Qantas Airways is the flag carrier airline of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920, the Qantas name comes from QANTAS, an acronym for its original name and Northern Territory Aerial Services, and it is nicknamed The Flying Kangaroo. Qantas is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance. The airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot with its hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14. 9% of all passengers travelling in, various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Its subsidiary Jetconnect provides services between Australia and New Zealand, flying under the Qantas brand, Qantas was founded in Winton, Queensland on 16 November 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.
The airlines first aircraft was an Avro 504K, in 1920 Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd had its headquarters in Winton before moving to Longreach, Queensland in 1921 and Brisbane in 1930. In 1934, QANTAS and Britains Imperial Airways formed a new company, the new airline commenced operations in December 1934, flying between Brisbane and Darwin. QEA flew internationally from May 1935, when the service from Darwin was extended to Singapore, after World War II began, enemy action and accidents destroyed half of the fleet of ten, when most of the fleet was taken over by the Australian government for war service. Flying boat services were resumed in 1943, with flights between Swan River and Koggala lake in Ceylon and this linked up with the British Overseas Airways Corporation service to London. Qantas kangaroo logo was first used on the Kangaroo Route, begun in 1944, from Sydney to Karachi, in 1947, QEA was nationalised by the Australian government led by Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley.
QANTAS Limited was wound up, after nationalisation, Qantas remaining domestic network, in Queensland, was transferred to the nationally owned Trans Australian Airlines, leaving Qantas with a purely international network. Shortly after nationalisation, QEA began its first services outside the British Empire – to Tokyo, Services to Hong Kong began around the same time. In 1957 a head office, Qantas House, opened in Sydney, in June 1959 Qantas entered the jet age when the first Boeing 707-138 was delivered. On 14 September 1992, Qantas merged with nationally owned domestic airline, the airline started to be rebranded to Qantas in the following year. Qantas was gradually privatised between 1993 and 1997, under the legislation passed to allow the privatisation, Qantas must be at least 51% owned by Australian shareholders. In 1998, Qantas co-founded the oneworld alliance with American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, the main domestic competitor to Qantas, Ansett Australia, collapsed on 14 September 2001.
Market share for Qantas immediately neared 90%, but with the entry of new budget airline Virgin Blue into the domestic market, in 2004, the Qantas group expanded into the Asian budget airline market with Jetstar Asia Airways, in which Qantas owns a minority stake
International Trade Union Confederation
The International Trade Union Confederation is the worlds largest trade union federation. It was formed on 1 November 2006, out of the merger of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, the Founding Congress of the ITUC was held in Vienna and was preceded by the dissolution congresses of both the ICFTU and the WCL. The ITUC represents 176 million workers through its 328 affiliated organisations within 162 countries and territories, Sharan Burrow is the current General Secretary. Also in 2014, the ITUC debuted the Global Rights Index, which ranks nations on 97 metrics pertaining to rights, such as freedom from violent conditions. The founding congress of the ITUC was held from 1 to 3 November 2006 in Vienna, the first day of the congress saw the formal creation of the ITUC followed by an address by Juan Somavia, the Director-General of the International Labour Organization. Technical difficulties limited Lamys satellite video link participation and officers were elected on the final day of the congress.
Guy Ryder, the general secretary of the ICFTU, was elected to the same position in the new organisation. A Governing Council was established, with 70 elected members, and 8 additional seats reserved for youth, a Council of Global Unions was formed on the final day of the congress. It was established jointly with ten global union federations and the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD, the second congress of the ITUC was held from 21 to 25 June 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. On 25 June 2010, at the conclusion of the congress, Sharan Burrow was elected General Secretary, in anticipation of her election, Burrow had resigned from her position as President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions effective 1 July 2010. Speaking to the Congress after her election, Burrow paid tribute to her predecessor, but the investment in and participation of women is not only a moral mandate it is an investment in democracy and a bulwark against fundamentalism and oppression. Organising woman is and must continue to be a priority for the ITUC, the Pan-European Regional Council, a European trade union organisation within the ITUC was formed 19 March 2007.
