Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed reflective programming language. Smalltalk was created as the language underpinning the "new world" of computing exemplified by "human–computer symbiosis", it was designed and created in part for educational use for constructionist learning, at the Learning Research Group of Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg, Ted Kaehler, Diana Merry, Scott Wallace, others during the 1970s. The language was first released as Smalltalk-80. Smalltalk-like languages are in active development and have gathered loyal communities of users around them. ANSI Smalltalk represents the standard version of Smalltalk. Smalltalk took second place for "most loved programming language" in the Stack Overflow Developer Survey in 2017, but it was not among the 26 most loved programming languages of the 2018 survey. There are a large number of Smalltalk variants; the unqualified word Smalltalk is used to indicate the Smalltalk-80 language, the first version to be made publicly available and created in 1980.
The first environment to run the Smalltalk were Xerox Alto computers. Smalltalk was the product of research led by Alan Kay at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center; the first version, termed Smalltalk-71, was created by Kay in a few mornings on a bet that a programming language based on the idea of message passing inspired by Simula could be implemented in "a page of code". A variant used for research work is now termed Smalltalk-72 and influenced the development of the Actor model, its syntax and execution model were different from modern Smalltalk variants. After significant revisions which froze some aspects of execution semantics to gain performance, Smalltalk-76 was created; this system had a development environment featuring most of the now familiar tools, including a class library code browser/editor. Smalltalk-80 added metaclasses, to help maintain the "everything is an object" paradigm by associating properties and behavior with individual classes, primitives such as integer and boolean values.
Smalltalk-80 was the first language variant made available outside of PARC, first as Smalltalk-80 Version 1, given to a small number of firms and universities for peer review and implementing on their platforms. A general availability implementation, named Smalltalk-80 Version 2, was released as an image and a virtual machine specification. ANSI Smalltalk has been the standard language reference since 1998. Two of the popular Smalltalk implementation variants are descendants of those original Smalltalk-80 images. Squeak is an open source implementation derived from Smalltalk-80 Version 1 by way of Apple Smalltalk. VisualWorks is derived from Smalltalk-80 version 2 by way of ObjectWorks; as an interesting link between generations, in 2001 Vassili Bykov implemented Hobbes, a virtual machine running Smalltalk-80 inside VisualWorks. During the late 1980s to mid-1990s, Smalltalk environments—including support and add-ons—were sold by two competing organizations: ParcPlace Systems and Digitalk, both California based.
ParcPlace Systems tended to focus on the Unix/Sun microsystems market, while Digitalk focused on Intel-based PCs running Microsoft Windows or IBM's OS/2. Both firms struggled to take Smalltalk mainstream due to Smalltalk's substantial memory needs, limited run-time performance, initial lack of supported connectivity to SQL-based relational database servers. While the high price of ParcPlace Smalltalk limited its market penetration to mid-sized and large commercial organizations, the Digitalk products tried to reach a wider audience with a lower price. IBM supported the Digitalk product, but entered the market with a Smalltalk product in 1995 called VisualAge/Smalltalk. Easel introduced Enfin at this time on Windows and OS/2. Enfin became far more popular in Europe, as IBM introduced it into IT shops before their development of IBM Smalltalk. Enfin was acquired by Cincom Systems, is now sold under the name ObjectStudio, is part of the Cincom Smalltalk product suite. In 1995, ParcPlace and Digitalk merged into ParcPlace-Digitalk and rebranded in 1997 as ObjectShare, located in Irvine, CA.
