhoods in preindustrial cities often had some degree of social specialisation or differentiation, ethnic neighbourhoods were important in many past cities and remain common in cities today. One factor contributing to neighbourhood distinctiveness and social cohesion in past cities was the role of rural to urban migration and this was a continual process in preindustrial cities, and migrants tended to move in with relatives and acquaintances from their rural past. Neighbourhoods have been the site of delivery or service interventions in part as efforts to provide local, quality services. Alfred Kahn, as early as the mid-1970s, described the experience and fads of neighbourhood service delivery over the decade, including discussion of income transfers. Neighbourhoods, as an aspect of community, are the site of services for youth, including children with disabilities. While the term neighbourhood organisation is not as common in 2015, community and economic development activists have pressured for reinvestment in local communities and neighbourhoods.
Community and Economic Development may be understood in different ways, and may involve faith-based groups, urban sociology even has a subset termed neighbourhood sociology which supports the study of local communities and the diversity of urban neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are used in studies from postal codes and health disparities. Neighbourhoods are convenient, and always accessible, since you are already in your neighbourhood when you walk out your door, successful neighbourhood action frequently requires little specialised technical skill, and often little or no money. Action may call for an investment of time, but material costs are often low, with neighbourhood action, compared to activity on larger scales, results are more likely to be visible and quickly forthcoming. The streets are cleaner, the crosswalk is painted, the trees are planted and swift results are indicators of success, and since success is reinforcing, the probability of subsequent neighbourhood action is increased.
The social support that a neighbourhood may provide can serve as a buffer against various forms of adversity
Lastage is a neighbourhood in the Centrum district of Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. It is located between the Geldersekade and Oudeschans canals, just east of old medieval city, the neighbourhood is known as Nieuwmarktbuurt. The area is protected as a heritage site, in the 16th century, the marshy land east of the city developed into an industrial and port area of Amsterdam. Halfway through the 16th century, five ropewalks, some ships mast factories, due to the location of the area outside the city wall, taxes were much lower and spatial planning regulations were much less strict. The adjacent bend in the IJ inlet called Waal was shallow, during the Guelderian Wars, the area came under threat several times by the troops of Charles of Guelders. When the nearby towns of Weesp and Muiden came under Charles occupation in the spring of 1508, in December 1512, it was burnt down again, this time at the hands of the Guelders troops. The name Lastage derives from the various ships ballast-related activities that took place here, near the Schreierstoren on the quay along the IJ, a crane was built to lift cargo and anchors.
A ditch was dug between Montelbaansgracht and Geldersekade around 1530, and was named Rechtboomssloot after Cornelis P. Boom, the old stream that ran through the Lastage was named Kromboomssloot. In 1550 there were already 550 houses outside the city walls, in 1564, the residents, backed by the vogt, urged the city government once more to expand the city. Due to the activities in the area posing a fire hazard. When the Dutch Revolt broke out in 1566, and the Duke of Alba instituted the Council of Troubles, several of the landowners in the area fled the city and they would return again in 1578 with new insights and trade contacts in the Baltic Sea area. When a ban on building activities was declared in 1579, the city wanted to expropriate the land in Lastage. On the other hand, the land value made it unacceptable for the city council to consider buying the land instead. In the following years a number of landowners agreed to a value determined by a committee. Two owners, namely the rope maker Claes Burchmansz and Robrecht Cools and were taken to court.
The proceedings were taken all the way up to the highest body and Cools were eventually forced to agree and cooperate, and hastily a defensive rampart was erected, known today as Oudeschans. Around 1586, the city started drawing up plans to determine how the streets, the local landowners were compelled to demolish the existing buildings, such as fences, drying sheds and tar houses, and to raise the land with sand. The city would provide the sand and the stones needed for pavements and embankments, for this amelioration, the landowners would have to pay a yet to be determined sum in tax
The Kadijken, known as Kadijkseiland or Kadijkenbuurt, is a neighbourhood to the north of Artis zoo in the centre of Amsterdam. The name Kadijken is the form of Kadijk and refers to the two main streets that traverse the neighbourhood, Hoogte Kadijk and Laagte Kadijk. The neighbourhood is cut into two halves, a western part and a smaller western part, by a former complex of sluice gates that forms a canal between the Nieuwe Vaart and Entrepotdok canals. This canal isolates the western part of the neighbourhood from the rest of the city, connecting the two main streets, Hoogte en Laagte Kadijk, is a small street appropriately named Tussen Kadijken. The small street Buiten Kadijken runs from Hoogte Kadijk to Nieuwe Vaart canal, at the corner of Hoogte Kadijk and Buiten Kadijken is a pillar topped with a sculpture of a falcon with a crown on its head. This is a replica of a sculpture that stood here for many years as a trademark of the beer brewery De Gekroonde Valk. The western edge of the neighbourhood is formed by Kadijkenplein square with the Zeemanshuis, from the square, a cast-iron bridge leads across Nieuwe Herengracht canal.
