Hexham Abbey is a Grade I listed place of Christian worship dedicated to St Andrew, in the town of Hexham, Northumberland, in northeast England. Built in AD 674, the Abbey was built up during the 12th century into its current form, with additions around the turn of the 20th century. Since the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1537, the Abbey has been the parish church of Hexham. In 2014 the Abbey regained ownership of its former monastic buildings, used as Hexham magistrates' court, subsequently developed them into a permanent exhibition and visitor centre, telling the story of the Abbey's history. There has been a church on the site for over 1300 years since Etheldreda, Queen of Northumbria made a grant of lands to St Wilfrid, Bishop of York c.674. Of Wilfrid's Benedictine abbey, constructed entirely of material salvaged from nearby Roman ruins, the Saxon crypt still remains. For a little while around that time it was the seat of a bishopric. In the year 875, Halfdene the Dane ravaged the whole of Tyneside and Hexham Church was plundered and burnt to the ground.
About 1050, one Eilaf was put in charge of Hexham, although as treasurer of Durham, he never went there. Eilaf was instructed to rebuild Hexham Church which lay in utter ruin, his son Eilaf II completed the work building in the Norman style. In Norman times, Wilfrid's abbey was replaced by an Augustinian priory; the current church dates from c.1170–1250, built in the Early English style of architecture. The choir and south transepts and the cloisters, where canons studied and meditated, date from this period; the east end was rebuilt in 1858. The Abbey was rebuilt during the incumbency of Canon Edwin Sidney Savage who came to Hexham in 1898 and remained until 1919; this mammoth project involved re-building the nave, whose walls incorporate some of the earlier church and the restoration of the choir. The nave was re-consecrated on 8 August 1908; the church was recorded as Grade I listed in 1951. In 1996 an additional chapel was created at the east end of the north choir aisle. Four of the stained glass windows in the Abbey are the work of Jersey-born stained glass artist Henry Thomas Bosdet, commissioned by the Abbey.
The east window was the first project and was installed about 1907. Two smaller windows followed and the large west window was installed in 1918; the crypt is a plain structure of four chambers. Here were exhibited the relics, it consists of a chapel with an ante-chapel at the west end, two side passages with enlarged vestibules and three stairways. The chapel and ante-chapel are barrel-vaulted. All the stones used are of Roman workmanship and many are carved or with inscriptions. One inscription on a slab erased, is: Translated it means The Emperor Lucius Septimus Severus Pius Pertinax and his sons the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antonius Pius Augustus and Publius Geta Caesar the cohorts and detachments made this under the command of ….. The words erased. After the Emperor Geta was murdered by his brother Caracalla, an edict was made at Rome ordering that whenever the two names appeared in combination that of Geta was to be erased; this was so poorly that the name can still be read. The first diocese of Lindisfarne was merged into the Diocese of York in 664.
York diocese was divided in 678 by Theodore of Tarsus, forming a bishopric for the country between the Rivers Aln and Tees, with a seat at Hexham and/or Lindisfarne. This and erratically merged back into the bishopric of Lindisfarne. Eleven bishops of Hexham followed St. Eata. No successor was appointed in 821, the condition of the country being too unsettled. A period of disorder followed the Danish devastations, after which Hexham monastery was reconstituted in 1113 as a priory of Austin Canons, which flourished until its dissolution under Henry VIII. Meantime the bishopric had been merged in that of Lindisfarne, which latter see was removed to Chester-le-Street in 883, thence to Durham in 995. Eata,'bishop of Bernicia', with his seat at Hexham and/or Lindisfarne, died 685, succeeded by John of Beverley Trumbert, 682, as'bishop of Hexham', at the same time as Trumwine's installation, with Eata continuing as bishop at Lindisfarne Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, 685, after Tumbert's din deposition, moving his seat to Lindisfarne to become bishop of Lindisfarne St. John of Beverley.
From on, the seat was at Hexham, the bishopric of Lindisfarne continued independently, with Eadberht succeeding Cuthbert St. Wilfrid, resigning the See of York, died as Bishop of Hexham in 709 St. Acca, Wilfrid's successor, from 709 Frithubeorht 734–766 St. Eahlmund 767–781 Tilbeorht 781–789 Æthelberht 789–797 transferred from Whithorn Heardred 797-800 Eanbehrt 800–813 Tidfrith, last bishop in this line, who died about 821 Canon Barker 1866 – 18 Edwin Sidney Savage 1898 – 1918 James Vaux Cornell Farquhar 1919 – 1945 Archibald George Hardie 1945 – 1962 Rowland Lemmon 1962 – 1975 Bishop Anthony Hunter 1975 -1979 Timothy Withers Green 1979 – 1984 Michael Middleton 1985 – 1992 Canon Michael Nelson 1992 – 2004 Canon Graham Usher 2004 – 2014 Canon Dr Dagmar Winter 2015- Ælfwald I of Northumbria Eata of Hexham Frithubeorht Acca of Hexham Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros The tombstone of Flavinus, is one of the most significant Roman finds in Britain, it can be found in the Abbey in front of a blocked doorway at the foot of the Night Stair.
