Blackjack is the American variant of a globally popular banking game known as Twenty-One, whose relatives include Pontoon and Vingt-et-Un. It is a comparing card game between several players and a dealer, where each player in turn competes against the dealer, but players do not play against each other, it is played with one or more decks of 52 cards, is the most played casino banking game in the world. The objective of the game is to beat the dealer in one of the following ways: Get 21 points on the player's first two cards, without a dealer blackjack. Players are each dealt two cards, face up or down depending on the casino and the table at which you sit. In the U. S. the dealer is dealt two cards one up and one down. In most other countries, the dealer receives one card face up; the value of cards two through ten is their pip value. Face cards are all worth ten. Aces can be worth eleven. A hand's value is the sum of the card values. Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands.
A hand with an ace valued as 11 is called "soft", meaning that the hand will not bust by taking an additional card. Otherwise, the hand is "hard". Once all the players have completed their hands, it is the dealer’s turn; the dealer hand will not be completed if all players have either received blackjacks. The dealer reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total 17 or more points. Players win by not busting and having a total higher than the dealer, or not busting and having the dealer bust, or getting a blackjack without the dealer getting a blackjack. If the player and dealer have the same total, this is called a "push", the player does not win or lose money on that hand. Otherwise, the dealer wins. Blackjack has many rule variations. Since the 1960s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players card counters, who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including pontoon.
Blackjack's precursor was a game of unknown origin. The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, most famous for writing Don Quixote. Cervantes was a gambler, the main characters of his tale "Rinconete y Cortadillo", from Novelas Ejemplares, are a couple of cheats working in Seville, they are proficient at cheating at veintiuna, state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace values 1 or 11. The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck; this short story was written between 1601 and 1602, implying that ventiuna was played in Castile since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier. References to this game are found in France and Spain; when twenty-one was introduced in the United States, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest. One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack; this hand was called a "blackjack", the name stuck to the game though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.
In the modern game, a blackjack refers to any hand of an ace plus a ten or face card regardless of suits or colors. The first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy was revealed in September 1956. Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott published a paper titled The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack in the Journal of the American Statistical Association; this paper would become the foundation of all future sound efforts to beat the game of blackjack. Ed Thorp would use Baldwin’s hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and publish his famous book Beat the Dealer. At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard 52-card decks are shuffled together. At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play; that is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting.
The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand. Any player is allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box. In many U. S. casinos, players are limited to playing two or three positions at a table and only one person is allowed to bet on each position. The dealer deals cards from his/her left to his/her far right; each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, to any other players. The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, in "hole card" games receives its second card face down, which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is a stretch of South Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada, known for its concentration of resort hotels and casinos. The Strip is 4.2 miles in length, located south of the Las Vegas city limits in the unincorporated towns of Paradise and Winchester. However, the Strip is referred to as being in Las Vegas. Many of the largest hotel and resort properties in the world are located on the Strip; the boulevard's cityscape is highlighted by its use of contemporary architecture, a wide variety of attractions. Its hotels, restaurants, residential high-rises, entertainment offerings, skyline have established the Strip as one of the most popular and iconic tourist destinations in the world. Most of the Strip has been designated as an All-American Road and is considered a scenic route at night; the casinos that were not in Downtown Las Vegas along Fremont Street were limited to outside the city limits on Las Vegas Boulevard. In 1959, the Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign was constructed 4.5 miles outside the city limits.
The sign is today located in the median just south of Russell Road, across from the now-demolished Klondike Hotel & Casino, about 0.4 miles south of the southernmost entrance to Mandalay Bay. In the strictest sense, "the Strip" refers only to the stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard, between Sahara Avenue and Russell Road, a distance of 4.2 miles. However, the term is used to refer not only to the road but to the various casinos and resorts that line the road, to properties that are not on the road but are in proximity to it. Phrases such as Strip Area, Resort Corridor or Resort District are sometimes used to indicate a larger geographical area, including properties 1 mile or more away from Las Vegas Boulevard, such as the Hard Rock, Rio and Hooters casinos. A long-standing definition considers the Strip's northern terminus as the SLS, though travel guides extend it to include the Stratosphere 0.4 miles to the north. Mandalay Bay, located just north of Russell Road, is the southernmost resort considered to be on the Strip.