It consists of 87 national trade union centres and a membership of 87 million. It works closely with the European Trade Union Confederation, and Bernadette Ségol is currently the secretary of both organisations. ITUC has been blamed for using doubtful means during their investigations in countries like Qatar, Kuwait, iTUCs relationship with the Gulf appears to have assumed an adversarial one. Global union federation List of federations of trade unions World Federation of Trade Unions General Confederation of Trade Unions Decent work Fabio Bertini, Gilliatt e la piovra
Timeline of labor issues and events
Timeline of organized labor history 16191619 Jamestown Polish craftsmen strike 1636 Maine Indentured Servants and Fishermans Mutiny. 1648 Boston Coopers and Shoemakers form guilds,1677 New York City Carters Strike. 1684 New York City Carters Strike,1741 New York City Bakers Strike. 1774 Hibernia, New Jersey, Ironworks Strike,1778 Journeymen printers in New York combine to increase their wages. 1791 Philadelphia carpenters conduct first strike in the trades in the United States. 1792 Philadelphia has first local union in the United States organized to conduct collective bargaining,1794 Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers formed in Philadelphia. 1797 Profit sharing originated at Albert Gallatins glassworks in New Geneva,1799 Combination Act outlawed trade unionism and collective bargaining by workers. 1805 Journeymen Cordwainers union includes a clause in its constitution in New York City. 1806 Commonwealth v. Pullis was the first known court case arising from a strike in the United States.
After a three-day trial, the found the defendants guilty of a combination to raise their wages. 1816 Food riots broke out in East Anglia, Workers demanded a double wage and for the setting of triple prices for food. 1824 The Combination Act of 1799 was repealed,1824 Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Textile Strike. 1825 United Tailoresses of New York organized in New York City,1825 Boston House Carpenters Strike 1827 Mechanics Union of Trades Associations formed in Philadelphia. 1828 Workingmens Party was organized in Philadelphia by the Mechanics Union of Trades Associations and their efforts lead directly to the forming of the Workingmens Party of New York. 1829 Workingmens Party of New York formed,1831 New England Association of Farmers and other Workingmen formed. Fifty-five workers in Norwich were convicted of breaking and rioting by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers. Three workers in Ipswich were convicted of extorting money by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers, twenty-six workers in Petworth were convicted of machine breaking and rioting by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers.
Upwards of thirty workers in Gloucester were convicted of breaking and rioting by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers must legally pay their workers. Equivalently, it is the floor below which workers may not sell their labor. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in many jurisdictions, differences of opinion exist about the benefits, supporters of the minimum wage say it increases the standard of living of workers, reduces poverty, reduces inequality, boosts morale and forces businesses to be more efficient. Modern minimum wage laws trace their origin to the Ordinance of Labourers, King Edward III, who was a wealthy landowner, was dependent, like his lords, on serfs to work the land. In the autumn of 1348, the Black Plague reached England, the severe shortage of labor caused wages to soar and encouraged King Edward III to set a wage ceiling. Subsequent amendments to the ordinance, such as the Statute of Labourers, while the laws governing wages initially set a ceiling on compensation, they were eventually used to set a living wage. An amendment to the Statute of Labourers in 1389 effectively fixed wages to the price of food, as time passed, the Justice of the Peace, who was charged with setting the maximum wage, began to set formal minimum wages.
The practice was eventually formalized with the passage of the Act Fixing a Minimum Wage in 1604 by King James I for workers in the textile industry. By the early 19th century, the Statutes of Labourers was repealed as increasingly capitalistic England embraced laissez-faire policies which disfavored regulations of wages, the subsequent 19th century saw significant labor unrest affect many industrial nations. As trade unions were decriminalized during the century, attempts to control wages through collective agreement were made, this meant that a uniform minimum wage was not possible. It was not until the 1890s that the first modern attempts to regulate minimum wages were seen in New Zealand. The movement for a wage was initially focused on stopping sweatshop labor. The sweatshops employed large numbers of women and young workers, paying them what were considered to be substandard wages, the sweatshop owners were thought to have unfair bargaining power over their employees, and a minimum wage was proposed as a means to make them pay fairly.
