Nez Perce National Historical Park
The Nez Perce National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park comprising 38 sites located throughout the states of Idaho, Montana and Washington, which included traditional aboriginal lands of the Nez Perce people. The sites are associated with the resistance of Chief Joseph and his band, who in June 1877 took off from Oregon in an attempt to reach freedom in Canada and avoid being forced on to a reservation, they were pursued by U. S. Army cavalry fought numerous skirmishes against them; the park was established in 1965, a museum was opened at the park headquarters in Spalding, Idaho, in 1983. The 38 sites span three main ecoregions. Numerous animal species inhabit the park, including several; the park commemorates the history and stories of the Nez Perce. It includes sites associated with the Nez Perce War of 1877, when the people resisted takeover by the United States, the flight of Chief Joseph and his band; the park is administered overall by the National Park Service, a number of the sites are managed by other federal and state agencies as well as local communities.
The park was established by Congress in 1965. Construction of the planned headquarters site and museum at Spalding were delayed by land acquisition and federal funding problems. Soon after construction began in September 1979, Native American graves were discovered at the site. Remains and artifacts were preserved in consultation with the Nez Perce. Construction of the visitor center and museum was restarted; the museum opened in June 1983. The Nez Perce National Historic Park does not follow the format of most national parks, in that it is composed of dozens of sites spread over four states; the 38 sites are linked by the history of the Nez Perce people, rather than by geographic location. Twenty-six of the sites are on or near the Nez Perce Indian Reservation in Idaho and can be toured in one day. Adjacent states hold the other twelve sites. Several of the sites are connected by the Nez Perce National Historic Trail, managed by the United States Forest Service, it preserves the route taken by Chief Joseph and his band when they tried to reach Canada in 1877.
The sites include: Battle of Bear Paw – Blaine County, Montana Battle of the Clearwater – Idaho County, Idaho Battle of White Bird Canyon – Idaho County, Idaho Big Hole National Battlefield – Beaverhead County, Montana Camas Meadows Battle Sites – Clark County, Idaho Camas Prairie – Idaho County and Lewis County, Idaho Camp Chopunnish – Idaho County, Idaho Joseph Canyon – Wallowa County and Asotin County, Washington Old Chief Joseph Gravesite – Wallowa County, Oregon Weippe Prairie – Weippe, Idaho The NPNHP sites cover three main ecoregions. The first, found at the sites in the Palouse grasslands and Missouri Basin, is shortgrass prairie; these flat or rolling prairies include rivers and streams, have an altitude of about 1,000 to 3,500 feet. The second, found in the plateaus of the Columbia and Snake rivers, is sagebrush steppe at around 3,000 ft in altitude; the third, found in the sites in the Blue Mountains, Salmon River Mountains, southwestern Montana and northern Rocky Mountains, is conifer and alpine meadows.
These high-elevation sites have lower temperatures and greater precipitation than the other ecoregions. Numerous species of mammals, reptiles and invertebrates inhabit the various park sites. Several of these species are classified in terms of their status as "threatened," "endangered" or "sensitive" at the state level. Montana Arctic grayling, mountain plover, swift fox, great grey owl, boreal owl and several fish species are all sensitive species that inhabit the park, while gray wolf and bald eagles are sometimes seen. Managers of the park have several ecological concerns including issues of invasive plant species, the degradation of animal habitat due to human activity, the protection of endangered species, dealing with effects of climate change. "Master Plan Nez Perce National Historic Park". National Park Service. 1968. Retrieved 2012-12-10. Ted Catton. "Administrative History-Nez Perce National Historic Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-12-10. John Dishon McDermott. "Forlorn Hope-A Study of the Battle of White Bird Canyon Idaho and the Beginning of the Nez Perce Indian War".
National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-12-10. Robert Applegate. "Museum Management Plan-Nez Perce National Historical Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-12-10. Official website
Belt is a town in Cascade County, United States. The population was 597 according to the 2010 census, it is part of Montana metropolitan area. Belt was home to Montana's first coal mine, it supplied fuel to Fort Benton. The post office opened on February 1885, with Eugene Clingan as postmaster. Belt is located at 47°23′9″N 110°55′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land. The town was named for a nearby mountain which has a dark layer resembling a belt. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Belt has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 597 people, 261 households, 159 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,705.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 295 housing units at an average density of 842.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.5% White, 1.7% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 261 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age in the town was 43.4 years. 23.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.1% male and 49.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 666 people, 273 households, 168 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,877.0 people per square mile. There were 295 housing units at an average density of 874.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.94% White, 1.42% African American, 1.42% Native American, 0.32% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 1.74% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population. There were 273 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.1% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,469, the median income for a family was $30,104. Males had a median income of $21,477 versus $20,192 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,970. About 10.2% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those age 65 or over.