Because of the number and size of the resorts, the resort corridor can be quite wide. Interstate 15 runs parallel and 0.5 to 0.8 miles to the west of Las Vegas Boulevard for the entire length of the Strip. Paradise Road runs to the east in a similar fashion, ends at St. Louis Avenue; the eastern side of the Strip is bounded by McCarran International Airport south of Tropicana Avenue. North of this point, the resort corridor can be considered to extend as far east as Paradise Road, although some consider Koval Lane as a less inclusive boundary. Interstate 15 is sometimes considered the western edge of the resort corridor from Interstate 215 to Spring Mountain Road. North of this point, Industrial Road serves as the western edge. Newer hotels and resorts such as South Point, Grandview Resort, M Resort are on Las Vegas Boulevard South as distant as 8 miles south of the "Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas" sign. Marketing for these casinos states that they are on southern Las Vegas Boulevard and not "Strip" properties.
The first casino to be built on Highway 91 was the Pair-o-Dice Club in 1931, but the first resort on what is the Strip was the El Rancho Vegas, opening on April 3, 1941, with 63 rooms. That casino/ resort stood for 20 years before being destroyed by a fire in 1960, its success spawned a second hotel on what would become the Strip, the Hotel Last Frontier in 1942. Organized crime figures such as New York's Bugsy Siegel took interest in the growing gaming center leading to other resorts such as the Flamingo, which opened in 1946, the Desert Inn, which opened in 1950; the funding for many projects was provided through the American National Insurance Company, based in the notorious gambling empire of Galveston, Texas. Las Vegas Boulevard South was called Arrowhead Highway, or Los Angeles Highway; the Strip was named by Los Angeles police officer and businessman Guy McAfee, after his hometown's Sunset Strip. Caesars Palace was established in 1966. In 1968, Kirk Kerkorian purchased the Flamingo and hired Sahara Hotels Vice President Alex Shoofey as President.
Alex Shoofey brought along 33 of Sahara's top executives. The Flamingo was used to train future employees of the International Hotel, under construction. Opening in 1969, the International Hotel, with 1,512 rooms, began the era of mega-resorts; the International is known as Westgate Las Vegas today. The first MGM Grand Hotel and Casino a Kerkorian property, opened in 1973 with 2,084 rooms. At the time, this was one of the largest hotels in the world by number of rooms; the Rossiya Hotel built in 1967 in Moscow, for instance, had 3,200 rooms. On November 21, 1980, the MGM Grand suffered the worst resort fire in the history of Las Vegas as a result of electrical problems, killing 87 people, it reopened eight months later. In 1986, Kerkorian sold the MGM Grand to Bally Manufacturing, it was renamed Bally's; the Wet'n Wild water park was located on the south side of the Sahara hotel. It closed at the end of the 2004 season and was demolished; the opening of The Mirage in 1989 set a new level to the Las Vegas experience, as smaller hotels and casinos made way for the larger mega-resorts.
The Rio and the Excalibur opened in 1990. These huge facil
New York-New York Hotel and Casino
New York-New York Hotel & Casino is a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Nevada, USA, designed to evoke New York City in its architecture and other aspects. It is operated by MGM Resorts International. New York-New York Hotel & Casino is located in Paradise, Nevada, it uses the New York City influence of its name in several ways. Its architecture is meant to evoke the New York City skyline of the 1940s era. In front of the property is a replica of the Statue of Liberty, replicas of the Soldiers and Sailors Monument, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Main Immigration Building on Ellis Island, Grand Central Terminal. Within the resort, particular gambling areas, lounges and meeting rooms are named after New York City neighborhoods or landmarks; the main casino area, for example, is named after Times Square, while the eateries are modeled after Greenwich Village. At the casino, special decks of playing cards are used; the resort is located on the northwest corner of the Tropicana – Las Vegas Boulevard intersection.
