Minoru Niihara is the original and current lead singer of the Japanese heavy metal band, Loudness. His first band was Earthshaker, in which he sang, his vocal style was influenced by blues singers, but he adapted his voice to the high pitch tones requested in a heavy metal act. He was selected after an audition to become the lead singer of Loudness in 1981 and his voice, together with the flashy guitar work of guitarist Akira Takasaki were recognized as a trademark of the band. Although the first three albums were sung using Japanese lyrics, he started singing in English only on their 1984 album, Disillusion. After Loudness released Jealousy, he left the band in 1988 and was replaced by the American singer Mike Vescera. After working with several bands, as well as his solo career, he returned to Loudness in 2001, he released two solo albums: One in 1989 and Ashes To Glory in 2006, in addition to recording many albums with Sly and X. Y. Z.→A. In 2008 he formed a parallel band called Nishidera Minoru, with Show-Ya's singer Keiko Terada and Earthshaker's singer Masafumi ”Marcy” Nishida.
This new band produced and organized the HARD NA YAON 2009 festival. One Ashes to Glory R&R Gypsy Show Tower of Power Night Live The Birthday Eve Devil Soldier The Law of Devil's Land Live-Loud-Alive: Loudness in Tokyo Disillusion Disillusion - English version Odin Thunder in the East Shadows of War Lightning Strikes - U. S. remix of Shadows of War 8186 Live Hurricane Eyes Hurricane Eyes - Japanese Version Jealousy Eurobounds Spiritual Canoe The Soldier's Just Came Back Pandemonium Biosphere Loudness Live 2002 Terror RockShocks Racing Breaking The Taboo Metal Mad The Everlasting King of Pain Eve to Dawn 2012 The Sun Will Rise Again 1st Rock the Nation Final Revolution Sly Dreams of Dust Key Vulcan Wind Asian Typhoon Asian Typhoon - English version Metalization Metalization - English version Life IV X. Y. Z.→ALIVE Wings Learn from Yesterday! Live for Today! Hope for Tomorrow! Seventh Heaven Fuzoroi no Rock Tachi Sono 1 Akira Takasaki - Tusk of Jaguar M. T. Fuji - Human Transport Cozy Powell Forever ~ Tribute to Cozy Powell
Loudness is a Japanese heavy metal band formed in 1981 by guitarist Akira Takasaki and drummer Munetaka Higuchi. They were the first Japanese metal act signed to a major label in the United States, releasing twenty-six studio albums and nine live albums by 2014 and reaching the Billboard Top 100 in their moment of maximum international popularity, as well as charting on Oricon dozens of times. Despite numerous changes in their roster, with Takasaki the sole constant member, the band continued their activities throughout the 1990s reuniting the original line-up in 2001; this incarnation released a further seven albums until November 30, 2008, when original drummer Munetaka Higuchi died from liver cancer at a hospital in Osaka at age 49. He was replaced with Masayuki Suzuki; the band was started by guitarist Akira Takasaki, bassist Hiroyuki Tanaka and drummer Munetaka Higuchi, coming off the split-up of the rock band Lazy in February 1980. The three musicians, Takasaki in particular, were unsatisfied with the musical direction of their previous band and wanted to test their abilities in new areas.
The rising movement of new Japanese heavy metal acts fit the aspirations and musical tendencies of the young musicians. Bassist Tanaka soon renounced to be part of the new metal group, searching success in the anime soundtrack business with the band Neverland. Takasaki recruited his childhood friend Masayoshi Yamashita as bass player and, after a few auditions, the band found a singer in former Earthshaker member Minoru Niihara. With this line-up, Loudness signed for the major label Nippon Columbia and recorded their Japanese-language debut album, The Birthday Eve. Despite the reduced presence of the heavy metal genre in the Japanese media at the time and the lack of a single to launch the album, The Birthday Eve and the concerts to support it were quite successful; the flashy shred guitar work of Takasaki and the solid musicianship of the other band members soon became a trademark of their performances in the studio and on stage. The band, excited by the good sales response in Japan, produced four studio albums in rapid succession, while guitarist Takasaki found the time to start his solo career, releasing the album Tusk of Jaguar, which the other group members played in.