Flavinus was a Roman cavalry officer who
St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin
St. Mary's Abbey was a former Cistercian abbey located near Abbey Street in Dublin, Ireland, its territory stretched from the district known as Oxmanstown down along the River Liffey until it met the sea. It owned large estates in other parts of Ireland, it was one of several liberties that existed in Dublin since the arrival of the Anglo-Normans in the 12th century, which gave it jurisdiction over its lands. The abbey was founded by the Irish king Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid in 846, according to the Annals of the Four Masters, it was Benedictine, but in 1139 was given by Malachy O'Morga, the legate of the Pope, to monks belonging to the Congregation of Savigny, which in 1147 joined the Cistercian order. In 1303, a great part of the abbey and church was re-constructed. However, many of the city records in chancery stored in the abbey were destroyed; the abbey was one of the richest in Ireland at that time. In 1316 Robert de Nottingham Mayor of Dublin, attacked the abbey where the Earl of Ulster, Richard Óg de Burgh, was visiting.
De Burgh was suspected of having brought Edward Bruce, marching on Dublin, to Ireland. Several of de Burgh's men were killed before he was captured, as the monks were suspected of supporting Bruce, the abbey was laid waste. Silken Thomas started his rebellion of 1534 here, by throwing down his Sword of State. James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539 the property was given over to John Travers and the church became an arsenal and part of a quarry; the spacious lands, owned by the monks came in time to be let to persons who desired to build residences or places of business thereon. In 1619 Sir Gerald Moore of Mellifont, received from King James I of England a grant of the abbey, together with its tithes and lands, he became Viscount Moore of Mellifont. The family of Moore made the Abbey their Dublin residence up to the close of the 17th century, it was Henry Moore, 1st Earl of Drogheda, who built himself a mansion on what in now O'Connell Street, developed Henry and Earl streets.
In 1676 the stones of the Abbey were used for the building of Essex Bridge Dr. Charles Lindsay, Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin 1804–46 and afterwards Bishop of Kildare, acquired the old monastic lands of Glasnevin, which had once belonged to the abbey; these were purchased around 1832 to form what is now Glasnevin Cemetery. The abbey was only rediscovered, 7 feet underground and underneath a bakery, in the 1880s, by an amateur archaeologist, his findings were publicized by John Thomas Gilbert. Parts of the old adjoining walls can still be seen; the building is now in the care of Heritage Ireland. The Chapter House is ordinarily open by descending a stone staircase; as of May 2015 the site is closed until further notice. List of abbeys and priories in Ireland Primary Gilbert, John Thomas. Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin: with the Register of its house at Dunbrody and Annals of Ireland. London: Longman. White, Newport B. ed.. Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions 1540–1541. Dublin: Stationery Office for the Irish Manuscripts Commission.
Secondary Gilbert, John. A History of the City of Dublin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gwynn, A.. "The Origins of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin"; the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 79: 110–125. JSTOR 25510691. Lawlor, H. J.. "The Foundation of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin"; the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Sixth Series. Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 16: 22–28. JSTOR 25513386. Ó Conbhuí, C.. "The Lands of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C. Royal Irish Academy. 62: 21–86. JSTOR 25505103. Tutty, Michael J.. "Editorial: St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin". Dublin Historical Record. Old Dublin Society. 24: 88. JSTOR 30103890. "Review "St Mary's Abbey, Dublin" by the Rev Albert J. Luddy"; the Irish Monthly. Irish Jesuit Province. 63: 201. March 1935. JSTOR 20513727. "Review "Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions 1540-1541" Edited by Newport B. White"; the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Seventh Series.