Behind the bridge are the Scharrebiersluis sluice gates, both the bridge and the sluice gates were constructed in 1906. The neighbourhood has about 3,000 inhabitants, there about 1,700 residences, primarily in the western part of the neighbourhood. Of those, 70% is rented, and the remaining 30% is privately owned, the eastern part of the neighbourhood is less residential, this area is dominated by offices and workshops. The many former warehouses and shipyards in the Kadijken are a reminder of the neighbourhoods past as an area of town dominated by shipping, Werfmuseum t Kromhout and Koning William, both on Hoogte Kadijk, are still in use as shipyards. The eastern hall of Werfmuseum t Kromhout is now a museum, the neighbourhood has a large number of rijksmonumenten, including the warehouses on Entrepotdok, the Sibbelwoningen on Hoogte Kadijk and a series of 17th- and 18th-century houses. In this area, a dike, the Nieuwe Zeedijk, had been constructed beyond the original Sint Antoniesdijk dike. A kadijk is the outer, lower dike within a set of two dikes to keep a river, from flooding.
During the city expansion, the Nieuwe Zeedijk was raised and the part was called Hoogte Kadijk. The Kadijken rapidly developed into an area dominated by shipyards, the south side was originally used for recreation, but from the early part of the 18th century this part of the neighbourhood was filled with warehouses and other buildings for storage of goods. In 1827 the Rapenburgergracht, as the canal along the edge of the neighbourhood was called, was taken over by the Dutch national government. The government established the Algemeen Rijksentrepot there, which allowed goods in transit to be stored and transferred from one ship to another without the need to pay excise duties
North Holland is a province in the northwest of the Netherlands. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, in 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163 and a total area of 2,670 km2. From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was a part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated, in the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland. At that time, the distinction between the Noorderkwartier and the Zuiderkwartier became common, in 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was drained and turned into land, the capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, and Amsterdam, the Netherlands capital city, is the provinces largest city. The Kings Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, there are 51 municipalities and three water boards in the province. For most of its history, the province of North Holland was an integral part of Holland.
From the 9th century to the 16th century, Holland was a county ruled by the counts of Holland, during this period an area known as West Friesland was conquered and integrated into Holland. For centuries afterwards Holland would be officially called Holland and West Friesland, the people of West Friesland had a strong sense of identity as a region within Holland. From the 16th century to 1795, Holland was the wealthiest and most important province in the United Provinces in the Dutch Republic, as the richest and most powerful province, Holland dominated the union. During this period a distinction was made between the North Quarter and the South Quarter, areas that roughly correspond to the two modern provinces. The province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813 and this was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795 the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established, in the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed.
The republic was reorganised into eight departments with roughly equal populations, Holland was split up into five departments named Texel, Delf, Schelde en Maas, and Rijn. The first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland, the two were made up of parts of different provinces. In 1801 the old borders were restored when the department of Holland was created and this reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province. This time the two departments were called Amstelland and Maasland and this did not last long
1928 Summer Olympics
The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but had to give way to wartorn Antwerp, the only other candidate city for the 1928 Games was Los Angeles, which would host the Olympics four years later. The United States Olympic Committee measured the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games in preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics. The committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million for a loss of US$18 and these Olympics were the first to be organised under the IOC presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour. For the first time, the Olympic Flame was lit during the Olympics, the torch relay, would not occur until the 1936 Summer Olympics. For the first time, the parade of nations started with Greece, which holds the origins of the Olympics, and ended with the host country, the Games were officially opened by Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina, who had authorized him to deputise for her.
This was the time a head of state had not personally officiated at an Olympic opening ceremony. The first at the games of 1904 in St. Louis, Missouri, in opposition he had refused offers by heads of state to do this, whereas the Queen refused as she was on holiday in Norway and did not want to disrupt her trip. The Queen was furious at the committee for not consulting with her about the opening date. Athletics events were held on a 400-meter track, becoming the standard for athletics tracks and these games were the first to feature a standard schedule of 16 days, which is still followed. Previously, competition had been stretched out several months. Johnny Weissmuller, who appeared in several Tarzan movies, won two gold medals in swimming. Paavo Nurmi of Finland won his ninth and final medal in the 10,000 m race. Canadas Percy Williams surprised everyone by winning both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events, south American football made a definite breakthrough, as Uruguay retained its title by defeating Argentina.