At street level, pedestrians are blocked from crossing by concrete barriers. Instead, it is linked by overhead pedestrian bridges to its neighboring casinos to the south and to the east; the 18-acre site at the northwest corner of the Tropicana – Las Vegas Boulevard intersection had been considered a prime spot for development due to its proximity to the MGM Grand and Tropicana. Japanese firm Universal Distributing owned the property, had discussed a joint venture with the Promus Companies to build a hotel-casino, but could not reach an agreement. In 1992, Kirk Kerkorian's Tracinda Corporation bought the site for $31.5 million and offered MGM Grand Inc. of which Kerkorian owned 76%, a free two-year option to buy it. The idea of a casino modeled after the New York skyline was conceived by Mark Advent. Rogich brought the idea to Gary Primm, head of Primadonna Resorts. Primm approached MGM president Bob Maxey in 1994 with the idea for MGM's prime Strip location, a joint venture was formed between the two companies.
Construction began in March 1995. Completed at a cost of $460 million, New York-New York opened on January 3, 1997. Since the initiation of New York-New York, analysts had speculated that MGM Grand or Primadonna would buy out the other's interest in the project. Instead of making such a cash-intensive purchase, however, MGM agreed to buy Primadonna outright for $276 million in stock plus $336 million in assumed debt; the merger closed in March 1999. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, people spontaneously sent various tributes to New York-New York T-shirts from police and rescue departments around the country; these were displayed along the fence in front of the "Lady Liberty" replica. They added a memorial from 2003 to 2013; the twin towers of the World Trade Center have never been included in the skyscrapers depicted in the resort's facade. The 9/11 Memorial was removed in 2013 for a casino expansion; the US Post Office Statue of Liberty Forever stamp, intended to show the actual Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor shows the replica at New York-New York.
This is due to an error by the stamp designers, who incorrectly chose a stock photo of the replica instead of the original and did not recognize the difference. After the error was recognized the Postal Service continued producing the stamp. A Postal Service spokesman said the Service “would have selected this photograph anyway", citing its popularity and the Postal Service's desire to produce a stamp that appeared different from previous stamps depicting the Statue of Liberty. In 2013 the sculptor of the statue in Las Vegas sued the Postal Service for copyright infringement, his lawyers pointed out that the replica is a distinct piece of art, with intentional variations from the original Statue of Liberty. In July 2018, a judge ordered the U. S. Postal Service to pay Davidson $3.5 million. The Roller Coaster "Manhattan Express", travels through the property's interior and exterior; the coaster is 203 ft high, has a maximum drop of 144 ft, reaches speeds up to 67 mph. The ride has undergone a variety of enhancements including the introduction of a magnetic braking system and new trains.
The roller coaster has trains. New York-New York is home to Zumanity, the third show from Cirque du Soleil to take up permanent residence in the Las Vegas area and the first to be directed toward adult audiences, it is the only permanent Cirque show to allow admission only to those over 18 years of age. The theatre is arranged as a cabaret, with sofas and bar stools complementing the standard theatre seats; until June 2010, an ESPN Zone was located in the hotel, accessible from street level and from within the casino. It was a sports-themed restaurant with an upstairs arcade room full of sports-themed interactive games such as bowling, football, golf, horse racing, auto racing. On October 10, 2010, the hotel re-opened the facility after an extensive remodeling and dubbed it "Sporting House", catering to the same sporting crowd; the new facility was staffed and maintained by ARK, the food-and-beverage firm which runs other in-house facilities, including the employee dining room. The Sporting House
Pool (cue sports)
Pool is a classification of cue sports played on a table with six pockets along the rails, into which balls are deposited. Each specific pool game has its own name; the generic term pocket billiards is sometimes used, favored by some pool-industry bodies, but is technically a broader classification, including games such as snooker, Russian pyramid, kaisa, which are not referred to as pool games. There are hybrid games combining aspects of both pool and carom billiards, such as American four-ball billiards, bottle pool, cowboy pool, English billiards; the etymology of "pool" is uncertain. The Oxford English Dictionary speculates that "pool" and other games with collective stakes is derived from the French poule, in which the poule is the collected prize; the oldest use of the word "pool" to describe a billiards-like game was made in 1797 in a Virginia newspaper. The OED defines it as "any of various types of billiards for two or more players" but goes on to note that the first specific meaning of "a game in which each player uses a cue ball of a distinctive colour to pocket the balls of the other player in a certain order, the winner taking all the stakes submitted at the start of the contest" is now obsolete, its other specific definitions are all for games that originate in the United States.