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 14: 95–96. 30 June 1944. JSTOR 25510436. Wright, George Newenham. "An Historical Guide to the City of Dublin". Online book. Retrieved 2015-04-15. Heritage Ireland web page about the abbey History Ireland webpage about the abbey, from a 2011 issue of the magazine
Winchester Cathedral is a cathedral of the Church of England in Winchester, England. It is one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the greatest overall length of any Gothic cathedral. Dedicated to the Holy Trinity, Saint Peter, Saint Paul, before the Reformation, Saint Swithun, it is the seat of the Bishop of Winchester and centre of the Diocese of Winchester; the cathedral is a Grade I listed building. The cathedral was founded in 642 on a site to the north of the present one; this building became known as the Old Minster. It became part of a monastic settlement in 971. Saint Swithun was buried near the Old Minster and in it, before being moved to the new Norman cathedral. So-called mortuary chests said to contain the remains of Saxon kings such as King Eadwig of England, first buried in the Old Minster, his wife Ælfgifu, are in the present cathedral; the Old Minster was demolished in 1093 after the consecration of its successor. In 1079, Bishop of Winchester, began work on a new cathedral.
Much of the limestone used to build the structure was brought across from quarries around Binstead, Isle of Wight. Nearby Quarr Abbey draws its name from these workings, as do several nearby places such as Stonelands and Stonepitts; the remains of the Roman trackway used to transport the blocks are still evident across the fairways of the Ryde Golf Club, where the stone was hauled from the quarries to the hythe at the mouth of Binstead Creek, thence by barge across the Solent and up to Winchester. The building was consecrated in 1093. On 8 April of that year, according to the Annals of Winchester, "in the presence of all the bishops and abbots of England, the monks came with the highest exultation and glory from the old minster to the new one: on the Feast of S. Swithun they went in procession from the new minster to the old one and brought thence S. Swithun's shrine and placed it with honour in the new buildings, on the following day Walkelin's men first began to pull down the old minster."A substantial amount of the fabric of Walkelin's building, including crypt and the basic structure of the nave, survives.
The original crossing tower, collapsed in 1107, an accident blamed by the cathedral's medieval chroniclers on the burial of the dissolute William Rufus beneath it in 1100. Its replacement, which survives today, is still with round-headed windows, it is a squat, square structure, 50 feet wide, but rising only 35 feet above the ridge of the transept roof. The Tower is 150 feet tall. After the consecration of Godfrey de Luci as bishop in 1189, a retrochoir was added in the Early English style; the next major phase of rebuilding was not until the mid-14th century, under bishops Edington and Wykeham. Edingdon removed the two westernmost bays of the nave, built a new west front and began the remodelling of the nave. Under William of Wykeham the Romanesque nave was transformed, recased in Caen stone and remodelled in the Perpendicular style, with its internal elevation divided into two, rather than the previous three, storeys; the wooden ceilings were replaced with stone vaults. Wykeham's successor, Henry of Beaufort carried out fewer alterations, adding only a chantry on the south side of the retrochoir, although work on the nave may have continued through his episcopy.
His successor, William of Waynflete, built another chantry in a corresponding position on the north side. Under Peter Courtenay and Thomas Langton, there was more work. De Luci's Lady chapel was lengthened, the Norman side aisles of the presbytery replaced. In 1525, Richard Foxe added the side screens of the presbytery, which he gave a wooden vault. With its progressive extensions, the east end is now about 110 feet beyond that of Walkelin's building. King Henry VIII seized control of the Catholic Church in England and declared himself head of the Church of England; the Benedictine foundation, the Priory of Saint Swithun, was dissolved. The priory surrendered to the king in 1539; the next year a new chapter was formed, the last prior, William Basyng, was appointed dean. The monastic buildings, including the cloister and chapter house, were demolished during the 1560–1580 tenure of the reformist bishop Robert Horne; the Norman choir screen, having fallen into a state of decay, was replaced in 1637–40 by a new one, designed by Inigo Jones.
It was in a classical style, with bronze figures by Hubert le Sueur of James I and Charles I in niches. It was removed by when its style was felt inappropriate in an otherwise medieval building; the central bay, with its archway, is now in the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge. This stone structure was removed in the 1870s to make way for a wooden one designed by George Gilbert Scott, who modelled it on the canopies of the choir stalls of the monks. Scott's west-facing screen has been much criticised, although the carving is of superlative workmanship and replicates the earlier, albeit finer, carving of the early 14th century east-facing return stalls on to which it backs; the displaced bronze statues of the Stuart kings were moved to the west end of the Cathedral, standing in niches on each side of the central door. Scott's work was otherwise conservative, he moved the lectern to the north side of the quire beside the pulpit, facing west, where it remained for a century before returning to its present central position, now facing east.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn. It originated in 679 with the foundation of an abbey dedicated to Saint Peter. Wardle records that in 1058 Ealdred, Bishop of Worcester at the time, rebuilt the church of St Peter; the foundations of the present church were laid by Abbot Serlo. Walter Frocester the abbey's historian, became its first mitred abbot in 1381; until 1541, Gloucester lay in the see of Worcester, but the separate see was constituted, with John Wakeman, last abbot of Tewkesbury, as its first bishop. The diocese covers the greater part of Gloucestershire, with small parts of Herefordshire and Wiltshire; the cathedral has a stained-glass window depicting the earliest images of golf. This dates from 1350, over 300 years earlier than the earliest image of golf from Scotland. There is a carved image of people playing a ball game, believed by some to be one of the earliest images of medieval football.