ObjectShare was traded publicly until 1999, when it was dissolved. The merged firm never managed to find an effective response to Java as to market positioning, by 1997 its owners were looking to sell the business. In 1999, Seagull Software acquired the ObjectShare Java development lab, still owns VisualSmalltalk, although worldwide distribution rights for the Smalltalk product remained with ObjectShare who sold them to Cincom. VisualWorks is now part of Cincom Smalltalk. Cincom has backed Smalltalk releasing multiple new versions of VisualWorks and ObjectStudio each year since 1999. Cincom, GemTalk, Instantiations, continue to sell Smalltalk environments. IBM has'end of life'd VisualAge Smalltalk having in the late 1990s decided to back Java instead and it is, as of 2005, supported by In
"No Confidence Man" is a song by American singer-songwriter Elliott Smith. It was released in 1994 by record label Slo-Mo as the B-side to a split 7" vinyl single with Pete Krebs, with Krebs' track "Shytown" making the A-side, making it his first solo single. "No Confidence Man" was recorded in one day, on August 14, 1994. Engineering was handled by Smith; the lyrics refer to a character named "Charlie", referenced in at least one other of Smith's songs, is a possible reference to Smith's stepfather Charlie Welch. The single was released in 1994 by record label Slo-Mo, it was re-issued in digital format in 2014 by UseMusic.org, with proceeds going to Outside/In, a not-for-profit Portland, Oregon organisation that works with homeless youth. The tracks were remixed by producer and Elliott Smith archivist Larry Crane: "I remixed these from excellent transfers of the original 1/4-inch, 8-track master tapes, so the audio is quite a bit better than old transfers pulled off vinyl". Side APete Krebs – "Shytown"Side BElliott Smith – "No Confidence Man" "Shytown"/"No Confidence Man" at Discogs UseMusic page where the song can be purchased
The Tipperary Hill Heritage Memorial, dedicated in 1997, is located on Tipperary Hill in Syracuse, New York. The memorial was erected in honor of early citizens who, in the opinion of local residents, were brave sons of Ireland who stood up to City Hall and won the battle of the "Green over Red" traffic light; the memorial features bronze, life-size figures of a 1930s Irish immigrant family and was sculpted by Dexter Benedict of Penn Yan, New York. The father is pointing out the traffic light to his wife and son who has a sling shot in his back pocket, hinting that he might know a little bit of the history of the light; the memorial is located in Tipperary Hill Memorial Park, the site of a commercial building that held a prominent position on the northeast corner of Milton Avenue and Tompkins Street and was demolished. It is the newest city park in Syracuse; when the city first installed traffic signals in 1925, they placed one at a major intersection on Tipperary Hill, in the center of the neighborhood business district, located on the corner of Tompkins Street and Milton Avenue.
The Stone Throwers were several youths from the neighborhood who were among some of the original residents who rallied against the addition of the new traffic light on Tipperary Hill because it sported the British "red" prominently placed over the Irish "green". Due to strong national rivalries, the traditional "red-over-green" lights were interpreted as symbols of England over Ireland and offended the youths of the close-knit Irish neighborhood; the youths, aged 11 to 17, included John "Jacko" Behan, Richard "Richie" Britt, James M. "Duke" Coffey, Kenneth "Kenny" Davis, George Dorsey, Gerald "Mikis" Murphy, Francis "Stubbs" Shortt, Eugene Thompson. Patrick "Packy" Corbett, former Onondaga County Sheriff, was named honorary member of the group after growing up on Tipp Hill, would not acknowledge vandalizing the traffic light. By 1925, the city was divided into north, east and south side ethnic neighborhoods. According to one of the Stone Throwers, "if you were Irish, you stayed in the Westend."The youths gathered up stones which they called "Irish confetti" and "took aim at the red lenses, managing to put the signal out of commission," an act they performed many times.
Neighborhood leaders, led by Tipp Hill alderman, John J. "Huckle" Ryan and a number of local businessmen persuaded the city fathers to install a green-over-red traffic signal, the only one of its kind in the U. S and it has been that way since. In 1997, local residents of Irish ancestry and business owners, including Peter Coleman, gathered resources and encouraged the city to demolish an old commercial building, to build a small park and erect the Tipperary Hill Heritage Memorial. In a fund raising effort, Coleman, a saloonkeeper for over 50 years and owner of Coleman's Authentic Irish Pub at 100 South Lowell Avenue sold commemorative bricks engraved with the names of loved ones for $75 each which were set around the base of the statue. There were a total of 450 installed. Jerry Wilson, a local jewelry store owner, was instrumental in the establishment of the memorial park. On March 17, 1995 he helped Coleman raise $6,000 for the statue and the two planned a fund raiser "among pubs on The Hill."
Stone Throwers Park Day, City of Syracuse - Office of the Mayor
North Cape is a cape on the northern coast of the island of Magerøya in Northern Norway. The cape is in Nordkapp Municipality in Norway; the European route E69 highway has its northern terminus at North Cape, which makes it the northernmost point in Europe that can be accessed by car and makes the E69 the northernmost public road in Europe. The plateau is a popular tourist attraction; the cape includes a 307-metre-high cliff with a large flat plateau on top, where visitors, weather permitting, can watch the midnight sun and views of the Barents Sea to the north. North Cape Hall, a visitor centre, was built in 1988 on the plateau, it includes a café, post office, souvenir shop, a small museum, video cinema. The steep cliff of the North Cape is located at 71°10′21″N 25°47′04″E, about 2,102.3 km from the North Pole. Nordkapp is inaccurately referred to as the northernmost point of Europe. However, the neighbouring Knivskjellodden Cape extends 1,450 m further north. Furthermore, both of these points are situated on an island, albeit one connected by road to the mainland.
