Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The last occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, the World Health Organization certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980; the risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies. Those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin, some were left blind; the initial symptoms of the disease included vomiting. This was followed by formation of sores in a skin rash. Over a number of days the skin rash turned into characteristic fluid-filled bumps with a dent in the center; the bumps scabbed over and fell off, leaving scars. The disease was spread via contaminated objects. Prevention was by the smallpox vaccine. Once the disease had developed, certain antiviral medication may have helped; the origin of smallpox is unknown. The earliest evidence of the disease dates to the 3rd century BCE in Egyptian mummies; the disease occurred in outbreaks.
In 18th-century Europe, it is estimated 400,000 people per year died from the disease, one-third of the cases resulted in blindness. These deaths included a queen consort. Smallpox is estimated to have killed up to 300 million people in the 20th century and around 500 million people in the last 100 years of its existence; as as 1967, 15 million cases occurred a year. Edward Jenner discovered in 1798. In 1967, the WHO intensified efforts to eliminate the disease. Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011; the term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the early 16th century to distinguish the disease from syphilis, known as the "great pox". Other historical names for the disease include pox, speckled monster, red plague. There were two forms of the smallpox virus. Variola major was the severe and most common form, with a more extensive rash and higher fever, which can result in confluent smallpox, which had a high death rate. Variola minor was a less common presentation, causing a less severe disease discrete smallpox, with historical death rates of one percent or less.
Subclinical infections with Variola virus were not common. In addition, a form called variola sine eruptione was seen in vaccinated persons; this form was marked by a fever that occurred after the usual incubation period and could be confirmed only by antibody studies or by virus isolation. The incubation period between contraction and the first obvious symptoms of the disease was around 12 days. Once inhaled, variola major virus invaded the oropharyngeal or the respiratory mucosa, migrated to regional lymph nodes, began to multiply. In the initial growth phase, the virus seemed to move from cell to cell, but by around the 12th day, lysis of many infected cells occurred and the virus was found in the bloodstream in large numbers, a condition known as viremia, which resulted in a second wave of multiplication in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes; the initial symptoms were similar to other viral diseases that are still extant, such as influenza and the common cold: fever of at least 38.3 °C, muscle pain, malaise and prostration.
As the digestive tract was involved and vomiting and backache occurred. The prodrome, or preeruptive stage lasted 2–4 days. By days 12–15, the first visible lesions – small reddish spots called enanthem – appeared on mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue and throat, temperature fell to near-normal; these lesions enlarged and ruptured, releasing large amounts of virus into the saliva. Smallpox virus preferentially attacked skin cells, causing the characteristic pimples, or macules, associated with the disease. A rash developed on the skin; the macules first appeared on the forehead rapidly spread to the whole face, proximal portions of extremities, the trunk, lastly to distal portions of extremities. The process took no more than 24 to 36 hours. At this point, variola major infection could take several different courses, which resulted in four types of smallpox disease based on the Rao classification: ordinary, modified and hemorrhagic. Ordinary smallpox had an overall fatality rate of about 30 percent, the malignant and hemorrhagic forms were fatal.
