Siberia is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is known as North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of Russia since the 17th century, the territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. It stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the borders of Mongolia. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres, Siberia accounts for 77% of Russias land area and this is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, the origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that Siberia originates from the Siberian Tatar word for sleeping land, another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya, a folk, which spoke a language that evolved into the Ugric languages.
This ethnic group was assimilated to the Siberian Tatar people. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empires conquest of the Siberian Khanate, a further variant claims that the region was named after the Xibe people. The Polish historian Chycliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the word for north. He said that the neighbouring Chinese and Mongolians would not have known Russian and he suggests that the name is a combination of two words, su and bir. The region is of significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a rhinoceros from the Kolyma River. The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earths geological history. They continued for a million years and are considered a cause of the Great Dying about 250 million years ago. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago, H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, the last was determined in 2010, by DNA evidence, to be a new species.
Siberia was inhabited by different groups of such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Scythians. The Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630, the Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century. With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century, turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century
Oberursel is a town in Germany and part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. It is located to the north west of Frankfurt, and is the second largest town in the county of Hochtaunuskreis, in 2011, the town hosted the 51st Hessentag state festival. The maximum distance from the town border to the southern border is 7.2 km the maximum distance from east to west is 13.0 km. Besides the town centre, Oberursel is divided into the districts Oberstedten, Bommersheim was annexed before the municipal reform of 1972 and therefore is not an independent district. The town was first mentioned as Ursella in 791 in a recording a donation to the monastery Lorsch. In the year 880 the first church in the area, called monasterium ad ursellam, was mentioned, in 1317 the first trading activities were documented. In 1444 Oberursel was officially sanctioned as a town, two years later, the town wall was finished. Since the town was growing so fast in the 15th century the walls had to be expanded in 1481 towards the east.
In the early 16th century a school for Latin language was established next to the church,1535 Oberursel become property of Earl Ludwig von Stolberg-Königstein and becomes a Protestant town. 1557 Nicolaus Henricus built the first printing plant in Oberursel,1605 due to the counter-reformation Oberursel becomes Catholic again. The most important industry in the late Middle Ages and in the modern times was the clothier business. During the Thirty Years War the town was destroyed three times, in 1622 and 1645, and the number of inhabitants decreased from 1600 to 600. During the 1645 razing, most buildings were destroyed by fire and this is the reason why nearly all houses in the old town of Oberursel are from the 17th century. As the town was rebuilt and grew, many mills and forges were founded along the Urselbachtal, by 1858, industrialisation had begun in Oberursel, with several cotton-spinning mills being built. In 1860 Oberursel was linked to the railway between Bad Homburg and Frankfurt, in 1899 a subway was opened privately in the direction of Hohemark.
The camp name was shortened to Dulag Luft, or simply Dulag. Almost all allied airmen who were shot down and captured spent some time at camp before being moved to their permanent assigned Stalag. After the occupation of Oberursel by the USA in April 1945, the existing buildings were transformed into Camp King, which began as an intelligence post, later a transportation post until its deactivation in 1993
Otmoor or Ot Moor is an area of wetland and wet grassland in Oxfordshire, located halfway between Oxford and Bicester. It is about 60 metres above sea level, and has an area of approximately 160 hectares and it is encircled by the Seven Towns of Otmoor, Noke, Charlton-on-Otmoor, Fencott and Horton-cum-Studley. Part of it is a reserve, RSPB Otmoor, which adjoins a Ministry of Defence firing range. Bisected north–south by the Roman Road between Alchester and Dorchester-on-Thames, its name is derived from the Old English for Ottas Fen, watered by the River Ray, it was until the early 19th century unenclosed marshland, and regularly flooded in winter. An Enclosure Act was passed in 1815, under which the area was extensively drained and this disadvantaged the local farmers and led to civil disturbances known as the Otmoor Riots of 1829–30. In 1920 the Royal Air Force acquired Otmoor for use as a bombing range, part of the moor remains in military use as a rifle range, and is a large part of Otmoor Site of Special Scientific Interest.
The semi-wetland landscape provided habitat for rare species of birds. These were threatened in 1980 by a government proposal for the route of the M40 motorway to cross Otmoor, opposition to the motorway was led by Friends of the Earth and included the Alices Meadow campaign. The government eventually adopted an alternative route, since 1997 a large part of Otmoor has been made an RSPB nature reserve, with large areas of land being returned to marshland. Immediately east of the RSPB reserve is Otmoor SSSI, the Last Phase of the Enclosure of Otmoor. The Making of the English Landscape, further information is available on the Otmoor Noticeboard website Starlings on Otmoor video
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy that is characterized by low temperature, slow breathing and heart rate. Many experts believe that the processes of daily torpor and hibernation form a continuum, the equivalent during the summer months is known as aestivation. Some reptile species are said to brumate, or undergo brumation, some insects, such as the wasp Polistes exclamans, hibernate by aggregating together in groups in protected places called hibernacula. Often associated with low temperatures, the function of hibernation is to conserve energy during a period when sufficient food is unavailable, to achieve this energy saving, an endotherm will first decrease its metabolic rate, which decreases body temperature. Hibernation may last several days, weeks, or months depending on the species, ambient temperature, time of year, before entering hibernation, animals need to store enough energy to last through the entire winter.