The northernmost point of mainland Europe is located at Cape Nordkinn which lies about 5.7 km further south and about 70 km to the east. That point is located near the village of Mehamn on the Nordkinn Peninsula; the northernmost point of Europe including islands is hundreds of kilometres further north, either in Russia's Franz Josef Land or Norway's Svalbard archipelago, depending on whether Franz Josef Land is considered to be in Europe or in Asia. The North Cape is the point where the Norwegian Sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, meets the Barents Sea, part of the Arctic Ocean; the midnight sun can be seen from 14 May to 31 July. The sun reaches its lowest point between 12:14 am and 12:24 am during those days; the North Cape is reached by European route E69 highway through the North Cape Tunnel, an undersea tunnel connecting the island of Magerøya to the mainland. The EuroVelo bicycle routes EV1, EV7 and EV11 connect the North Cape to Sagres, Portugal and Athens, respectively. Several cruise ships visit North Cape every year.
Honningsvåg is one of the main stops of the Hurtigruten coastal ships. Regular buses run from the nearby town of Honningsvåg to the North Cape, coaches meet the many cruise ships that call at the port of Honningsvåg; the nearest airport is Honningsvåg Valan Airport, which offer several flights to and from Tromsø Langnes International Airport. Road distance to North Cape from different towns: Honningsvåg; the road to North Cape is kept open during winter and is accessible to regular vehicles and drivers that both can cope with the hard snow and wind conditions that may occur in winter. Before this, E69 was the only winter-closed E-route in Europe; the North Cape was named by the Englishman Steven Borough, captain of the Edward Bonaventure, which sailed past in 1553 in search of the Northeast Passage. In 1943, the Battle of North Cape was fought in the Arctic Ocean off this cape, where the Nazi battleship Scharnhorst was sunk by gunfire from the British battleship HMS Duke of York and torpedoes from the Norwegian destroyer HNoMS Stord, other ships of the British Navy.
As of 2011, an adult ticket to the North Cape visitor centre cost between 160 and 235 kr. There is fog, which obscures the view. There is no discount for this situation, but the full price ticket is valid for multiple entries within 48 hours. In 2000, again in 2011, the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment responded to pressure from interest groups and asked Nordkapps VEL, the company that maintains the site, to reduce the admission fee to the plateau. Nordkapps VEL responded that the 8,000 daily visitors and distant location places great demands on the operations and security of the facilities and natural features of the large site; the fee was not lowered, has since been increased although visitors arriving by foot, bicycle, or other non-motorized vehicles are nowadays offered free entrance. The 2009 Trans Europe Foot Race started in Bari and finished at North Cape; the total distance was 4,485 kilometres. The NorthCape4000 is a bicycle race; the total distance is around 4,200 kilometres. The first stage of the 2014 Arctic Race of Norway was held on North Cape on 14 August 2014.
The bicycle race started in Hammerfest, finishing on North Cape and was won by Norwegian, Lars Petter Nordhaug for Team Jumbo–Visma in a time of 4 hours 51 minutes 3 seconds. The record of cycling from the northern to the southern end of Norway, North Cape to Lindesnes, is 4 days, 22 hours and 18 minutes, performed by a group of five men from Rye in Oslo, in July 2003. Footage from the North Cape is featured in films and television, most notably in the 2014 action comedy film Børning, which revolves around an illegal street race from south of Oslo to the North Cape. North Cape Museum official website Tourist information Pictures from Skarsvåg and North Cape Jan S. Krogh's Geosite: North Cape Nordkapp travel guide from Wikivoyage
Riverton Regional Airport is three miles northwest of Riverton, in Fremont County, Wyoming. It sees one passenger airline. Service was subsidized by the Essential Air Service program until October 2006, when Great Lakes Airlines began providing subsidy-free service. Key Lime Air operating as the Denver Air Connection began serving the airport with regional jet aircraft on July 1, 2016. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 17,035 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 14,186 in 2009 and 14,361 in 2010; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a primary commercial service airport. The airport covers 1,250 acres at an elevation of 5,528 feet, it has two asphalt runways: 10/28 is 8,204 by 150 feet and 1/19 is 4,800 by 75 feet. The airport is an uncontrolled airport with no control tower. In 2011 the airport had 6,690 aircraft operations, average 18 per day: 76% general aviation, 24% air taxi, <1% military. 45 aircraft were based at this airport: 89% single-engine, 9% multi-engine, 2% jet.
