Federal Intelligence Service (Germany)
The Federal Intelligence Service is the foreign intelligence agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Chancellor's Office. The BND headquarters is located in central Berlin and is the world's largest intelligence headquarters; the BND has 300 locations in foreign countries. In 2016, it employed around 6,500 people, 10% of them Bundeswehr soldiers, who are employed by Amt für Militärkunde; the budget of the BND for 2019 is € 966.482 million. The BND was founded during the Cold War in 1956 as the official foreign intelligence agency of West Germany, which had joined NATO, it was the successor to the earlier Gehlen Organization known as "The Organization" or "The Org.", whose existence had not been acknowledged. The most central figure in the BND's history was Reinhard Gehlen, the leader of the Gehlen Organization and the founding president of the BND, regarded as "one of the most legendary Cold War spymasters." From the early days of the Cold War the Gehlen Organization and the BND had an intimate cooperation with the CIA, was the western intelligence community's only eyes and ears on the ground in the eastern bloc.
The BND is regarded as one of the best informed intelligence services in regards to the Middle East from the 1960s. The BND was established as the western's world's second largest intelligency agency, second only to the CIA. Both Russia and the Middle East remain important focuses of the BND's activities, in addition to violent non-state actors; the BND today acts as an early warning system to alert the German government to threats to German interests from abroad. It depends on wiretapping and electronic surveillance of international communications, it collects and evaluates information on a variety of areas such as international non-state terrorism, weapons of mass destruction proliferation and illegal transfer of technology, organized crime and drug trafficking, money laundering, illegal migration and information warfare. As Germany's only overseas intelligence service, the BND gathers both military and civil intelligence. While the Strategic Reconnaissance Command of the Bundeswehr fulfills this mission, it is not an intelligence service.
There is close cooperation between the BND and the KSA. The domestic secret service counterparts of the BND are the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and 16 counterparts at the state level Landesämter für Verfassungsschutz; the predecessor of the BND was the German eastern military intelligence agency during World War II, the Abteilung Fremde Heere Ost or FHO Section in the General Staff, led by Wehrmacht Major General Reinhard Gehlen. Its main purpose was to collect information on the Red Army. After the war Gehlen worked with the U. S. occupation forces in West Germany. In 1946 he set up an intelligence agency informally known as the Gehlen Organization or "The Org" and recruited some of his former co-workers. Many had been operatives of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris' wartime Abwehr organization, but Gehlen recruited people from the former Sicherheitsdienst, SS and Gestapo, after their release by the Allies; the latter recruits were controversial because the SS and its associated groups were notoriously the perpetrators of many Nazi atrocities during the war.
The organization worked at first exclusively for the CIA, which contributed funding, cars and other materials. On 1 April 1956 the Bundesnachrichtendienst was created from the Gehlen Organization, was transferred to the West German government, with all staff. Reinhard Gehlen became President of the BND and remained its head until 1968. In the first years of oversight by the State Secretary in the federal chancellery of Konrad Adenauer of the operation in Pullach, Munich District, the BND continued the ways of its forebear, the Gehlen Organization; the BND racked up its initial East-West cold war successes by concentrating on East Germany. The BND's reach encompassed the highest military levels of the GDR regime, they knew the carrying capacity of every bridge, the bed count of every hospital, the length of every airfield, the width and level of maintenance of the roads that Soviet armor and infantry divisions would have to traverse in a potential attack on the West. Every sphere of eastern life was known to the BND.