In 1983, after recording their third album The Law of Devil's Land, they embarked on their first United States tour, followed by a tour in Europe. They moved to Europe to record their fourth album Disillusion, performing several concerts there, as documented in their second video Eurobounds; as an attempt to break in the international scene, the band re-recorded the vocal tracks of the album Disillusion in English language, releasing their first album outside Japan in 1984. In 1985, through the management of Twisted Sister co-manager Joe Gerber, they signed an international record deal with Atco Records; such an achievement was the first in Japanese music history for a heavy metal band. Their fifth album, the Max Norman produced Thunder in the East, was recorded in the USA and was successful, it was their first American release and it peaked at No. 74 in the Billboard album chart, relying much on the strength of the single "Crazy Nights", whose video earned heavy rotation play on MTV. Their sixth album, Lightning Strikes, was once again charted at No.
64, receiving good reviews and making Loudness a worldwide attraction. The album was released in Japan under the name Shadows of War, their success in the United States had pushed the group to write more commercial pop-metal tunes, like the single "Let It Go", quite different from what they had done in all their previous albums. Following this new and chart-rewarding direction, the band lost some of their supportive Japanese fan base, which did not accept the homologation to the US glam metal sound, their seventh album Hurricane Eyes was released in 1987 worldwide with standard English lyrics. A Japanese version was subsequently released only in Japan in the year with Niihara singing most of the lyrics in Japanese; the album was produced by the famous producer and sound engineer Eddie Kramer, who had worked with the likes of The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Jimi Hendrix and Kiss. The song "So Lonely", a reworked version of "Ares Lament" from the 1984 album Disillusion, was instead produced by Andy Johns, another world-famous producer.
This was the last Loudness' album to enter the US Billboard 200 chart, where it remained for 4 weeks, peaking at No. 190 Following the Jealousy EP in 1988, singer Niihara left the band, after producer Max Norman's suggestion that an English speaking vocalist could help the band break through in the American market. The chosen American vocalist was former Obsession frontman Mike Vescera. Minoru Niihara continued his singing career in Japan as frontman of the metal bands Ded Chaplin, Sly and X. Y. Z.→A, besides releasing a solo album. The new Loudness’ line-up recorded two studio albums, Soldier of Fortune in 1989 and On the Prowl in 1991; the latter included only three new songs among remakes of older material translated and sung by Vescera. Despite extensive tours and strong support from their label, the new albums did not improve the band's status in America and, on the contrary, reduced further the Japanese fanbase of Loudness. After the release of the single "Slap in the Face", Vescera left Loudness during their 1991 American tour, to join Yngwie J. Malmsteen's band.
He was replaced by former Ezo vocalist Masaki Yamada to finish the tour. The change of personnel did not influence the success of the band, because the sudden predilection of the American audience for the gritty and aggressive sound of grunge and alternative rock bands at the beginning of the 90s, had already
Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives is a website which lists bands from various forms of heavy metal music. Encyclopaedia Metallum was described by Matt Sullivan of Nashville Scene as "the Internet's central database for all that is'tr00' in the metal world." Terrorizer described the site as "a fully-exhaustive list of pretty much every metal band with full discographies, an active forum and an interlinking members list that shows the ever-incestuous beauty of the metal scene". There are exceptions for bands which fall under disputed genres not accepted by the website. Encyclopaedia Metallum attempts to provide comprehensive information on each band, such as a discography, pictures, line-ups, biography and user-submitted reviews; the site provides a system for submitting bands to the archives. The website is free of advertisements and is run independently; the Encyclopaedia Metallum was launched on July 17, 2002 by two Canadians from Montreal using the pseudonyms HellBlazer and Morrigan.
A couple years prior, HellBlazer had the idea of an encyclopedia for heavy metal and attempted to write each band's page using HTML. Although he gave up with that initial attempt, a automated site with contributions from its users was in the works; the site went live early in July 2002 and the first band added on July 7. In just over a year the site had amassed a database of over 10,000 bands; the site continues to grow at a rate of about 500 bands per month. On 1 January 2013, the site announced that bands with digital discographies could now be submitted to the Archives, changing the site's decade-long policy of physical releases only. Digital releases must have a fixed track listing, album art, professional or finished production and be available in a high-quality or lossless format through official distribution sources. On 13 November 2014, the number of bands listed in the database reached 100,000; the site has a tradition of April Fool's Day pranks. This started in 2009 with the addition of Korn into the Metal-Archives and several dozen user reviews praising their first self-titled album, with the news article of the day claiming that the first album was metal enough for the site.