James R. Browning, judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit Matt Maki, Finnish-born master carpenter and builder of the 1890s List of cities and towns in Montana Community website Belt Public Schools
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in
U.S. Route 89
U. S. Route 89 is a north–south United States Highway with two sections, one former section; the southern section runs for 848 miles from Flagstaff, Arizona, to the southern entrance of Yellowstone National Park. The northern section runs for 404 miles from the northern entrance of Yellowstone National Park in Montana, ending at the Canada–US border. Unnumbered roads through Yellowstone connect the two sections. Before 1992, U. S. Highway 89 was a Canada to Mexico, border-to-border, highway that ended at Nogales, Arizona, on its southern end. Sometimes called the National Park Highway, U. S. 89 links seven national parks across the Mountain West. In addition, fourteen other national park areas national monuments, are reachable from this backbone of the Rockies. National Geographic named U. S. Route 89 the No. 1 Driver's Drive in the world. U. S. 89 begins at Arizona. The highway proceeds north passing through the Navajo Nation. Near the Utah state line, the highway splits into U. S. 89 and U. S. 89A. The Alternate is the original highway.
The two highways rejoin in Utah. The main branch passes over the Colorado River just south of the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell near Page, it enters Utah; the 89A branch crosses the Colorado River at Navajo Bridge and skirts the North Rim of the Grand Canyon before entering Utah. National Park Highway - Starting just north of the Mexican border in Arizona is the Tumacacori National Monument. Saguaro National Park is the first national park by title, in Tucson. Short links from Highway 89 take motorists to the Casa Grande National Monument and the Hohokam Pima National Monument, before reaching Phoenix. Approaching Flagstaff there is a quartet of parks, including Tuzigoot National Monument, Walnut Canyon National Monument, Sunset Crater National Monument, Wupatki National Monument. North of Flagstaff is the Grand Canyon National Park, the second of the seven national parks along this highway. Continuing northward, U. S. 89 divides into U. S. 89 and U. S. 89A. The northern mainline route passes by Page and through the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area before leaving the state and Lake Powell.
U. S. 89A turns westward, it serves Lees Ferry, it goes over the Kaibab Plateau, connecting with Arizona State Route 67 at Jacob Lake, Arizona with Arizona State Route 389 in Fredonia, before turning north into the state of Utah. State Route 67 will take travelers to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, while State Route 389 serves the Pipe Spring National Monument, the last National Park Service area in Arizona; the first city in Utah along either U. S. 89 or U. S. 89A is Kanab. From Kanab U. S. 89 proceeds north passing by Zion National Park and Bryce Canyon National Park. It enters Sevier County and the Sanpete Valleys; the highway passes by Thistle, Utah, a ghost town, destroyed by a lake resulting from a landslide in 1983. The highway enters the Wasatch Front where U. S. 89 becomes the main street for many cities in Utah. The highway is often in the shadows of Interstate 15 during its route along the Wasatch Front. U. S. 89 runs concurrent with I-15 from Bountiful to Farmington, where it departs and runs at the base of the Wasatch Mountains until it reaches Ogden.
In Ogden, the highway is Washington Blvd. From Ogden the highway runs north until it meets U. S. 91 at Brigham City, where it turns east to serve Cache Valley and Logan, concurrent with U. S. 91. In Logan, U. S. 89 forms the southern portion of Main Street before splitting off to the east, passing by the campus of the Utah State University. The highway next proceeds up Logan Canyon to Bear Lake where the highway exits Utah. Two sections of U. S. 89 in Utah have been designated Scenic Byways. The Kanab to Mt. Carmel and Long Valley Scenic Byway is a designated Utah Scenic Byway; the segment from Logan to Bear Lake is designated as the Logan Canyon Scenic Byway by the National Scenic Byways project. The section of U. S. 89 in Utah, other than concurrencies with Interstate 70, Interstate 15, U. S. Highway 6, U. S. Highway 91, is defined in the Utah Code Annotated § 72-4-114. Utah is dominated by the Colorado Plateau. Along U. S. 89 are Zion National Park, Bryce Canyon National Park, Cedar Breaks National Monument.