Unsung analysts at Pullach, with their contacts in the East, figuratively functioned as flies on the wall in ministries and military conferences. When the Soviet KGB suspected an East German army intelligence officer, a lieutenant colonel and BND agent, of spying, the Soviets investigated and shadowed him; the BND was positioned and able to inject forged reports implying that the loose spy was the KGB investigator, arrested by the Soviets and shipped off to Moscow. Not knowing how long the caper would stay under wraps, the real spy was told to be ready for recall; the East German regime, fought back. With still unhindered flight to the west a possibility, infiltration started on a grand scale and a reversal of sorts took hold. During the early 1960s as many as 90% of the BND's lower-level informants in East Germany worked as double agents for the East German security service known as Stasi. Several informants in East Berlin reported in June and July 1961 of street closures, clearing of field
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 18.104.22.168 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
Nevertherless, archive.is controls or deletes web pages saved some days before, without any policy or right of discussion and appeal. While saving a dynamic list, archive.is searchbox shows only a result that links the previous and the following section of the list. The other web pages saved are filtered, sometimes may be found by one of their occurrences. Digital preservation Internet Archive Link rot Perma.cc Wayback Machine Web archiving WebCite WP:Link rot Official website "Offline blog"
Ciril Zlobec was a Slovene poet, translator and former politician. He has published several volumes of poetry. In 1990 he became a member of the Presidency of Slovenia at a critical time for Slovene independence. Zlobec was born in 1925 in the village of Ponikve on the Karst Plateau in what was the Julian March region of the Kingdom of Italy, he attended school in Koper. He was expelled from school in 1941 for writing poetry in Slovene, the use of, forbidden under the policies of Fascist Italianization. During the Second World War he was an activist for the Slovene Liberation Front and joined the Partisans. After the war he completed his studies and graduated from the University of Ljubljana in 1953, he worked as a journalist and translator, publishing numerous collections of poetry as well as two novels. In 1989 he was made a member of the Slovenian Academy of Arts, he rose to public prominence in 1953, as one of the four co-authors of the collection of poetry called "The Poems of the Four". The collection marked a turning point in the Slovene post-war culture, as it represented a break with the hitherto imposition of Socialist realism as the sole style in literature.
The other three poets who participated in the project were Kajetan Kovič, Janez Menart and Tone Pavček. Zlobec won the Prešeren Foundation Award in 1965 for his poetry collection Najina oaza and the Grand Prešeren Award in 1982 for his poetry collection Glas. In the 1970s and 1980s, he served as the editor of the intellectual and cultural journal Sodobnost. In 1990, Zlobec joined the Socialist Party of Slovenia and ran for the Slovenian Presidency, an advisory body to the President of the Republic, he was considered a close ally of the President Milan Kučan. After 1992, he retired from political life, he was the father of the activist, author and politician Jaša Zlobec. Pesmi štirih co-authored with Janez Menart, Kajetan Kovič and Tone Pavček Pobeglo otroštvo Ljubezen Najina oaza Pesmi jeze in ljubezni Čudovita pustolovščina Dve žgoči sonci Vračanja na Kras Kras Pesmi Glas Pesmi ljubezni Beseda Nove pesmi Rod Moja kratka večnost Ljubezen dvoedina Stopnice k tebi Skoraj himne Ti – jaz – midva Mojih sedemdeset Samo ta dan imam Čudež telovzetja Moška leta našega otroštva Moj brat svetnik Spomin kot zgodba, autobiographical novel, Media related to Ciril Zlobec at Wikimedia Commons
Belgian General Information and Security Service
The General Intelligence and Security Service, known in Dutch as Algemene Dienst Inlichting en Veiligheid, in French as Service Général du Renseignement et de la Sécurité is the Belgian military intelligence service under responsibility of the Minister of Defence. It is one of two Belgian intelligence services, together with the civilian Belgian State Security Service; the military head of the GISS is called the Assistant Chief of Staff Intelligence and Security, part of the Defense Staff of the Belgian military. Air Force Lieutenant-General Claude Van de Voorde is the current chief, appointed in 2017. Belgian military intelligence has antecedents going back to the foundation of the Belgian Army in 1830, but the current service traces its establishment to 1915 at the front during World War I, it was referred to, like its immediate predecessor of 1910, as the 2nd Bureau of the General Staff It was charged with counterespionage and the internal security of the Belgian Army. During World War I the service undertook the army's intelligence operations and coordinated resistance activities behind enemy lines.
After the Armistice the service was responsible for the security of the Belgian troops participating in the occupation of the Ruhr area. In 1923 it was involved in the attempted Rhineland independence coup. With its counterespionage tasks the 2nd Bureau entered into a rivalry with the civilian State Security service, but a scandal caused by the bureau's forging of military plans against Holland and Germany which had fallen into the hands of the Dutch press, led to the suppression of the service and the transfer of its tasks to the civilian intelligence agency in 1929. The threat of renewed conflict saw to the resurrection of military intelligence in 1937 to cope with a surge in German espionage. In January of 1940, the service acquired the Luftwaffe's instructions to Fall Gelb, the German invasion of France and Belgium, as the plane carrying the courier crash landed on Belgian soil; the burnt plans allowed to deduce by what movements the three countries would be taken by the Nazi onslaught. Despite an attempt to hide their capture from the Germans, Hitler postponed the invasion to the spring.