Over time, the changed to helping people, especially families. The first modern national minimum wage law was enacted by the government of New Zealand in 1894, followed by Australia in 1896, in the United States, statutory minimum wages were first introduced nationally in 1938, and they were reintroduced and expanded in the United Kingdom in 1998. There is now legislation or binding collective bargaining regarding minimum wage in more than 90 percent of all countries, in the European Union,22 member states out of 28 currently have national minimum wages. Currently the American federal minimum wage rests at seven dollars, twenty-five cents per hour, some states do not recognize the minimum wage law such as Louisiana and Tennessee. Other states operate below the minimum wage such as Georgia
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour. Labour markets or job markets function through the interaction of workers and employers, Labour economics looks at the suppliers of labour services and the demanders of labour services, and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages and income. In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and it is conventionally contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital. There are theories which have developed a concept called human capital, there are two sides to labour economics. Labour economics can generally be seen as the application of microeconomic or macroeconomic techniques to the labour market, microeconomic techniques study the role of individuals and individual firms in the labour market. Macroeconomic techniques look at the interrelations between the market, the goods market, the money market, and the foreign trade market. It looks at how these interactions influence macro variables such as employment levels, participation rates, aggregate income, the labour force is defined as the number of people of working age, who are either employed or actively looking for work.
The participation rate is the number of people in the force divided by the size of the adult civilian noninstitutional population. The unemployment level is defined as the labour force minus the number of people currently employed, the unemployment rate is defined as the level of unemployment divided by the labour force. The employment rate is defined as the number of people currently employed divided by the adult population, in these statistics, self-employed people are counted as employed. Variables like employment level, unemployment level, labour force, and they can be contrasted with flow variables which measure a quantity over a duration of time. Changes in the force are due to flow variables such as natural population growth, net immigration, new entrants. Technological advancement often reduces frictional unemployment, for example, internet search engines have reduced the cost, structural unemployment – This reflects a mismatch between the skills and other attributes of the labour force and those demanded by employers.
The process of globalization has contributed to changes in labour markets. Natural rate of unemployment – This is the summation of frictional and structural unemployment and it is the lowest rate of unemployment that a stable economy can expect to achieve, given that some frictional and structural unemployment is inevitable. Economists do not agree on the level of the rate, with estimates ranging from 1% to 5%. The estimated rate varies from country to country and from time to time, demand deficient unemployment – In Keynesian economics, any level of unemployment beyond the natural rate is probably due to insufficient goods demand in the overall economy. During a recession, aggregate expenditure is deficient causing the underutilisation of inputs, neoclassical economists view the labour market as similar to other markets in that the forces of supply and demand jointly determine price and quantity
New Zealand Labour Party
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. With its historic rival, the New Zealand National Party, Labour has dominated New Zealand governments since the 1930s, Labour currently promotes a social-democratic platform. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance, the New Zealand Labour Party was formed in 1916 by various socialist parties and trade unions. It is thus the countrys oldest political party still in existence, there have been five Labour governments. The party was first in power from 1935 and 1949, when it established New Zealands welfare state and it governed most recently from 1999 to 2008 with Helen Clark as party leader and Prime Minister. Since the partys defeat in the 2008 general election, Labour has comprised the second-largest caucus represented in the New Zealand Parliament, on 18 November 2014 Andrew Little was confirmed outside of Parliament and in a press conference as the new Labour leader. Labours 1916 policy objectives called for the socialisation of the means of production and exchange, up to the 1980s Labour remained a party that believed in a strong role for governments in economic and social matters.