A series of staged arguments between moderators appeared throughout the day on the site's forum. 2010 was the year. In 2012 the site posted an FBI logo on the main page, suggesting that the site was suspended by the FBI as a result from the SOPA and PIPA bill, a much-talked about phenomenon in the media around this time. Despite the ability to bypass this image just by clicking on it, many people took the prank and thought that Metal Archives had been shut down for promoting internet piracy. Nickelback was added to the Metal-Archives in 2013 in a prank, similar to the 2009 Korn prank, as it had user submitted joke reviews praising various Nickelback albums. In 2014, the prank consisted on the addition of several reviews of an EP called Penis Metal released by Chilean black metal band Hades Archer, followed by the addition of the band's logo and pictures which included penis on them; the band's style was changed to Penis Metal. A secondary prank involved the spontaneous deletion of controversial band Meshuggah, leading to another series of arguments between moderators on the site's forum, although not to the extent of the 2009 prank.
Meshuggah were reinstated the following day. For the 2015 prank a hoax news story was posted "announcing" that the site was no longer free to use and the site was introducing paid membership features. A following news post revealed. In 2016, following an argument between moderators and users alike on the question of moderating reviews, an announcement was made that reviews were no longer being accepted and that all existing ones would be deleted; the same day another announcement was made that the staff had changed their minds by bringing back the reviews as well as having every future review accepted automatically. This resulted in a wave of joke reviews. In 2017, the staff members announced that they would now produce articles commentating on the metal scene, proceeded to post tabloid and gossip articles on the site; these were taken down the next day. In 2018, the website announced that it was no longer accepting new band submissions, arguing, "We have over 120,000 bands, more than we thought possible.
That is more than enough to declare our database 100% complete. Safe to say, no other resource comes close to being as thorough and comprehensive." The "last" band to be added on the site was Michael Schenker Fest. That day, the website revealed that this was an April Fool's prank, wrote, "Band submissions are open again. Here's to another 120,000 bands and more!." In 2019, the website announced it was deleting most pages and would only list bands deemed "good" by the staff. Traditional heavy metal genres and era have stringent rulings; this is because in the past, some submissions labeled with those genres have turned out not to be metal, according to the site's guidelines. Some bands wh
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Munetaka Higuchi was a Japanese musician and record producer. He is best known as the original drummer of the heavy metal band Loudness, but first rose to prominence as a member of Lazy in the 1970s. From a young age, he was considered a talented drummer. During his high school years, Higuchi played in seven bands, but he was not happy with this situation, wanting to focus his time on only one band. That's when schoolmate and future bandmate Akira Takasaki came along and they formed Lazy. Lazy was formed by young musicians and started playing easy-listening pop-rock, that progressed to more complex music. Higuchi was identified in the band by the moniker "Davy"; when he and Takasaki shifted their musical interests to hard rock and heavy metal, they founded Loudness in 1981. During his time with Loudness, Higuchi released his first solo album, Destruction, in 1983. In the same year he produced and played drums in Mari Hamada's studio albums Lunatic Doll and Romantic Night, he left Loudness in 1992, resumed his solo career in the late-1990s, working on side projects, including Sly, Rose of Rose, the Rock'n' Roll Standard Club Band, besides collaborating with dozens of Japanese artists, both as producer and as drummer.
In 1997, as "Munetaka Higuchi & Dream Castle", he released the album Free World. The band featured many famous musicians from the jazz and rock/metal spheres, like Steve Vai, Stanley Clarke, Billy Sheehan, Ty Tabor, Terry Bozzio, T. M. Stevens, Ronnie James Dio, Richie Kotzen, Paulinho Da Costa and others; the album was released on February 1997 in Japan. In 1998, he produced Cozy Powell Forever ~ Tribute to Cozy Powell, a tribute album to the deceased drummer Cozy Powell popular in Japan. For the album, Higuchi had the collaboration of the best Japanese heavy metal musicians and was able to reunite his former bandmates of Loudness. A tour in support of the album was made with musicians from Sly, he returned to Loudness in 2000. On April 14, 2008, just two months after Loudness released the album, Metal Mad, it was announced that he was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, a type of liver cancer. On November 30, 2008, Munetaka died at the age of 49 in a hospital in Japan, his death had a vast echo in the entertainment biz.
Higuchi endorsed Sabian Cymbals, Remo drumheads and Vic Firth drumsticks. Destruction ~破壊凱旋録~（12/10/1983） Munetaka Higuchi with Dream Castle - Free World （02/21/1997） Cozy Powell Forever Super Rock Summit - Cozy Powell Forever Tour Super Rock Summit - Stairway to Heaven Super Rock Summit - Rainbow Eyes Munetaka Higuchi Drum Collection (08/23/2006）
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me