Ninety percent or more of smallpox cases among unvaccinated persons were of the ordinary type. In this form of the disease, by the second day of the rash the macules had become raised papules. By the third or fourth day the papules had filled with an opalescent fluid to become vesicles; this fluid became turbid within 24 -- 48 hours, resulting in pustules. By the sixth or seventh day, all the skin lesions had become pustules. Between seven and ten days the pustules had reached their maximum size; the pustules were raised round and firm to the touch. The pustules were embedded in the dermis, giving them the feel of a small bead in the skin. Fluid leaked from the pustules, by the end of the second week, the pustules had deflated and began to dry up, forming crusts or scabs. By day 16–20 scabs had formed over all of the lesions, which had started to flake off, leaving depigmented scars. Ordinary smallpox produced a discrete rash, in which the pustules stood out on the skin separately; the distribution of the rash was most dense on the face, more dense on the extremities than on the trunk, a
Gabriela is a Brazilian telenovela created by Jorge Amado and starring Juliana Paes and Humberto Martins. It premiered on June 2012 on Rede Globo at 11 pm timeslot, it has Juliana Paes, Humberto Martins, Antônio Fagundes, José Wilker, Mateus Solano, Chico Diaz, Leona Cavalli, Vanessa Giácomo, Marcelo Serrado, Maitê Proença, Erik Marmo, Ivete Sangalo and Laura Cardoso in the leading roles. Naïve and provocative Gabriela is a raggedy migrant worker who arrives in town to mesmerize all with her playful and simple, yet raw sensuality. Set in 1925, the story unravels in Ilhéus, a quiet northeastern coastal city thriving with cocoa crops and aspirations for progress though the traditional ways still rule. Fleeing the drought from the Brazilian backlands, gorgeous Gabriela fascinates everyone with her beauty. At first unaware of the ardent love that will grow between them, Nacib, a Turkish immigrant who owns the Vesuvio bar, hires Gabriela to cook at his establishment, she waits on the Colonels. But Gabriela's irresistible beauty and earthy sensuality continue to unintentionally trigger every man's lustful desire, driving Nacib to the brink of jealous insanity.
He realizes he cannot live without her, when he finds out his burning passion is mutual, Nacib asks Gabriela to marry him. Gabriela accepts his proposal, much to the dismay of the colonels for her; when they aren’t hanging out at Nacib's bar drinking, the colonels are either oppressing their wives and daughters or spending money at Bataclan, the opulent local brothel. Most men in town converge there to be entertained by chic local prostitutes. Colonel Ramiro Bastos has the last word, but new arrival Mundinho Falcão, a handsome young liberalist who challenges the colonels’ imposed control, falls madly in love with Colonel Bastos' granddaughter, Gerusa. The young couple will have to stand up to her grandfather, the most powerful man in town, in order to stay together. Meanwhile and Nacib will have to face up to the conspiracy of those who wish to break them up. Zarolha, a bitter and heart-broken Bataclan prostitute, struggles to win back Nacib's tenderness, she counts on the help of self-seeking Tonico, Nacib's new so-called friend who secretly pants after Gabriela, together they plot against the couple.
He influences Nacib to bind Gabriela to the social norms that oppose her free nature, unleashing unpredictable consequences. Gabriela's impulsive, unbound spontaneity contrasts with the false morals defined by a society filled with various gossipy, humorous, naïve, seductive and mysterious characters. Gabriela's torrid presence in town disturbs the traditional ways and implicit inclinations of the townspeople. In a new version of one of TV's greatest hits, based on the immortal literary work of Jorge Amado, Gabriela renders a vivid portrayal of a steamy love story that incites everyone to tune in to their own inherent desires. Official website Gabriela on IMDb
Shahmirzad is a city and capital of Shahmirzad District, located in the north of Iran and on the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains. The permanent population of the city was recorded as 7,273 people, 1,860 families in the 2006 census but increased to 8,882 by 2011. During the Summers, the city's population rises to up to 40,000 people, as tourists visit the city for its cool climate and popular gardens. Shahmirzad has been home to people of diverse ethnic backgrounds, a large group of whom seasonally settled in cities and towns of Mazandaran, such as Babol, Sari and Behshahr. During the past decades many Muslim, Bahá'í, Shahmirzadi Jews, migrated to larger cities in Iran and abroad, most notably San Francisco Bay Area. Shahmirzadi language, is a Caspian language close to Gilaki. Shahmirzad's walnut orchard with a size of 700 ha is noted by the UN, Food and Agriculture Organization, as the largest of its kind in the world. Shahmirzadi homeowners are given a proprietary interest in the walnut orchard in proportion to the amount of land they own in the village.
Shahmirzad produces mineral water "Tenab Shahmirzad". Hossein Fathieh, Mine explorer and University founder in Shahmirzad Zabihollah Safa, Iran scholar and professor at the University of Tehran Salman Ghaffari, Iran's Ambassador to Vatican, religious author & lecturer Reza Jafari, Researcher at North Carolina State University and President of Road Safety and Transportation Solutions, Inc. Shamerza Shahmirzad Shahmar Shahmirzad Photo Gallery News of Shahmirzad Video collage of Shahmirzad