However, it had transformed from a trade union-dominated, socialist-oriented movement to a moderate social-democratic party. The Labour Government of the 1980s deviated sharply from a social-democratic path, in a series of economic reforms dubbed Rogernomics, the Government removed a swathe of regulations and subsidies, privatised state assets and introduced corporate practices to state services. Equal access to all social, cultural and legal spheres, co-operation as the main governing factor in economic relations, to ensure a just distribution of wealth. Universal rights to dignity, self-respect and the opportunity to work, the right to wealth and property, subject to the provisos of regarding people as always more important than property and the obligations of the state to ensure a just distribution of wealth. The Treaty of Waitangi as the document of New Zealand, and its honouring in the Party, society. The promotion of peace and social justice throughout the world by international co-operation, Equality in human rights regardless of race, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, religious faith, political belief or disability.
Its origins lie in the British working class movement, heavily influenced by Australian radicalism and it is the oldest surviving New Zealand political party. The New Zealand Labour Party was an amalgamation of a number of early groups, the process of unifying these diverse groups into a single party was difficult, with tensions between different factions running strong. At the turn of the century, the side of New Zealand working class politics was represented by the Socialist Party. The more moderate leftists were generally supporters of the Liberal Party and this established the basic dividing line in New Zealands left-wing politics – the Socialists tended to be revolutionary and militant, while the moderates focused instead on progressive reform. In 1910, the Independent Political Labour League was relaunched as a called the Labour Party
The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are solidarity, direct action and direct democracy, or workers self-management. The end goal of anarcho-syndicalism is to abolish the wage system, Anarcho-syndicalist theory therefore generally focuses on the labour movement. Reflecting the anarchist philosophy from which it draws its primary inspiration, hubert Lagardelle wrote that Pierre-Joseph Proudhon laid out fundamental ideas of anarcho-syndicalism, and repudiated both capitalism and the state in the process. He viewed free economic groups and struggle, not pacifism as dominant in humans, the CNT started small, counting 26,571 members represented through several trade unions and other confederations. In 1911, coinciding with its first congress, the CNT initiated a strike that provoked a Barcelona judge to declare the union illegal until 1914. That same year of 1911, the union officially received its name. From 1918 on the CNT grew stronger, the CNT had an outstanding role in the events of the La Canadiense general strike, which paralyzed 70% of industry in Catalonia in 1919, the year the CNT reached a membership of 700,000.
Around that time, panic spread among employers, giving rise to the practice of pistolerismo and these pistoleros are credited with killing 21 union leaders in 48 hours. In 1922 the International Workers Association was founded in Berlin, the CNT joined immediately, the following year, with the rise of Miguel Primo de Riveras dictatorship, the labor union was outlawed, once again. The first secretaries of the International included the writer and activist Rudolph Rocker, along with Augustin Souchy. Following the first congress, other groups affiliated from France, Denmark, Switzerland, Bulgaria and Romania. Later, a bloc of unions in the USA, Peru, Guatemala, Costa Rica and El Salvador shared the IWAs statutes. The biggest syndicalist union in the USA, the IWW, considered joining but eventually ruled out affiliation in 1936, citing the IWAs policies on religious and political affiliation. The Industrial Workers of the World, although not anarcho-syndicalist, were informed by developments in the revolutionary syndicalist milieu at the turn of the 20th century.