The Belgians shared the plans with the Dutch and British. When the invasion did happen in May, it turned out it differed little from what could be gleaned from the documents captured the previous winter; the intelligence officers who made it to England would once again coordinate resistance activities on occupied soil. The 2nd Bureau would cooperate with the Special Operations Executive. It's effectiveness was hampered however by the distrust of the Belgian government in exile who favoured working through the civilian State Security; the reason was the government's conflict with King Leopold III, who had chosen to stay in Belgium after surrendering and had become a prisoner of the Nazis. The government feared the military service would be too loyal to the king their commander-in-chief and deemed it a security risk; the State Security would relegate the 2nd Bureau to processing filtered intelligence, while both rivals would not communicate about what they were doing in Belgium with their resistance groups.
The 2nd became so frustrated with the State Security's primacy that a High Commissioner had to be appointed to coordinate the two intelligence services and get them to fight the war against the Nazis rather than a war against each other. After the war the service occupied itself with the pursuit of collaborators. After a peacetime reorganisation of the General Staff in 1947, it was now called the Service Général du Renseignement, it had started taking an interest in the rise of the communist movement and entered into cooperation with private intelligence services dedicated to monitoring communists. The SGR undertook intelligence operations in support of the Belgian contingent participating in the Korean War. At home the service was made responsible for the military side of the NATO-led operation Stay Behind preparing for a possible Soviet invasion of the West: influenced by and co-operating with the British and American secret services, this was the job of the Service de Documentation, Renseignement et de l’Action VIII.
When the Belgian General Staff was reformed in 1964 the SGR was restructured and consisted of a division for intelligence, security and the Army archive. The coming to Belgium of NATO in 1968, which coincided with the growing importance of the European Community, drastically changed the intelligence and security outlook of the country; the added international dimension would involve increased spying activity and turn Brussels into a target for terrorism. Anglo-American concerns about the services’ ability to cope with the expanded portfolio had to be alleviated with an increase in their resources, some of which would be paid for with American money. Belgian military personnel as well as officials from the other ministries now had easy access to the international organizations, which made them a primary target for Warsaw Pact spies. While the State Security was responsible for most of this activity, military counterespionage fell to SDRA III of the SGR. In 1974 the SGR was made responsible for the establishment of the Public Information Office, a PR organisation by which the defence ministry sought to address the criticisms directed at the military by pacifist and communist movements.
Symptomatic of the SGR’s obsession with the left, the service involved its associates in the right-wing private intelligence entities and other shady anti-communist organisations, which took over the PIO when the ministry abolished it in 1979. During the 1980s, a number of incidents inclu
Australian Secret Intelligence Service
The Australian Secret Intelligence Service is Australia's foreign intelligence agency. ASIS was formed in 1952, but its existence remained secret within the Government until 1972. ASIS is part of the Australian Intelligence Community responsible for the collection of foreign intelligence, including both counter-intelligence and liaising with the intelligence agencies of other countries. In these roles, ASIS is comparable to the British Secret Intelligence Service, Canada's Canadian Security Intelligence Service and the American Central Intelligence Agency. According to its website, the mission of ASIS is to "protect and promote Australia's vital interests through the provision of unique foreign intelligence services as directed by the Australian Government."ASIS is part of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio and its head, the Director-General, is directly responsible to the Minister for Foreign Affairs. The headquarters of ASIS is within DFAT's headquarters in Canberra, its current Director-General is Paul Symon.
On 13 May 1952, in a meeting of the Executive Council, Prime Minister Robert Menzies established ASIS by executive order under s 61 of the Constitution, appointing Alfred Deakin Brookes as the first Director-General of ASIS. The existence of ASIS remained secret within the Government until 1972, its Charter of 15 December 1954 described ASIS's role as "to obtain and distribute secret intelligence, to plan for and conduct special operations as may be required". ASIS was expressly required to "operate outside Australian territory." A Ministerial Directive of 15 August 1958 indicated that its special operations role included conducting "special political action." It indicated that the organisation would come under the control and supervision of the Minister for External Affairs rather than the Minister for Defence. At the time, ASIS was modeled on the United Kingdom Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6. ASIS was at one time referred to as MO9. On 1 November 1972, the existence of ASIS was sensationally exposed by The Daily Telegraph which ran an exposé regarding recruitment of ASIS agents from Australian universities for espionage activities in Asia.
