The Una is a river in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The river has a total length of 214.6 km and watershed area of 9,829 km2. Una river got its name from Romans; the Romans found its beauty so unique. Another interpretation of its name is that it's an Illyrian word derived from the Indo-European root *unt; the source of the Una is the Una spring known as Vrelo Une, is located on the north-eastern slopes of the Stražbenica mountain in Lika region, Croatia. After 4 km the river reaches Herzegovina at the confluence with the Krka River. From here the Una river forms a natural border between Croatia and Bosnia for the next 8.5 km until it reaches the rail bridge 1.5 km before the Bosnian town of Martin Brod. From the rail bridge Una enters Bosnia and flows for 21 km, before reaching the border between the two countries for the second time, 9 km downstream town of Kulen Vakuf. From here it forms the border for the next 20 km, all the way to another rail bridge between the villages of Malo Seoce and Užljebić.
Here Una enters Bosnia for the second time, near Ripač it winds more north-westwards, entering Bihać, turning north to Bosanska Krupa and Bosanska Otoka. After 85 km of flowing through Bosnia, the Una again marks the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia for the third and final time, near the villages of Dobretin and Javornik, it maintains that status for the rest of its course until confluence with the Sava. At this stage, the Una passes by the Bosnian towns of Novi Grad, Kozarska Dubica, Croatian towns of Dvor, Hrvatska Kostajnica, Hrvatska Dubica, it spills into the Sava River near small town of Jasenovac. The Una is a right tributary of the Sava river and the main tributaries are the Unac River, the Sana, the Klokot River and the Krušnica River; the hydrological parameters of Una are monitored in Croatia at Kostajnica. Over 170 types of medicinal herbs grow by the Una River. 28 kinds of fish live in this river and the biggest of, the huchen. There is an annual event held on the river, the "International Una Regatta", where people would go down the river in boats and kayaks from Kulen Vakuf, with excursion to Vrelo Une in Croatia, with the climax in Bihać.
The Regatta is a sort of celebration for the river itself, rather than a boat race. Una National Park was established 2006 around the Upper Una Unac River. It's Bosnia and Herzegovina's most established National Park, of only three existing in the country so far; the main purpose of the park is to protect unspoiled Una and Unac rivers. Protection zone of the National Park stretches on the western side from the source of the Krka River and its course to the confluence with the Una on the state border of Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia from where park border follows the Una and state border to the town of Martin Brod and confluence with the Unac. On the eastern side border of the park goes from the entrance of the Unac River into its canyon, few kilometers downstream from town of Drvar, follows the Unac and its canyon all the way to the confluence with the Una in town of Martin Brod. From there park border follows the Una on the right and state border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia on the left, until it reach a small town of Ripač, few kilometers upstream from town of Bihać.
The Una's stunning waterfalls and white water rapids highlight the park. The most famous waterfalls are those at Martin Brod, where the popular "International Una Regatta" kayaking competition begins, Štrbački Buk further downstream. Throughout the park, visitors can enjoy prime conditions for rafting, cycling and camping. Jumping from the city bridges in Bihać and Bosanska Krupa is popular. Una National Park is noted for its biodiversity, with 30 fish species, 130 bird species, other animals, including lynx, wolf and chamois. Area of the park has rich cultural-historic heritage and numerous archaeological sites, many dating from the prehistoric period. Among the historical treasures of the region are the Roman fort Milančeva Kula, Rmanj Monastery, many medieval fortresses like Oštrovica medieval fortress above Kulen Vakuf and the Ostrožac Castle, to name just a few. Proximity to Plješivica mountain virgin forest, which stretches between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, Croatia's Plitvice Lakes National Park makes Una National Park a top destination for visitors.
More all of the facts about these two National Parks, their proximity, natural and historical richness, brings out the possibility and makes viable idea of joint management and promotion Una Republic Green Visions article about Una Una springs in Lika region, Croatia
Česma is a river in central Croatia, a left tributary of the river Lonja-Trebež. It is 106 km long, its catchment area is 3,253 km2. Created by merging streams Grđevica and Barna at 45°43′32″N 17°03′01″E near the village of Pavlovac in the municipality of Veliki Grđevac. Česma basin is fan-shaped and formed by a number of streams rising on the slopes of Bilogora and Moslavačka gora hills. Southern sides of Bilogora goes downhill, rugged with numerous ravines and gullies and cut in. On the sides appears numerous springs, that in the dry part of the year losing water, it has a small drop, causing frequent floods before the regulation of the riverbed. The area around the watercourse of Česma till a hundred years ago was subject of flooding, why it was swampy. After that, Česma river and its tributaries was channelized, embankments were built for flood protection, the soil is dried to obtain arable land as well as the fight against malaria. At the site of former wetlands now are fish ponds that supply water from streams that flows into the Česma river.