Although not adjacent to U. S. 89, Capitol Reef National Park is accessible from U. S. 89. U. S. 89 leaves northern Utah well-north of Salt Lake City and Timpanogos Cave National Monument and the Golden Spike National Historic Site. In Idaho, the highway circumnavigates the Bear Lake which straddles the Utah / Idaho state line. In Wyoming, U. S. 89 passes through many scenic sites including Grand Teton National Park, the Jackson Hole valley, the Snake River Canyon, the Star Valley. Passing northward along the western border of Wyoming with Idaho, U. S. 89 enters the Grand Teton National Park. Here, U. S. 89 is the backbone visitor highway for two U. S. National Parks. Leaving the Tetons, the road enters a lesser known park, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, before ending at the South Entrance of Yellowstone National Park. An unnumbered park road connects the two sections of U. S. 89 through Yellowstone. U. S. 89 enters Montana at the North Entrance of Yellowstone National Park. It traverses the width of the state before approaching Glacier National Park.
At St. Mary, Montana, U. S. 89 is the access highway to Glacier Route One known as the Going-to-the-Sun Road. The Kings Hill Scenic Byway passes through the Little Belt Mountains in the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana; the route is home to a wide variety of wildl
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument preserves the site of the June 25 and 26, 1876, Battle of the Little Bighorn, near Crow Agency, Montana, in the United States. It serves as a memorial to those who fought in the battle: George Armstrong Custer's 7th Cavalry and a combined Lakota-Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho force. Custer National Cemetery, on the battlefield, is part of the national monument; the site of a related military action led by Marcus Reno and Frederick Benteen is part of the national monument, but is about 3 miles southeast of the Little Bighorn battlefield. 25 and 26 June 1876: Battle of the Little Bighorn 29 January 1879: The Secretary of War first preserved the site as a U. S. National Cemetery, to protect graves of the 7th Cavalry troopers buried there. 1877: Custer, buried there, was reinterred in West Point Cemetery. 7 December 1886: The site was proclaimed National Cemetery of Custer's Battlefield Reservation to include burials of other campaigns and wars. The name has been shortened to "Custer National Cemetery."
5 November 1887: Battle of Crow Agency, three miles north of Custer battlefield 14 April 1926: Reno-Benteen Battlefield was added 1 July 1940: The site was transferred from the United States Department of War to the National Park Service 22 March 1946: The site was redesignated "Custer Battlefield National Monument." 15 October 1966: The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. 1976, The American Indian Movement protested the centennial commemoration of the site, arguing that the site revered Custer and the Battle of Little Big Horn as a part of a heroic saga of American history and expansion into the American West while those who revered it had been "celebrating an act of genocide." 11 August 1983: A wildfire destroyed dense thorn scrub which over the years had seeded itself about and covered the site. This allowed archaeologists access to the site. 1984, 1985: Archaeological digging on site. 10 December 1991: The site was renamed Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument by a law signed by President George H. W. Bush.
The first memorial on the site was assembled by the 11th Infantry. They buried soldiers' bodies where they were removed animal bones. In his official report dated April 7, 1879, Sanderson wrote: I accordingly built a mound out of cord wood filled in the center with all the horse bones I could find on the field. In the center of the mound I dug a grave and interred all the human bones that could be found, in all, parts of four or five different bodies; this grave was built up with wood for four feet above ground. The mound is ten feet square and about eleven feet high. Lieutenant Charles F. Roe and the 2nd Cavalry built the granite memorial in July 1881 that stands today on the top of Last Stand Hill, they reinterred soldiers' remains near the new memorial, but left stakes in the ground to mark where they had fallen. In 1890 these stakes were replaced with marble markers; the bill that changed the name of the national monument called for an "Indian Memorial" to be built near Last Stand Hill. Markers honoring the Indians who fought at Little Big Horn, including Crazy Horse, have been added to those of the U.
S. troops. On Memorial Day, 1999, the first of five red granite markers denoting where warriors fell during the battle were placed on the battlefield for Cheyenne warriors Lame White Man and Noisy Walking; the warriors' red speckled granite memorial markers dot the ravines and hillsides just as do the white marble markers representing where soldiers fell. Since markers have been added for the Sans Arc Lakota warrior Long Road and the Minniconjou Lakota Dog's Back Bone. On June 25, 2003, an "unknown Lakota warrior marker" was placed on Wooden Leg Hill, east of Last Stand Hill to honor a warrior, killed during the battle, as witnessed and reported by the Northern Cheyenne warrior Wooden Leg; the battlefield is the final resting place of the western historian and author Stanley Vestal, a professor at the University of Oklahoma. List of military installations in Montana The National Parks: Index 2001-2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. Official NPS website: Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument Friends of the Little Bighorn Battlefield About the 1983 wildfire About the 1984 archaeology History of the burials and reburials of the Custer dead.
Custer National Cemetery register Find A Grave: Custer National Cemetery How the Battle of Little Bighorn Was Won, from the Indians' point of view "Writings of Black Elk", broadcast from Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument from C-SPAN's American Writers