Larger species become hyperphagic and eat a large amount of food, in many small species, food caching replaces eating and becoming fat. Some species of mammals hibernate while gestating young, which are born while the mother hibernates or shortly afterwards. For example, the polar bear goes into hibernation during the cold winter months to give birth to her offspring. She loses 15–27% of her weight and uses stored fats for energy during times of food scarcity. It is evident that pregnant female polar bears significantly increase body mass prior to hibernation, the fat accumulation prior to hibernation in female polar bears enables them to provide a sufficient and warm, nurturing environment for their newborns. Malagasy winter temperatures sometimes rise to over 30 °C, so hibernation is not exclusively an adaptation to low ambient temperatures, dausmann found that hypometabolism in hibernating animals is not necessarily coupled to a low body temperature. Hibernating bears are able to recycle their proteins and urine, allowing both to stop urinating for months and to avoid muscle atrophy.
Obligate hibernators are animals that spontaneously, and annually, enter hibernation regardless of ambient temperature and these undergo what has been traditionally called hibernation, the physiological state where the body temperature drops to near ambient temperature, and heart and respiration rates slow drastically. The cause and purpose of these arousals is still not clear, the question of why hibernators may experience the periodic arousals has plagued researchers for decades, and while there is still no clear-cut explanation, there are myriad hypotheses on the topic. One favored hypothesis is that hibernators build a sleep debt during hibernation and this has been supported by evidence in the Arctic ground squirrel. Another theory states that the periods of high body temperature during hibernation are used by the animal to restore its available energy sources. Yet another theory states that the frequent returns to high body temperature allow mammals to initiate an immune response, historically there was a question of whether or not bears truly hibernate, since they experience only a modest decline in body temperature compared with what other hibernators undergo
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Arthropoda, which includes the insects, myriapods, arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages, the rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all guilds in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living species, some of which. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus up to the Japanese spider crab, arthropods primary internal cavity is a hemocoel, which accommodates their internal organs, and through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates, they have open circulatory systems. Like their exteriors, the organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments.
Their nervous system is ladder-like, with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, and their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus. The respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong, arthropods have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors, mostly based on modifications of the many setae that project through their cuticles. Aquatic species use internal or external fertilization. Almost all arthropods lay eggs, but scorpions give birth to live young after the eggs have hatched inside the mother, arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs and caterpillars that lack jointed limbs and eventually undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form. The level of care for hatchlings varies from nonexistent to the prolonged care provided by scorpions. The evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period, the group is generally regarded as monophyletic, and many analyses support the placement of arthropods with cycloneuralians in a superphylum Ecdysozoa.
Overall however, the relationships of Metazoa are not yet well resolved. Likewise, the relationships between various groups are still actively debated. Arthropods contribute to the food supply both directly as food, and more importantly indirectly as pollinators of crops. Some species are known to spread disease to humans, livestock. The word arthropod comes from the Greek ἄρθρον árthron, and πούς pous, i. e. foot or leg, arthropods are invertebrates with segmented bodies and jointed limbs
Such a name is called a binomial name, a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name, more informally it is called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs, for example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. The formal introduction of system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus. Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. Similarly, both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a name is usually given, at least when it is first mentioned. In zoology Patella vulgata Linnaeus,1758, the original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica, the parentheses indicate that the species is now considered to belong in a different genus.
The ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, in botany Amaranthus retroflexus L. – L. is the standard abbreviation used in botany for Linnaeus. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica, Rothmaler transferred it to the genus Hyacinthoides, the ICN does not require that the dates of either publication be specified. Prior to the adoption of the binomial system of naming species. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature and these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, and second, to be a diagnosis or description, such polynomial names may sometimes look like binomials, but are significantly different. For example, Gerards herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort, The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort, is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia. The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels, the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words.
The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné. It was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word trivial name together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as an epithet or specific name
The Nymphalidae are the largest family of butterflies with about 6,000 species distributed throughout most of the world, belonging to the superfamily Papilionoidea. These are usually medium-sized to large butterflies, Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colourful wings flat when resting. Many species are coloured and include popular species such as the emperors, monarch butterfly, tortoiseshells. Rafinesque introduced the name Nymphalia as a name in diurnal Lepidoptera. Rafinesque did not include Nymphalis among the genera, but Nymphalis was unequivocally implied in the formation of the name. The attribution of the Nymphalidae to Rafinesque has now been widely adopted, for terms see External morphology of Lepidoptera. In the adult butterflies, the first pair of legs is small or reduced, the caterpillars are hairy or spiky with projections on the head, and the chrysalids have shiny spots. e. Given off by the subcostal vein before apex of the cell, the hindwings have internal and precostal veins.