These ponds are one of the last refuge of wading birds between the Sava rivers. Along Česma river there are several major fish farming complexes. North of Česma fish pond — ribnjačastvo Dubrava, along the southern coast fish ponds — Siščani and Narta. Both complexes are spread at about 5 kilometers along the course Česma river, environment are similar, they are about 5 kilometers away to each other. The total area covered by commercial fish ponds is 1,346 ha
The Kupa or Kolpa river, a right tributary of the Sava, forms a natural border between north-west Croatia and southeast Slovenia. It is 297 kilometres long, with its border part having a length of 118 km and the rest located in Croatia; the name "Colapis" is supposed to come from Proto-Indo-European words *kwol and *h2ep, so that it means "water with meanders". The Kupa originates in Croatia in the mountainous region of Gorski Kotar, northeast of Rijeka, in the area of Risnjak National Park, it flows a few kilometers eastwards, receives the small Čabranka River from the left, before reaching the Slovenian border. It continues eastwards between the White Carniola region in the north and Central Croatia in the south; the Kupa receives influx from the river Lahinja from the left in Primostek, passes Vrbovsko, detaches from the Slovenian border having passed Metlika. It reaches the city of Karlovac, where it receives influx from two other rivers from the right and Korana; the Kupa continues flowing to the east, where it merges with Glina from the right as well as Odra from the left, it passes through two small towns called Šišinec and Brkiševina, proceeds to the town of Sisak where it flows into the Sava River.
Unpolluted downstream to Karlovac, the upper Kupa is a popular place for bathing in summer. The section from Stari Trg down to Fučkovci since 2006 is part of the Slovenian Krajinski park Kolpa nature reserve; the hydrological parameters of the Kupa are monitored at Radenci, Kamanje and Jamnička Kiselica. Source of Kupa pictures Panoramic of the source Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2010
Odra is a river in central Croatia. It is 83 km long and its basin covers an area of 604 km2, its source is in southwest of Zagreb. It flows eastwards, passes south of Velika Gorica turns south-east, more or less parallel to the river Sava, it flows into the river Kupa near Odra Sisačka, just northeast of Sisak just before the Kupa joins the river Sava. The upper flow of Odra has been altered by humans, by the digging of the 32 km long canal Sava-Odra south of Zagreb, as a measure against flooding. There are several etymologies suggested for the name "Odra". One is that it comes from the Croatian word "oderati"; the other is that it comes from the Indo-European root *wodr
Krka is a river in Croatia's Dalmatia region, known for its numerous waterfalls. It is 73 km long and its basin covers an area of 2,088 km2, it may be the river called Catarbates by the ancient Greeks, it was known to the ancient Romans as Titius, Corcoras, or Korkoras. The river has its source near the border of Croatia with Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the foot of the Dinara mountain. After meandering through the Krčić canyon, it enters the karst valley of Knin through the Krčić waterfall of 25 m. At the foot of the second, called the Topoljski waterfall, of these is a spring in a cave with 150 m of passage; the river flows through the valley, where it is fed by the Kosovčica on the left and the Orašnica and the Butižnica on the right, passing the Fortress of Knin between the last two on the way, into the main canyon. What follows belongs to the Krka National Park; the first waterfall there is the 6 m high Bilušića waterfall, followed by twice its height in cascades. They lead to the Brljansko lake with a waterfall of nearly equal height.
At the end of the second half of the lake begin the Manojlovački waterfalls a series of waterfalls and cascades with a total elevation of 60 m, half of, from the last one. Here, on the right bank, lie the Roman ruins of Burnum. At the far end of the canyon are the ruins of the medieval castles of Nečven on the left and Trošenj opposite it. Beyond it is the Serbian Orthodox Krka monastery. Further down, an extensive cascade system ends in the 20 m high Roški waterfall. Still further, the river forms the 7 km Visovačko lake, with the Franciscan order Visovac Monastery on the island in the middle of the lake; the lake ends at its largest tributary, the Čikola. At that point, they form the Skradinski waterfalls, a long series with a total height of 45 m. From this point on, the river is navigable from the sea; the river flows past the town of Skradin on the right, flowing into the 5 km wide Prokljansko lake, into which the Guduča river flows on the right. After that, the river empties into the 10 km long Bay of Šibenik, connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Canal of St. Anthony, at the Fortress of St. Nicholas.