Although the terms anarcho-syndicalism and revolutionary syndicalism are often used interchangeably, the Biennio Rosso was a two-year period, between 1919 and 1920, of intense social conflict in Italy, following the first world war. The Biennio Rosso took place in a context of crisis at the end of the war, with high unemployment. It was characterized by strikes, worker manifestations as well as self-management experiments through land. In Turin and Milan, workers councils were formed and many factory occupations took place under the leadership of anarcho-syndicalists, the agitations extended to the agricultural areas of the Padan plain and were accompanied by peasant strikes, rural unrests and guerilla conflicts between left-wing and right-wing militias
Israeli Labor Party
The Israeli Labor Party, commonly known as HaAvoda, is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel. The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Mapai, Ahdut HaAvoda, until 1977, all Israeli Prime Ministers were affiliated with the Labor movement. The current party leader since 2013 is Isaac Herzog, the Labor Party is associated with supporting the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, pragmatic foreign affairs policies and social democratic economic policies. The party is a member of the Socialist International and Progressive Alliance, after the Six-Day War broke out and Gahal joined the coalition. On 23 January 1968 Mapai, Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi merged into one body, on 28 January 1969, the party allied itself with Mapam, the alliance becoming known as the Alignment. As the largest faction within the Alignment, Labor came to dominate it, Mapam left during the eighth Knesset, but rejoined shortly afterwards. In the 1977 elections, Labor for the first time ended up in opposition, in the 1984 elections, Labor joined a national unity government with Likud, with the post of Prime Minister rotating between the two parties.
Mapam broke away again during the eleventh Knesset, angry at Shimon Peress decision to form a unity government with Likud. Although the Independent Liberals merged into the Alignment in the 1980s, on 7 October 1991 the Alignment ceased to exist, with all factions formally merged into the Labor Party. W. Led by Yitzhak Rabin, Labor won the 1992 elections and formed the government together with Meretz, in domestic policy, the Labor-led government introduced various measures to improve levels of social protection. Better provisions were introduced for single parents and people with disabilities, the 1994 Law to Reduce Poverty and Income Inequality increased income maintenance grants to needy families, particularly benefitting those sections of society most vulnerable to poverty. In 1995, a health insurance policy was implemented, making access to health care a right for all Israelis. Various measures were introduced to bring greater progressivity into the system of collection of national insurance contributions. A maternity grant for adopting mothers was introduced, together with insurance for housewives, a minimum unemployment allowance.
The subsequent role of Labor became to a large extent tied to the Oslo Accords, the Oslo Accords led to a vote of confidence, which the Government won with a margin of 61–50. Several MKs from the Government parties declined to support the Government, but on the other hand, due to the lack of a constitution in Israel, the Government was able to implement the accords with a thin margin. Rabins decision to advance peace talks with the Palestinians to the point of signing the Oslo Accords led to his assassination by Yigal Amir in 1995, Peres decided to call early elections in 1996 to give him a mandate for advancing the peace process. However, his ploy failed, although Labor won the most seats in the Knesset election and Likud were thus able to form the government
A general strike is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers in a multitude of workplaces, General strikes first occurred in the mid-19th century, and have characterised many historically important strikes. An early predecessor of the strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome. In the Outline Of History, H. G. Wells recorded the general strike of the plebeians, the plebeians seem to have invented the strike, which now makes its first appearance in history. Wells noted that he made a mean use of their political advantages to grow rich through the national conquests at the expense not only of the defeated enemy. The plebeians, who were expected to obey the laws, but were not allowed to know the laws, were successful, in 450 BC. in a concession resulting from the rebellion of the plebeians, the laws of Rome were written for all to peruse. The general strike action became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution.
For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the working class, they lived in cities. By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak, the first theorist to formulate and popularise the idea of a general strike for the purpose of political reform was the radical pamphleteer William Benbow. On 28 January 1832 Benbow published a pamphlet entitled Grand National Holiday, Benbow began to advocate direct and even violent action for political reform, in particular he advanced his idea for a national holiday and national convention. The striking workers were to support themselves with savings and confiscated parish funds, benbows idea of a Grand National Holiday was adopted by the Chartist Congress of 1839, Benbow having spent time in Manchester during 1838-9 promoting his the cause and his pamphlet. In 1842 the demands for wages and conditions across many different industries finally exploded into the first modern general strike. Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by a hard-headed agenda to win concessions.