India took its first ever gold in the sport of field hockey, mikio Oda of Japan won the triple jump event with a result of 15.21 meters, becoming the first gold medalist from an Asian country. The Crown Prince Olav, King of Norway, was amongst the participants and he won a gold medal in sailing. Pat OCallaghan won newly independent Irelands first ever medal, taking gold in the hammer throw, the first appearance of the sponsor Coca-Cola at the Olympic Games. These games were the first to bear the name Summer Olympic Games, germany returned to the Olympic Games for the first time since 1912, after being banned from the 1920 and 1924 Games
The Jodenbuurt is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. For centuries before World War II, it was the center of the Jews of Amsterdam — hence and it is best known as the birthplace of Baruch Spinoza, the home of Rembrandt, and the Jewish ghetto of Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. But it grew to include parts of Nieuwmarkt, Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the Plantage, and Weesperzijde, especially after 1882, the first Jews to settle in Amsterdam were the Sephardim, who had been expelled from Portugal and Spain in 1593. They were joined in the decades by the Ashkenazi from Central and Eastern Europe. By 1612, the population was about 500 people but it doubled to about 1,000 in 1620, the Jews gave their new home, its Hebrew name, Mokum to show that they had finally felt at home in the city. So the Jews were allowed to build their own synagogues, the first of them was the Beth Jakob, built between 1602 and 1610, followed by the second synagogue, Neve Shalom, constructed between 1608 and 1612, and the third, Beth Israel, founded in 1618.
They were all hidden and therefore not visible from the streets, but the Jews were not alone in the Jodenbuurt. They were joined by several Christians, one of them was the artist Rembrandt, who was fascinated by the Biblical faces of his new neighbors. In 1641, a group of Franciscans came to establish a Catholic clandestine church in a house called Moses, known as the Jewish Church, it began as the Sint-Anthoniuskerk but it grew into the Mozes en Aäronkerk. It is still standing today at the Waterlooplein, on 8 November 1616, the Jews were made legal citizens by the City of Amsterdam. But they were not allowed to enter certain occupations, they were not permitted by the guilds of Amsterdam. So they were limited to street trading, book printing, from 1622, the synagogues began to cooperate for the good of the Jodenbuurt. On 3 April 1693, they merged their districts into a municipality under the name of Talmud Torah. In that year, they opened the first synagogue that was visible from the streets.
It stood on the Houtgracht, at the present Waterlooplein, next to the new synagogue on Nieuwe Amstelstraat was a meat market, where the residents of the neighborhood could buy their kosher meat. The Sephardi did not have knowledge about Judaism. They were not allowed to be Jews in Portugal and Spain, so in Amsterdam they sent for the rabbis to come out of Italy, North Africa, and the Ottoman Empire to teach them the ways of Judaism in the Jodenbuurt. The Portuguese Synagogue was the place where Spinoza was placed under the ban by the Sephardic Jewish community in 1656, because of their knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese, many of the Sephardim were involved with trade and plantations in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South America
The Jordaan is a neighbourhood of the city of Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is part of the borough of Amsterdam-Centrum, the area is bordered by the Lijnbaansgracht canal to the west, the Prinsengracht to the east, the Brouwersgracht to the north and the Leidsegracht to the south. The former canal Rozengracht is the main artery through the neighbourhood. Originally a working-class neighbourhood, the Jordaan has become one of the most expensive and it is home to many art galleries, particularly for modern art, and is dotted with speciality shops and restaurants. Markets are held regularly at Noordermarkt, the Westerstraat and Lindengracht, rembrandt spent the last years of his life in the Jordaan, on the Rozengracht canal. He was buried in the Westerkerk church, at the corner of Rozengracht and Prinsengracht, the Anne Frank House, where Anne Frank went into hiding during World War II, is located on the edge of the Jordaan, on the Prinsengracht canal. The most common theory on the origin of the name is as a derivation of the French word jardin, meaning garden, most streets and canals in the Jordaan are named after trees and flowers.
Another theory is that the Prinsengracht canal was once nicknamed Jordaan, the Jordaan has a high concentration of hofjes, many of them with restored houses and peaceful gardens. These courtyards were built by people for elderly women, as a kind of charity. By the 1970s most of these courtyards were in bad shape. Since then, many have been restored and are now inhabited mainly by artists, during the summer some of these yards are opened on Sundays during free concerts known as hofjesconcerten. Many houses in the Jordaan have a tablet on their facade. For instance a butcher displayed a pig and a tailor a pair of scissors, the first such stone tablets were made in the 16th century, when citizens were ordered to use these tablets instead of big wooden gables that obstructed the traffic in the narrow streets. Construction of the Jordaan began in 1612, when it was called Het Nieuwe Werck, the streets and canals were built according to the old ditches and paths, which explains its unusual orientation compared to the rest of the city.
In the 19th century, six of the Jordaans canals were filled in, the neighbourhood was traditionally a leftwing stronghold, with a stormy history. Heavy riots broke out in 1835,1886,1917 and 1934, the February strike of 1941 started with meetings on Noordermarkt square. The Jordaan had a music scene in the 20th century. Several of the most popular musicians now have a statue in their memory at the corner of Prinsengracht and Elandsgracht, the singer Willy Alberti is commemorated with a memorial plaque on the Westerkerk church