In the United States, although the original "pool" game, skittle pool, was played on a pocketless carom billiards table, the term stuck to all new games of pocket billiards as the sport gained in popularity, so outside the cue sports industry, which has long favored the more formal term pocket billiards, the common name for the sport has remained pool. The OxfordDictionaries.com definition no longer provides the obsolete meaning found in the print edition, refers only to the typical game "using two sets of seven coloured and numbered balls... with one black ball and a white cue ball" on a table with pockets. With the exception of one-pocket, games called "pool" today are descended from two English games imported to the United States at the beginning of the 19th century; the first was English billiards which became American four-ball billiards the same game but with an extra red object ball to increase scoring opportunities. It was the most popular billiards game in the mid-19th century until dethroned by the carom game straight rail.
American four-ball tournaments tried switching to carom tables in the 1870s but this did not save it from being doomed to obscurity, the last professional tournament was held in 1876. Cowboy pool is a surviving member of this group of games; the second and more influential game was pyramid pool. In the late 1830s, a variant called. Both games were supplanted by the immediate forerunner of straight pool. New games introduced at the turn of the 20th century include Kelly eight-ball; the distinctive appearance of pool balls with their many colors and division between solid and striped balls came about by 1889. Prior to this, object balls differentiated only by numbers. English pyramid pool and life pool players were the first to adopt balls with different colors; the stripes were the last addition. Pool is played on a six pocket table. Modern pool tables range in size from 3.5 feet by 7 feet, to 4.5 feet by 9 feet. The balls range from 2.25 inches in diameter to 2.375 inches in diameter. Under the WPA/BCA equipment specifications, the weight may be from 5.5 to 6 oz. with a diameter of 2.25 in.
Plus or minus 0.005 in.. Modern coin-operated pool tables use one of three methods to distinguish and return the cue ball to the front of the table while the numbered balls return to an inaccessible receptacle until paid for again: the cue ball is larger and heavier than the other balls, or denser and heavier, or has a magnetic core. Modern cue sticks are 58.5 inches long for pool while cues prior to 1980 were designed for straight pool and had an average length of 57.5 inches. By comparison, carom billiards cues are shorter with larger tips, snooker cues longer with smaller tips. In the United States, the most played game is eight-ball; the goal of eight-ball, played with a full rack of fifteen balls and the cue ball, is to claim a suit, pocket all of them legally pocket the 8 ball, while denying one's opponent opportunities to do the same with their suit, without sinking the 8 ball early by accident. In the United Kingdom the game is played in pubs, it is competitively played in leagues on both sides of the Atlantic.
The most prestigious tournaments including the World Open are sponsored and sanctioned by the International Pool Tour. Rules vary from place to place. Pool halls in North America are settling upon the World Pool-Billiard Association International Standardized Rules, but tavern eight-ball played on smaller, coin-operated tables and in a "winner keeps the table" manner, can differ even between two venues in the same city. The growth of local and national amateur leagues may alleviate this confusi
Flamingo Las Vegas
Flamingo Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. It is operated by Caesars Entertainment Corporation; the property includes a 72,300 square-foot casino along with 3,626 hotel rooms. The architectural theme is reminiscent of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne style of Miami and South Beach. Staying true to its theme, the hotel includes a garden courtyard which serves as a wildlife habitat for flamingos; the hotel was the third resort to open on the Strip and remains the oldest resort on the Strip in operation today. The Flamingo has a Las Vegas Monorail station called the Flamingo & Caesars Palace station at the rear of the property. After opening in 1946, it has undergone a number of ownership changes; the Flamingo site occupies 40 acres owned by one of Las Vegas' first settlers, Charles "Pops" Squires. Squires paid $8.75 an acre for the land. In 1944, Margaret Folsom bought the tract for $7,500 from Squires, she later sold it to Billy Wilkerson. Wilkerson was the owner of The Hollywood Reporter as well as some popular nightclubs in the Sunset Strip: Cafe Trocadero, Ciro's and La Rue's.