The cathedral, built as the abbey church, consists of a Norman nucleus, with additions in every style of Gothic architecture. It is 420 feet long, 144 feet wide, with a fine central tower of the 15th century rising to the height of 225 ft and topped by four delicate pinnacles, a famous landmark; the nave is massive Norman with an Early English roof. The crypt is one of the four apsidal cathedral crypts in England, the others being at Worcester and Canterbury; the south porch is in the Perpendicular style, with a fan-vaulted roof, as is the north transept, the south being transitional Decorated Gothic. The choir has Perpendicular tracery over Norman work, with an apsidal chapel on each side: the choir vaulting is rich; the late Decorated east window is filled with surviving medieval stained glass. Between the apsidal chapels is a cross Lady chapel, north of the nave are the cloisters, the carrels or stalls for the monks' study and writing lying to the south; the cloisters at Gloucester are the earliest surviving fan vaults, having been designed between 1351 and 1377 by Thomas de Canterbury.
The most notable monument is the canopied shrine of Edward II of England, murdered at nearby Berkeley Castle. The building and sanctuary were enriched by the visits of pilgrims to this shrine. In a side-chapel is a monument in coloured bog oak of Robert Curthose, eldest son of William the Conqueror and a great benefactor of the abbey, interred there. Monuments of William Warburton and Edward Jenner are worthy of note; the Abbey was the site of the coronation of Henry III, the only monarch since the Norman Conquest not crowned in Westminster Abbey. This is commemorated in a stained glass window in the south aisle. Between 1873 and 1890, in 1897, the cathedral was extensively restored by George Gilbert Scott. In September 2016 Gloucester Cathedral joined the Church of England’s ‘Shrinking the Footprint’ campaign; the aim of this campaign is to reduce The Church of England’s carbon emissions collectively, by 80%. In order to help reach this target Gloucester Cathedral commissioned local solar company Mypower to install an array on the nave of Gloucester Cathedral.
Purportedly the solar array will reduce Gloucester Cathedral’s energy costs by 25%. The installation was completed by November 2016; the 1000 year old Cathedral is now the oldest building in the world to have undergone a solar installation. The cathedral has forty-six 14th-century misericords and twelve 19th-century replacements by Gilbert Scott. Both types have a wide range of subject matter: mythology, everyday occurrences, religious symbolism and folklore; as of 30 January 2019: Dean — Stephen Lake Canon Precentor & Director of Congregational Development — Richard Mitchell Canon Chancellor — Celia Thomson City Centre Rector — Nikki Arthy Director of Mission and Ministry — Andrew Braddock Archdeacon of Gloucester — Hilary Dawson The organ was constructed in 1666 by Thomas Harris and has the only complete 17th-century cathedral organ case surviving in the country. The pipes displayed on the front of the case are still functional; the organ was extended and modified by nearly all of the established UK organ builders, including Henry "Father" Willis who worked on the organ in 1847 and rebuilt it in 1888–1889.
It was rebuilt again in 1920 by Harrison. In 1971 Hill and Beard performed a total redesign, under the supervision of Cathedral Organist John Sanders and consultant Ralph Downes. In 1999 Nicholson & Co overhauled the organ, when the soundboards and wind supply were renovated and the computer system was updated. In 2010 Nicholson added a Trompette Harmonique solo reed; the organ comprises four pedals. It is designed to play from its position on the Quire screen to both East and West sides of the Cathedral; the Swell is situated in the centre of the case at console level and is controlled by two swell pedals, one for each side of the case. Directly above the Swell is the Great organ, split into East and West divisions; the fourth manual is a West Positive, mirroring the function of the Choir organ for the West side of the Cathedral. In 1582, R
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Skype is a telecommunications application that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, smartwatches via the Internet. Skype provides instant messaging services. Users may transmit text, video and images. Skype allows video conference calls. At the end of 2010, there were over 660 million worldwide users, with over 300 million estimated active each month as of August 2015. At one point in February 2012, there were 34 million users concurrently online on Skype. First released in August 2003, Skype was created by the Swede Niklas Zennström and the Dane Janus Friis, in cooperation with Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, Jaan Tallinn, Estonians who developed the backend, used in the music-sharing application Kazaa. In September 2005, eBay acquired Skype for $2.6 billion. In September 2009, Silver Lake, Andreessen Horowitz, the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board announced the acquisition of 65% of Skype for $1.9 billion from eBay, which attributed to the enterprise a market value of $2.92 billion.
