Germknödel is a fluffy yeast dough dumpling, filled with spiced plum jam and served with melted butter and a mix of poppy seeds and sugar on top. It is - though less traditional - served with vanilla cream sauce instead, it is a culinary specialty of Bavaria. The dish is served both as a main course. Germknödel is a spherical or bun-shaped dessert; the dessert's main ingredient is a yeast dough with sugar and fat butter, added to the dough. The dumpling is filled with Powidl, a sweet plum jam flavoured with cinnamon; the dumpling is steamed and served while still hot with either melted butter or vanilla dessert sauce, topped with crushed poppy seeds and sugar. The main difference between Germknödel and a related dish, Dampfnudel, is that the former is either steamed or boiled in salted water, whereas the latter is fried and steamed in a mixture of milk and butter. List of steamed foods Erhard Spacek, Neue böhmische Küche:...und Weine aus Böhmen und Mähren. 2005. ISBN 978-3-85002-545-4 Germknoedel recipe Traditional Austrian Germknödel with Powidl
A schnitzel is meat thinned by pounding with a meat tenderizer, fried in some kind of oil or fat. The term is most used to refer to meats coated with flour, beaten eggs and bread crumbs, fried, but some variants such as Walliser Schnitzel are not breaded. Originating in Austria, the breaded schnitzel is popular in many countries and made using either chicken, mutton, turkey, or pork, it is similar to the French dish escalope, tonkatsu in Japan, the milanesa of Mexico, Uruguay and Brazil. The German word Schnitzel, Middle High German Snitzel, is a diminutive of Sniz'slice'; the term Wiener Schnitzel itself dates to at least 1845. The dish called, it is made of veal and is traditionally garnished with a slice of lemon and either potato salad or potatoes with parsley and butter. The term Wiener Schnitzel is a protected geographical indication in Austria and Germany and can only be made of veal; when any other kind of meat is used, the dish must be called Wiener Schnitzel vom Schwein/Pute/Huhn or Schnitzel nach Wiener Art to differentiate it from the veal original.
The English term schnitzel means in general all types of fried flat pieces of meat. Due to the similarity between schnitzel and escalope, in many of the countries listed below, people sometimes refer to schnitzels as escalope, vice versa. In Latin American countries, this dish is called milanesa. Beef and chicken schnitzel are both popular dishes in Australia in pubs where they are among the most available meals. Chicken schnitzel is sold at many take-away establishments. Schnitzel in Australia is served in the form of parmigiana, a schnitzel topped with Italian tomato sauce and ham. At pubs, schnitzel is accompanied by chips and sometimes bacon. Plain and parmigiana schnitzels are sometimes known by colloquial names "Schnitty", "Schnitter", "Parma" or "Parmie". Wiener Schnitzel, a thin and pan fried cutlet made from veal, is one of the best known specialities of Viennese cuisine, is one of the national dishes of Austria. Other popular unbreaded variants in Austria are: Jägerschnitzel is a schnitzel with mushroom sauce.
Rahmschnitzel is a schnitzel with a cream sauce containing some mushrooms. Zigeunerschnitzel is a schnitzel with a zigeuner sauce containing tomato, bell peppers, onion slices. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the dish is called Bečka Šnicla or Bečki Odrezak and is made of veal or beef and served with mashed potatoes. Common garnishes include a slice of some lettuce. In Brazil, such preparations, designated à milanesa, are quite common in the more European-influenced southern region of the country; the meats of choice are beef or chicken, while veal and pork are rare. Called шницел, it is made from ground veal, formed as a thin patty, seasoned with salt and black pepper breaded and fried; the dish is served with a choice of mashed or roasted potatoes, French fries, or a tomato salad. It is common at truck stops, it is ordered à la carte, coming with a lemon wedge, but one can find it in the frozen sections in supermarkets or premade and ready to cook. Schnitzel presentations are called chuleta in Colombia.
They are composed of flat pieces of chicken, veal, or pork, covered with flour, deep-fried. The chuleta is a traditional dish of the Valle del Cauca region. In Croatia, the dish is called Bečki odrezak and it is made of pork and served with French fries. Common garnishes include a slice of some lettuce. A similar dish is called Zagrebački odrezak. Schnitzel is very popular in the Czech Republic, where it is known as a smažený řízek or just řízek, is made of pork, chicken, or veal, it is served with boiled or mashed potatoes or potato salad. It used to be and to some degree still is a typical packed lunch for day trips, when it was consumed with bread. During the communist period, a deep-fried breaded hard cheese called smažený sýr became popular among the youth and students served with tartar sauce, a slice of lemon, boiled new potatoes with melted butter and parsley greens. In Denmark, the dish is called skinkeschnitzel when made of pork and wienerschnitzel when made of veal, is served with fried potatoes, green or snow peas, a "boy" consisting of a lemon slice topped with capers, a slice of anchovy.