Probably as much as half of the industrial work force were on strike at its peak - over 500,000 men. The local leadership marshaled a growing working class tradition to politically organise their followers to mount a challenge to the capitalist. The mass abandonment of plantations by black slaves and poor whites during the American Civil War has, controversially, in his classic history Black Reconstruction in America, W. E. B. The trickling streams of fugitives swelled to a flood, once begun, the general strike of black and white went madly and relentlessly on like some great saga. The next large scale strike took place over half a century in Belgium
The use of child labour was common. The working day could range from 10 to 16 hours for six days a week, robert Owen had raised the demand for a ten-hour day in 1810, and instituted it in his socialist enterprise at New Lanark. By 1817 he had formulated the goal of the day and coined the slogan, Eight hours labour, Eight hours recreation. Women and children in England were granted the day in 1847. French workers won the 12-hour day after the February revolution of 1848, a shorter working day and improved working conditions were part of the general protests and agitation for Chartist reforms and the early organisation of trade unions. Karl Marx saw it as of importance to the workers health, saying in Das Kapital, By extending the working day, therefore. The first international treaty to mention it was the Treaty of Versailles in the annex of its thirteen part establishing the International Labour Office, now the International Labour Organization. The eight-hour day was the first topic discussed by the International Labour Organization which resulted in the Hours of Work Convention,1919 ratified by 52 countries as of 2016.
The eight-hour day movement forms part of the history for the celebration of Labour Day. In Iran in 1918, the work of reorganizing the trade began in earnest in Tehran during the closure of the Iranian constitutional parliament Majles. In 1918, the newly organised union staged a 14-day strike and succeeded in reaching an agreement with employers to institute the eight-hours day, overtime pay. The success of the printers union encouraged other trades to organize, in 1919 the bakers and textile-shop clerks formed their own trade unions. In 1946 the council of ministers issued the first labor law for Iran, the first company to introduce an eight-hour working day in Japan was the Kawasaki Dockyards in Kobe. An eight-hour day was one of the demands presented by the workers during pay negotiations in September 1919, after the company resisted the demands, a slowdown campaign was commenced by the workers on 18 September. After ten days of action, company president Kōjirō Matsukata agreed to the eight-hour day and wage increases on 27 September.
The effects of the action were felt nationwide and inspired further industrial action at the Kawasaki, the eight-hour day did not become law in Japan until the passing of the Labor Standards Act in April 1947. Article 32 of the Act specifies a 40-hour week and paragraph specifies an eight-hour day, the Eight-hour day was enacted in France by Georges Clemenceau, as a way to avoid unemployment and diminish communist support. It was succeeded by a strong French support of it during the writing of the International Labour Organization Convention of 1919, at the turn of the 20th century the eight-hour day was introduced by Ernst Abbe at the Zeiss plants in Jena
Strike action, called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances, Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were made illegal, as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries partially legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries, Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard or 1981 Warning Strike, official publications have typically used the more neutral words work stoppage or industrial dispute. The first historically certain account of action was towards the end of the 20th dynasty. The artisans of the Royal Necropolis at Deir el-Medina walked off their jobs because they had not been paid, the Egyptian authorities raised the wages. An early predecessor of the strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome.
In the Outline Of History, H. G. Wells characterized this event as the strike of the plebeians, the plebeians seem to have invented the strike. The strike action became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the working class, they lived in cities. By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak, in 1842 the demands for fairer wages and conditions across many different industries finally exploded into the first modern general strike. Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by an agenda to win concessions. Probably as much as half of the industrial work force were on strike at its peak – over 500,000 men. The local leadership marshalled a growing working class tradition to organize their followers to mount an articulate challenge to the capitalist. Friedrich Engels, an observer in London at the time, wrote, by its numbers, this class has become the most powerful in England, the English proletarian is only just becoming aware of his power, and the fruits of this awareness were the disturbances of last summer.
Karl Marx has condemned the theory of Proudhon criminalizing strike action in his work The Poverty of Philosophy, in 1937 there were 4,740 strikes in the United States. This was the greatest strike wave in American labor history, the number of major strikes and lockouts in the U. S. fell by 97% from 381 in 1970 to 187 in 1980 to only 11 in 2010