Microsoft bought Skype in May 2011 for $8.5 billion. Skype division headquarters are in Luxembourg, but most of the development team and 44% of all the division's employees are still situated in Tallinn and Tartu, Estonia. Skype allows users to communicate over the Internet by voice, using a microphone, by video using a webcam, by instant messaging. Skype implements a freemium business model. Skype-to-Skype calls are free of charge, while calls to landline telephones and mobile phones are charged via a debit-based user account system called Skype Credit; some network administrators have banned Skype on corporate, government and education networks, citing such reasons as inappropriate usage of resources, excessive bandwidth usage and security concerns. Skype featured a hybrid peer-to-peer and client–server system. Skype has been powered by Microsoft-operated supernodes since May 2012; the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures revealed that Microsoft had granted intelligence agencies unfettered access to supernodes and Skype communication content.
Throughout 2016 and 2017, Microsoft redesigned its Skype clients in a way that transitioned Skype from peer-to-peer service to a centralized Azure service and adjusted the user interfaces of apps to make text-based messaging more prominent than voice calling. Skype for Windows, iOS, Android and Linux received significant, visible overhauls; the name for the software is derived from "Sky peer-to-peer", abbreviated to "Skyper". However, some of the domain names associated with "Skyper" were taken. Dropping the final "r" left the current title "Skype", for which domain names were available. Skype was founded in 2003 by Niklas Zennström, from Sweden, Janus Friis, from Denmark; the Skype software was created by Estonians Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, Jaan Tallinn. The first public beta version was released on 29 August 2003. In June 2005, Skype entered into an agreement with the Polish web portal Onet.pl for an integrated offering on the Polish market. On 12 September 2005, eBay Inc. agreed to acquire Luxembourg-based Skype Technologies SA for US$2.5 billion in up-front cash and eBay stock, plus potential performance-based consideration.
On 1 September 2009, eBay announced it was selling 65% of Skype to Silver Lake, Andreessen Horowitz, the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board for US$1.9 billion, valuing Skype at US$2.75 billion. On 14 July 2011, Skype partnered with Comcast to bring its video chat service to Comcast subscribers via HDTV sets. On 17 June 2013, Skype released a free video messaging service, which can be operated on Windows, Mac OS, iOS, Android and BlackBerry. On 2 August 2017, Skype teamed up with PayPal to provide a new money send feature, it allows users to transfer funds via the Skype mobile app in the middle of a conversation using PayPal. On 10 May 2011, Microsoft Corporation acquired Skype Communications, S.à r.l for US$8.5 billion. The company was incorporated as a division of Microsoft, which acquired all its technologies with the purchase; the acquisition was completed on 13 October 2011. Shortly after its acquisition, Microsoft began integrating the Skype service with its own products. Along with taking over development of existing Skype desktop and mobile apps, the company developed a dedicated client app for its newly released, touch-focused Windows 8 and Windows RT operating systems.
They were made available from Windows Store when the new OS launched on 26 October 2012. The following year, it became the default messaging app for Windows 8.1, replacing the Windows 8 Messaging app at the time, became pre-installed software on every device that came with or upgraded to 8.1. When the company introduced Office 2013 on 27 February 2013, it was announced that 60 Skype world minutes per month would be included in Office 365 consumer plans. Furthermore, Microsoft discontinued two of its own products in favor of Skype: In a month-long transition period from 8 to 30 April 2013, Microsoft phased out its long-standing Windows Live Messenger instant messaging service in favor of Skype, although Messenger continued in mainland China. On 11 November 2014, Microsoft announced; the latest version of the communication software combines features of Lync and the consumer Skype software. There are two user interfaces – organizations can switch their users from the default Skype for Business interface to the Lync interface.
On 12 August 2013, Skype released the 4.10 update to the app for Apple iPhone and iPad that allows HD quality video for iPhone 5 and fourth-generation iPads. On 20 November 2014, Microsoft Office's team announced that a