In Finland, the dish called Wieninleike, is always made of pork and fried like the original. It is served with French fries, potato mash, or wedge potatoes. A slice of lemon, a slice of anchovy, a few capers are placed on top of the cutlet; the dish includes a small amount of salad made from fresh vegetables. The dish was popular between the end of the Second World War and the 1990s, when it could be found in any low-end restaurant across Finland. In the past decades, its popularity has been dimmed by the rise of fast food; however Wieninleike and its different variations remain a staple of menus in any non-ethnic or fine dining restaurant in Finland. Lunch restaurants, different highway resting places and restau
Buchteln, are sweet rolls made of yeast dough, filled with jam, ground poppy seeds or curd and baked in a large pan so that they stick together. The traditional Buchtel is filled with plum Powidl jam. Buchteln are eaten plain and warm. Buchteln are served as a dessert but can be used as a main dish; the origin of the Buchteln is the region of Bohemia, but they play a major part in the Austrian, Slovak and Hungarian cuisine too. In Bavaria the Buchteln are called Rohrnudeln, in Slovenian buhteljni, in Serbian buhtle or buhtla, in Hungarian bukta, in Kajkavian buhtli, in Croatian buhtle, in Polish buchta, in Czech buchta or buchtička. Apfelstrudel Börek Gibanica Kaiserschmarrn Millirahmstrudel Palatschinken Buchtel Buchteln - sweet yeast dumplings, incl. Recipe Bosnian buhtle recipe
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients and dishes, associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu and Jewish dietary laws, can exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region; some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish; the area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon, cardamom and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 4,000 years ago. Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried. Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity.
As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture. Cuisines evolve continually, new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s. Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine, popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines; the term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine, introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.
It is named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes; the introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end of the 17th century influencing Sichuan cuisine, which combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent. A global cuisine is a cuisine, practiced around the world, can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains and cooking fats. Regional cuisines can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall cultural differences; such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and South America, both fresh and dried, is a staple food, is used in many different ways.
In northern Europe, wheat and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe olive oil is ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by noodles and bread. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include lamb, olive oil, lemons and rice; the vegetarianism practiced in much of India has made pulses such as chickpeas and lentils as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extenive use of spices is characteristic. African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally; the continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include rice, garlic, sesame seeds, dried onions and tofu. Stir frying, steaming
Trdelník or trdlo is a kind of spit cake. It is made from rolled dough, wrapped around a stick grilled and topped with sugar and walnut mix. Trdelník originates from the cuisine of the Hungarian speaking part of Transylvania, where it is called kürtőskalács. After 2010 it has penetrated to many places popular for tourists in Slovakia; the word trdelník is of Czech-Slovak origin. Nowadays, trdelník is popular among tourists as a sweet pastry in many countries in the Czech Republic. Alternative versions, with fillings such as ice cream, has been spreading in popularity from its origin in Prague after 2010; the version from the Slovak town of Skalica was registered in December 2007 as a PGI in the European Union. The registration application with the detailed description of the product was published in April 2007 in the Official Journal of the European Union. Although trdelník is presented as "a traditional Czech cake" or "the old Bohemian pastry", the mass spread of this dessert in Prague is recognized to have started at some point around 2010.
The local populations in the Czech Republic have never heard of trdelník, so the mass spread of trdelník can be considered a symptom of mass tourism — a marketing trick, scam or a tourist trap. Sellers make tourists think that they are eating something traditional. Czech cinematographer and reporter Janek Rubeš says that trdelník is only made for tourists, arguing that the hamburger is more traditional in the Czech Republic, he says in the video for tourists on his YouTube channel Honest Guide: "Ask any Czech grandmother, how she was making this... NEVER Just keep in mind. Ok? It came with you." The production of trdelník has a long tradition in the Slovak town of Skalica near the border with the Czech Republic. The original recipe was owned by the cook of József Gvadányi a retired Hungarian general what is resident of Skalica at the end of the 18th century; the original recipe was improved by the inhabitants of Skalica to its final form now known as Skalický trdelník. The civil association Skalický trdelník was founded at the end of 2004 with the goal of keeping the tradition of the original open fire Trdelník production.