This area is the location of the first hydroelectric power station using alternate current in Croatia, the Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant. This plant started supplying power to the nearby city of Šibenik in 1895. Parts of the Krka river were mined during the Yugoslav Wars; as of 2016, many fields bordering the canyon between Visovačko lake and Prokljansko lake on the right bank, between Nečven and Visovačko lake on the left bank, have yet to be demined. Tourist areas and paved roads are no longer affected. Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant Krčić Hydroelectric Power Plant Krka monastery Krka National Park Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant Roški Slap Hydroelectric Power Plant Visovac Monastery Don Krsto Stošić, Rijeka Krka sa 54 slike, Tisak Pučke tiskare u Šibeniku, Šibenik Croatia 1927 Media related to Krka, Croatia at Wikimedia Commons
The Trnava is a river in northern Croatia, a right tributary of the Mura River and the last significant one to flow into Mura before its confluence with Drava. It flows through Međimurje County; the river is 46,9 km long and its watershed drains an area of about 250 km2. It has its source at an elevation of 300 meters near the village of Vukanovec in the Gornji Mihaljevec municipality, situated in the hilly, northwestern part of the County; the upper course of the river flows southwards turns by the village of Macinec to the east. It flows further as a slow-moving plain stream; the river mouth is located near the village of Goričan at an elevation of 140 meters. Trnava is incorporated into the water retention ponds' and irrigation canal network of Međimurje County. Water level of the river can fluctuate throughout the year, being very low during periods of drought and sometimes high after heavier rains. Throughout its course, Trnava receives the waters of many tributaries, becomes wider and slower, empties into the Mura.
Along its banks is a chain of villages as well as the town of the County seat. In the past, Trnava was a left tributary of the Drava River, but following the occasional changes of watercourses of the Drava and Mura in many centuries ago it was cut through by Mura, becoming the latter's right tributary; the lower course of the river still exists today and is called Stara Trnava, being incorporated into the Bistrec-Rakovnica water canal network, which empties into the Drava east of Donja Dubrava. During past centuries Trnava was important for filling up the moats around the Zrinski Castle in Čakovec. In the first half of the 20th century the river was not yet properly regulated and this led to flooding; the last serious flood in Čakovec occurred on 12 March 1963. Since the river banks have been reconstructed and raised, so that flooding stopped. Map of the Gornji Mihaljevec municipality with the upper course of Trnava Trnava empties into the Mura River at Goričan Earlier Trnava was full of fish Drainage and irrigation works in the Trnava River basin
The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Eastern Europe; the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km, passing through or bordering Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea, its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, huchen, Wels catfish and tench, it is home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays 2,415 km of its total length being navigable; the river is an important source of energy and drinking water. Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu.
Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr, Dysna and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers"; the Finnish word for Danube is Tonava, most derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River", it is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively. The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift", from a root also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester and akin to Iranic turos “swift” and Sanskrit iṣiras "swift", from the PIE *isro-, *sreu “to flow”. In the Middle Ages, the Greek Tiras was borrowed into Italian as Tyrlo and into Turkic languages as Tyrla, the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism.
The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck". In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Ister; the Latin name is masculine, except Slovenian. The German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland". Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, Dunărea; this form was not inherited from Latin. To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypotetical Thracian *Donaris that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic don-/dan-, with the suffix -aris encountered in the ancient name of the Ialomița River, in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians, he proposes. The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to Dānuvius: German: Donau.
Dunav. Dunai. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg; the Danube flows southeast for about 2,730 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania, Serbia, Germany, Slovakia, Croatia and Moldova, its drainage basin extends into nine more. In addition to the bordering countries, the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Montenegro, Italy, North Macedonia and Albania, its total drainage basin is 801,463 km2. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border, at 4,049 metres; the land drained by the Danube extends into many other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and other shallow-draught boats.
From its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tribu