Soon after The Australian Financial Review published a more in-depth piece on the Australian Intelligence Community. It stated that "he ASIS role is to disseminate facts only, it is not supposed to be in the analytical or policy advising business though this is difficult to avoid at times." The Ministerial Statement of 1977 stated that the "main function" of ASIS was to "obtain, by such means and subject to such conditions as are prescribed by the Government, foreign intelligence for the purpose of the protection or promotion of Australia or its interests."On 21 August 1974, Prime Minister Gough Whitlam established the First Hope Commission to investigate the country's intelligence agencies. On 25 October 1977, Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser publicly announced the existence of ASIS and its functions on a recommendation of the Hope Royal Commission. In 1992 two reports were prepared on ASIS by officers within the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet and Office of National Assessments for the Secretaries Committee on Intelligence and Security and the Security Committee of Cabinet.
The Richardson Report in June examined the roles and relationships of the collection agencies in the post Cold War era. The Hollway Report in December examined shortfalls in Australia's foreign intelligence collection. Both reports endorsed the structure and roles of the organisations and commended the performance of ASIS; the Intelligence Services Act 2001 converted ASIS to a statutory body. The Act set out the functions of the limits on those functions. Use of weapons by ASIS were prohibited. Conduct of violent or para-military operations was curtailed; the Act authorised the responsible minister to issue directions to the agency. Ministerial authorisation is required for intelligence collection activities involving Australians but limited the circumstances in which this could be done; the Act requires the responsible minister to make rules regulating the communication and retention of intelligence information concerning Australian persons, provides for the establishment of a parliamentary oversight committee called the Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD.
The Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004 removed ISA prohibitions on ASIS operatives carrying firearms, but only for protection. Three Royal Commissions have examined, among other things, ASIS and its operations: in 1974 and 1983, in 1994. On 21 August 1974, the Whitlam Government appointed Justice Robert Hope to conduct a Royal Commission into the structure of Australian security and intelligence services, the nature and scope of the intelligence required and the machinery for ministerial control and coordination of the security services; the Hope Royal Commission delivered eight reports, four of which were tabled in Parliament on 5 May 1977 and 25 October 1977. Aside from the observation that ASIS was'singularly well run and well managed', the report on ASIS were not released. Results from the other reports included the Aus
Matjaž Šinkovec is a Slovenian diplomat, translator and science fiction writer. He was one of the co-founders of the Slovenian Democratic Party. Šinkovec was born in a middle class family in Ljubljana part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. He attended the Poljane Grammar School in Ljubljana, where he was classmate of the historian and politician Vasko Simoniti, he enrolled at the University of Ljubljana. In 1976 he obtained his MA in English literature. In 1974, he got employed as journalist in the daily newspaper Delo, but soon quit in disaccordance of its editorial policy. For the following years, he could not get a regular job due to his critical stance towards the Titoist regime, he earned his living as a freelance author of science fiction short stories. Among others, he translated novels by Kurt Vonnegut into Slovene language. In 1978, he was employed as an official translator in the Secretary for Foreign Cooperation of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. In 1984, he started working at the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Slovenia, becoming one of the closest collaborators of its chairman France Tomšič who aimed at transforming the Confederation into a politically independent trade union, akin to the Polish Solidarity.
In 1989, he was one of the co-founders of the Slovenian Social Democratic Party, together with France Tomšič and Jože Pučnik. A strong supporter of the unification of all democratic political forces in Slovenia against in opposition to the ruling Communist Party, he is considered to be the author of the name of the DEMOS coalition, founded in December 1989 as a common electoral platform of five largest Slovenian opposition parties. In the first democratic elections in 1990, Šinkovec was elected as an MP on the list of his Social Democratic Party. Between 1990 and 1992, he served as the leader of the parliamentary group of the Social Democratic Party of Slovenia and as president of the Parliamentary Committee for Foreign Affairs. Between 1991 and 1992, he was the chief negotiator for independent Slovenia on the International Conference on former Yugoslavia led by lord Carrington. In the same period, he served as head of the first Slovenian delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.
After 1992, Šinkovec entered the diplomatic service. Between 1992 and 1997, he served as the first Slovenian ambassador to the United Kingdom. In 1997 he took over the sector of security policy in the Slovenian Foreign Ministry. In 1999 he became the permanent representative of Slovenia to NATO and in 2004. In April 2006, he was appointed as the head of the Slovenian Security Agency; as chairman of the Agency, Šinkovec carried out several investigation on the activities of the Secret Service during the decade of centre-left governments, with an emphasis on the abuses of the Secret Service for political purposes. In 2007, he was relieved from office and appointed as a personal advisor of prime minister Janez Janša. Šinkovec has two sons. Besides Slovene, he is fluent in English, Serbo-Croatian and Portuguese. Foreign relations of Slovenia Politics of Slovenia NATO Who's Who. Video profile on the webportal 24ur.com