Hungary - Known in Hungary as Kürtőskalács Austria - Known in Austria as Prügelkrapfen Germany - Known in Germany as Baumstriezel Luxembourg - known in Luxembourg as Baamkuch, has become a traditional dish served on special occasions, such as weddings. Poland - Sękacz is a similar cake cooked on a spit over an open fire. Lithuania - Šakotis or Raguolis is made but looks, tastes and is eaten different. Romania - Colac secuiesc is a similar cake cooked on a spit. Turkey - Known in Turkey as makara Israel - Known in Israel as kyortush South Africa - Known in South Africa as stokbrood List of spit-roasted foods History of trdelník
Bread pudding is a bread-based dessert popular in many countries' cuisines, made with stale bread and milk or cream containing eggs, a form of fat such as oil, butter or suet, depending on whether the pudding is sweet or savory, a variety of other ingredients. Sweet bread puddings may use sugar, honey, dried fruit, nuts, as well as spices such as cinnamon, mace, or vanilla; the bread is soaked in the liquids, mixed with the other ingredients, baked. Savory puddings may be served as main courses, while sweet puddings are eaten as desserts. In other languages, its name is a translation of "bread pudding" or just "pudding", for example "pudín" or "budín". In the Philippines, banana bread pudding is popular. In Mexico, there is a similar dish eaten during Lent called capirotada. In the United Kingdom, it is said to be a moist version of Nelson Cake, hence the nickname, "Wet Nelly". In Belgium Brussels, it is baked with brown sugar, old bread, raisins or apple. In Canada, bread pudding is sometimes made with maple syrup.
In Hong Kong, bread pudding is served with vanilla cream dressing. In Hungary, it is called'Máglyarakás', baked with whipped egg whites on top of it. In Malaysia, bread pudding is eaten with custard sauce. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, black bread is used to make "black bread pudding". In Puerto Rico, bread pudding is soaked over night in coconut milk and served with a guava rum sauce. In the United States Louisiana, bread puddings are sweet and served as dessert with a sweet sauce of some sort, such as whiskey sauce, rum sauce, or caramel sauce, but sprinkled with sugar and eaten warm in squares or slices. Sometimes, bread pudding is served warm topped with or alongside a dollop of whipped cream or a scoop of vanilla ice cream. In Panama, bread pudding is known as "mamallena". In Aruba, bread pudding is known as "pan bolo". In Cuba, bread pudding is known as "pudín" and many serve it with a guava marmalade. In Argentina, bread pudding is known as "budin de pan"
Zora Mintalová – Zubercová
Dr. Zora Mintalová – Zubercová is a Slovak ethnographer and museologist, specializing in the fields of Food History and Material culture of Central Europe. Dr. Mintalová - Zubercová, together with her colleagues from the Ethnological Institute at the Slovak Academy of Sciences, is a recipient of the 1991 National Medal of Science of the Slovak Republic, for the work Etnografický Atlas Slovenska, in 1994 made into a documentary film, she is the founder of the Slovak Red Cross Museum. Dr. Zora Mintalová – Zubercová is married and has a son. Mintalová-Zubercová graduated in 1974 from the Faculty of Arts at the Comenius University in Bratislava earning a Prom. Etnograf degree in Ethnography and History, she started working the same year as a Research Assistant at the Ethnographic Institute of the Slovak National Museum. After earning her PhDr. in Ethnography and History in 1980 from the Comenius University in Bratislava, she was promoted to a Research Scientist. Because of her mother’s gentry background, she was not allowed to hold any major scientific positions during the socialist era in Czechoslovakia.
After the Velvet revolution of 1989, the fall of the Communist party, she became a Senior Scientist and in 1990 the head of the main Scientific-Research department of the Slovak National Museum. This led to her scientific co-operation with many regional and international scientific organizations as the Slovak Academy of Sciences. During her career at the Slovak National Museum she participated in more than 29 international and national Scientific-research tasks as a Principal Investigator an Co-Investigator, curatored and co-authored more than 50 museum exhibitions in Slovakia and abroad including Cuba, Germany, Italy etc. From 1996 to 2000, she served as the Vice director of the Slovak National Museum in Martin. In the year 2000, she was entrusted by the Supreme Body of the Slovak Red Cross to found the Slovak Red Cross Museum. Two years she was appointed to serve as the first director of the newly established museum. Dr. Mintalová-Zubercová retired from her active scientific career in 2009, but still continues to work in the field of food history research.
She serves on the board of National Culture of the Slovak Republic. Award of the Slovak ethnographic society at the Slovak Academy of Sciences in the category exhibitions for „Z kuchyne starých matiek“, 1987 Ciechanów Voivodeship Medal of Merit, Ciechanów - Poland, 1987 National Medal of Science of the Slovak Republic, 1991,. Selection: Z ľudovej kultúry Turca, ISBN 80-7090-760-6 Red Cross in Slovakia in the years 1919-1938, ISBN 80-969221-9-X. Red Cross in Slovakia in the years 1939-1947, ISBN 80-89208-03-7. Z turčianskej kuchyne, ISBN 978-80-89208-64-7 Veľká kniha slovenských Vianoc, ISBN 978-80-89208-92-0 Všetko okolo stola I. ISBN 978-80-89208-94-4 Všetko okolo stola II. ISBN 978-80-81150-13-5 Vianoce na Slovensku, ISBN 978-80-556-0444-2