In 1945, Wilkerson purchased 33 acres on the east side of U. S. Route 91, or about a mile south of the Hotel Last Frontier, in preparation for his vision. Wilkerson hired George Vernon Russell to design a hotel influenced by European style. Wilkerson requested that the hotel be different than the "sawdust joints" on Fremont Street, he planned a hotel with luxurious rooms, a spa, a health club, a showroom, a golf course, a nightclub, an upscale restaurant and a French style casino. Because of high wartime material costs, Wilkerson ran into financial problems at once, finding himself $400,000 short and hunting for new financing. In late 1945, mobster Bugsy Siegel and his partners came to Las Vegas. Vegas piqued Siegel and his mob's interest because of its legalized gambling and off-track betting. At the time, Siegel held a large interest in a racing publication. Siegel began by purchasing El Cortez on Fremont Street for $600,000, his expansion plans were hampered by unfriendly city officials aware of his criminal background, so Siegel began looking for a site outside the city limits.
Hearing that Wilkerson was seeking extra funding and his partners posed as businessmen and directly bought a two-thirds stake in the project. Siegel took over the final phases of construction and convinced more of his underworld associates, such as Meyer Lansky to invest in the project. Siegel lost patience with the project's rising costs, he once mentioned to his builder, Del Webb, that he had killed 16 men; when Webb appeared scared upon hearing that, Siegel reassured him, "Don't worry – we only kill each other."Siegel had built a secret ladder in the "Presidential Suite" to escape if necessary. The ladder led down to an underground garage where a chauffeured limo was waiting. Siegel opened The Flamingo Hotel & Casino on December 26, 1946, at a total cost of $6 million. Billed as "The West's Greatest Resort Hotel", the 105-room property – and first luxury hotel on the Strip – was built 4 miles from Downtown Las Vegas. During construction, a large sign announced the hotel as a William R. Wilkerson project.
The sign read Del Webb Construction as the hotel's primary contractor and Richard R. Stadelman as the building architect. Siegel named the resort after his girlfriend, Virginia Hill, who loved to gamble and was nicknamed "Flamingo", it is reported that Siegel called her this because of her skinny legs. Organized crime king, Lucky Luciano, wrote in his memoir that Siegel once owned an interest in the Hialeah Park Race Track and viewed the flamingos who populated nearby as a good omen; the "Flamingo" name is reported to have been given to the project at its inception by Wilkerson. Siegel's trouble with the Flamingo began when, a year after its official groundbreaking, the resort had produced no revenue and drained the resources of its mob investors. Meyer Lansky charged – at a major mob conference in Cuba – that either Siegel or Hill was skimming from the resort's building budget; this charge was amplified at a time when Hill was revealed to have taken $2.5 million and had gone to Switzerland, where the skimmed money was believed to be going.
"There was no doubt in Meyer's mind," Luciano recalled in his memoir, "that Bugsy had skimmed this dough from his building budget, he was sure that Siegel was preparing to skip as well as skim, in case the roof was gonna fall in on him." Luciano and the other mob leaders in Cuba asked Lansky. Torn because of long ties to Siegel, whom he considered like a brother, Lansky agreed that someone stealing from his friends had to die. At first, Lansky persuaded the others to wait for the Flamingo's casino opening: if it was a success, Siegel could be persuaded in other ways to repay. Luciano persuaded the others to agree; the splashy opening – stars present included Spanish band leader Xavier Cugat, George Jessel, George Raft, Rose Marie, Jimmy Durante as entertainment, with guests including Clark Gable, Lana Turner, Cesar Romero, Judy Garland, Joan Crawford, others – was a flop. Lansky managed to persuade the mob chiefs to reprieve Siegel once more and allow the Flamingo more time, but by January 1947 Siegel had to order.
The Flamingo re-opened in March despite the hotel not being complete, this time, the results proved different. By May, the resort reported a $250,000 profit, allowing Lansky to point out that Siege
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most built near or combined with hotels, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated; some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy and sporting events. The term "casino" is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the term casino may mean summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming; the Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were outlawed in California by the time it was built.
The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre; the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess; the precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance; the first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season.
It was closed in 1774. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons; the creation and importance of saloons was influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco, it was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America's first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now America's second largest gambling city. Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, baccarat and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players; this can be expressed more by the notion of expected value, uniformly negative.
This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary comps to gamblers. Payout is the percentage of funds returned to players. Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house's money. Video Lottery Machines have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos; as of 2011 investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive. Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling. Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in "the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash".
Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested. Casino designer Roger Thomas is credited with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008, he broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space; the following li
Subway is an American held fast food restaurant franchise that sells submarine sandwiches and salads. Subway is one of the fastest-growing franchises in the world and, as of June 2017, had 42,000 stores located in more than 100 countries. More than half of the stores are located in the United States, it is the largest single-brand restaurant chain, the largest restaurant operator, in the world. As of 2017, the Subway Group of companies was organized as follows: Subway IP Inc. is the owner of the intellectual property for the restaurant system. Franchise World Headquarters, LLC leads franchising operations. FWH Technologies, LLC licenses Subway's point of sale software. Franchisors include Doctor's Associates Inc. in the U. S.. V.. Advertising affiliates include Subway Franchisee Advertising Fund Trust, Ltd.. V.. Subway's international headquarters are in Milford, with five regional centers supporting the company's international operations; the regional offices for European franchises are located in Amsterdam.
In 1965, Fred DeLuca borrowed $1,000 from friend Peter Buck to start "Pete's Super Submarines" in Bridgeport, in the following year, they formed Doctor's Associates Inc. to oversee operations of the restaurants as the franchise expanded. The holding company derives its name from DeLuca's goal to earn enough from the business to pay tuition for medical school, as well as Buck's having a doctorate in physics. Doctor's Associates is not affiliated with, any medical organization. In 1968, the sandwich shop was renamed "Subway"; the first Subway on the West Coast was opened in Fresno, California, in 1978. The first Subway outside of North America opened in Bahrain in December 1984; the first Subway in the United Kingdom was opened in Brighton in 1996. In 2004, Subway began opening stores in Walmart supercenters and surpassed the number of McDonald's locations inside U. S. Walmart stores in 2007. Since 2007, Subway has ranked in Entrepreneur magazine's Top 500 Franchises list. In 2015, it ranked #3 on the "Top Global Franchises" list and #1 as the "Fastest Growing Franchise".
At the end of 2010, Subway became the largest fast food chain worldwide, with 33,749 restaurants – 1,012 more than McDonald's. In January 2015, Suzanne Greco became president and CEO after her brother Fred DeLuca, the company’s first CEO, died of leukemia in September 2015 after being ill for two years. In 2016, Subway closed hundreds of restaurants in the U. S. experiencing a net loss in locations for the first time. However, with 26,744 locations, it remained the most ubiquitous restaurant chain in the U. S.. In 2016, Subway announced a new logo for the franchise, to be implemented in 2017. On July 17, 2017, Subway unveiled redesigned restaurants, dubbed "Fresh Forward." Features include self-order kiosks. The company is piloting the changes at 12 locations across the United States and the United Kingdom, with many features expected to be implemented into stores worldwide by the end of 2017. In 2017, the chain closed more than 800 of its U. S. locations. In April 2018, the chain announced. According Abha Bhattarai of The Washington Post, this is a result of three consecutive years of falling profits, foot traffic in Subway stores reduced by 25 percent since 2012.
Franchisees complained that the company's deep promotions further ate away at profits. Industry analysts like Bob Phibbs, chief executive of the New York-based consulting firm Retail Doctor, say changing tastes on the part of consumers, who more prefer locally sourced produce and hormone-free meat served by regional start-ups like Sweetgreen in metropolitan areas, are the cause of the drop in Subway's sales, as well as loss of market share to competitors; these include fast-casual eateries and sandwich shops like Panera Bread, Au Bon Pain and Firehouse Subs, as well as food trucks, grocery stores that offer freshly made meals at competitive prices. In January 2018, Subway invested $25 million in a re-branding campaign targeted at young consumers in order to revitalize its image and boost sales; as of June 2017, Subway had 44,000 stores worldwide, all independently owned. Located in 112 countries; these locations are concentrated in North America, with about 26,400 in the United States, as many U.
S. locations as McDonald’s and Starbucks combined. Outside North America, the countries with the most locations are Australia and the United Kingdom. Subway's core product is the submarine sandwich. In addition to these, the chain sells wraps, salad and baked goods. Subway's best-selling sandwich, the B. M. T. Contains pepperoni and ham; the name stood for Brooklyn Manhattan Transit, but now stands for "Biggest, Tastiest". Subway sells breakfast sandwiches, English muffins, flatbread. In 2006, "personal pizzas" debuted in some US markets; these are heated for 85 seconds. Breakfast and pizza items are only available in some stores. In November 2009