Great Lakes Airlines served the airport with Beechcraft 1900Ds. On November 1, 2016 Great Lakes introduced larger Embraer EMB-120 Brasilias on most of its flights to Denver. However, Great Lakes no longer serves Riverton. SkyWest Airlines operating as United Express replaced Key Lime Air service to Denver on January 12, 2020 when they took over the Essential Air Service contract for Riverton and Sheridan; the original Frontier Airlines served the airport for many years. In 1950 Frontier Douglas DC-3s flew to Denver, Salt Lake City, Casper and other cities. By 1964 Frontier had introduced Convair 580s nonstop to Denver, Jackson, WY, Rock Springs and direct to Salt Lake City, Billings, Cheyenne and Cody. Frontier Airlines predecessor Challenger Airlines served Riverton in the 1940s. In 1979 Frontier Boeing 737-200s began serving the airport, along with Convair 580s. Frontier 737s flew direct to Denver via Casper. Frontier was the only airline. Frontier's service was replaced by Pioneer Airlines Swearingen Metroliners nonstop to Denver, code sharing flights as Continental Express for Continental Airlines.
By 1989 Continental Express nonstops to Denver were Rocky Mountain Airways ATR 42s and Beechcraft 1900Cs. In 1995 the Continental Express code share service at the airport was being operated by GP Express Airlines with Beechcraft 1900Cs nonstop to Denver. By 1991 United Express had joined Continental Express at the airport with Beechcraft 1900Cs nonstop to Denver flown via a code sharing agreement with United Airlines. Continental shut down its hub in Denver and by 1999 only United Express served the airport, with nonstop Beechcraft 1900s to Denver. Great Lakes lost its United Express designation but continued to serve the airport as an independent airline before dropping Riverton. Riverton Regional Airport, official site Aerial image as of July 1994 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for RIW, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for RIW AirNav airport information for KRIW ASN accident history for RIW FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
The Böksta runestone is a Viking Age memorial runestone, located near the farm of Böksta in Balingsta, about four kilometers southwest of Ramstalund, Uppsala County, Sweden, in the historic province of Uppland. It is situated not far from Balingsta Church; the Böksta Runestone, made of granite and is 2.6 meters in height, is notable for its images of a man on horseback holding a spear, hunting an animal that may be an elk with two dogs and two birds. One of the birds is attacking the eyes of the hunted animal, consistent with past practices when hunting with birds. Finds from graves indicate. Observing the hunter is another man on skis, holding a bow and arrow. Surrounding the hunting scene is the runic text inscribed within a serpent; the inscription is believed to date from 1050 CE and is tentatively classified as being carved in runestone style Pr2, known as Ringerike style. The runestone, located at Prästgården, was broken into several sections with a central section missing since the 1600s.
This section was found near the gate to the church at Prästgården, the runestone disassembled and rebuilt using the newly found section in 2004. The man carrying a bow and on skis is identified as Ullr, who in Chapter 21 of Skáldskaparmál of the Prose Edda is described as a Norse pagan ski-god, archery-god, hunting-god, it has been suggested that the man on horseback, who has a beard and helmet and is riding a stallion, is the god Odin with his spear Gungnir on his horse Sleipnir. In this case, Sleipnir would be depicted with only four legs instead of the more common eight legs, however, a four-legged depiction of this horse was used on the Tängelgårda stone; the two dogs or wolves would be Geri and Freki and the birds the ravens Huginn and Muninn. Several other Scandinavian runestones include depictions of horses, including DR 96 in Ålum, N 61 in Alstad, Sö 101 in Ramsundsberget, Sö 226 in Norra Stutby, Sö 239 in Häringe, Sö 327 in Göksten, U 375 in Vidbo, U 488 in Harg, U 599 in Hanunda, U 691 in Söderby, U 901 in Håmö, U 935 at the Uppsala Cathedral, U 1003 in Frötuna.
Photograph of U 855 in 2002 showing missing central section - Swedish National Heritage Board