The cell in both wings is closed or open, often closed in the fore, open in the hindwing, the dorsal margin of the hindwing is channelled to receive the abdomen in many of the forms. The antennae always have two grooves on the underside, the club is variable in shape. g, in many of the forms of these subfamilies, the forelegs are kept pressed against the underside of the thorax, and are in the male often very inconspicuous. The phylogeny of the Nymphalidae is complex, several taxa are of unclear position, reflecting the fact that some subfamilies were formerly well-recognized as distinct families due to insufficient study. The five main clades within the family are, The libytheine clade Libytheinae The danaine clade Danainae Host plant families include Apocynaceae, ithomiini Most species have long wings, and some have transparent wings. Host plants are in the families Apocynaceae and Solanaceae, tellervini Caterpillars resemble those of the Danainae and feed on Apocynaceae. The satyrine clade Calinaginae Mimics of the Danainae, they are restricted to host plants in the family Moraceae, charaxinae Tropical canopy butterflies, the caterpillars often have head spines or projections.
Mostly edible species, have some Batesian mimics, morphinae Include the spectacular neotropical Morpho, its food plants include the Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Menispermaceae and Sapindaceae. Brassolini Host plants in the families Arecaceae, Heliconiaceae, satyrinae Host plants are in the families Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, Heliconiaceae and Selaginellaceae. The heliconiine clade Heliconiinae Colourful tropical butterflies, they are noted for Müllerian mimicry, all species use host plants in the family Passifloraceae. Acraeini Host plants are in the families Asteraceae, Sterculiaceae, limenitidinae The nymphaline clade Apaturinae Host plants are in the family Ulmaceae
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA3.0. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of people who are interested in getting involved with the project. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies, the board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project was launched in August 2004 and is hosted at species. wikimedia. org and it was officially merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14,2004. On October 10,2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles, on May 20,2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8,2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users, on October 23,2011, the project reached 300,000 articles.
On June 16,2014, the project reached 400,000 articles, on January 7,2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. Wikispecies has disabled local upload and asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons, Wikispecies does not allow the use of content that does not conform to a free license
A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. The pupal stage is only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, going through four life stages, larva, pupa. The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies, pupae may further be enclosed in other structures such as cocoons, nests or shells. In the life of an insect the pupal stage follows the larval stage and it is during the time of pupation that the adult structures of the insect are formed while the larval structures are broken down. The adult structures, imaginal discs, grow to become the adult structures, pupae are inactive, and usually sessile. However, the pupae may be exarate or obtect and they have a hard protective coating and often use camouflage to evade potential predators. Pupation may last weeks, months or even years, for example, it is two weeks in monarch butterflies. The pupa may enter dormancy or diapause until the season for the adult insect.
In temperate climates pupae usually stay dormant during winter, while in the tropics pupae usually do so during the dry season, anise swallowtails sometimes emerge after years as a chrysalis. Insects emerge from pupae by splitting the pupal case, and the process of pupation is controlled by the insects hormones. Most butterflies emerge in the morning, in mosquitoes the emergence is in the evening or night. In fleas the process is triggered by vibrations that indicate the presence of a suitable host. Prior to emergence, the adult inside the exoskeleton is termed pharate. Once the pharate adult has eclosed from the pupa, the empty pupal exoskeleton is called an exuvia, in most hymenopterans the exuvia is so thin, pupae are usually immobile and are largely defenseless. To overcome this, a feature is concealed placement. There are some species of Lycaenid butterflies who are protected in their pupal stage by ants, another means of defense by pupae of other species is the capability of making sounds or vibrations to scare potential predators. A few species use chemical defenses including toxic secretions, the pupae of social hymenopterans are protected by adult members of the hive.
Examples are pupae of the orders Neuroptera, Trichoptera, adecticous pupa - pupae without articulated mandibles
Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. It is native to Europe, northern Africa, and western North America, the plant has a long history of use as a source of medicine and fibre. Urtica dioica is a dioecious, perennial plant,1 to 2 m tall in the summer and it has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow, as are the roots. The soft, green leaves are 3 to 15 cm long and are borne oppositely on an erect, the leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base, and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. It bears small, greenish or brownish, numerous flowers in axillary inflorescences. The taxonomy of Urtica species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of names for these plants. Formerly, more species were recognised than are now accepted, however, at least six clear subspecies of U. dioica are described, some formerly classified as separate species, U. dioica subsp.
Dioica, from Europe and northern Africa, has stinging hairs, from Europe, does not have stinging hairs. Afghanica, from southwestern and central Asia, sometimes has stinging hairs or is sometimes hairless, from eastern Asia, has stinging hairs. Gracilis Selander, from North America, has stinging hairs, holosericea Thorne, from North America, has stinging hairs. U. dioica is abundant in northern Europe and much of Asia and it is less widespread in southern Europe and north Africa, where it is restricted by its need for moist soil, but is still common. In North America, it is distributed in Canada and the United States, where it is found in every province and state except for Hawaii. It grows in abundance in the Pacific Northwest, especially in places where rainfall is high. The European subspecies has been introduced into North America and South America, in Europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. The presence of nettles may indicate the site of a long-abandoned building and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate and nitrogen in the soil, providing an ideal environment for nettles.
The roots are eaten by the larva of the ghost moth Hepialus humuli. Stinging nettle is particularly found as a plant in wetter environments. Although nutritious, it is not widely eaten by wildlife or livestock