Smartphones are a class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing devices. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software and multimedia functionality, alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones contain a number of metal–oxide–semiconductor integrated circuit chips, include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software, support wireless communications protocols. Early smartphones were marketed towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their bulky form, short battery life, slow analog cellular networks, the immaturity of wireless data services; these issues were resolved with the exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOS transistors down to sub-micron levels, the improved lithium-ion battery, faster digital mobile data networks, more mature software platforms that allowed mobile device ecosystems to develop independently of data providers.

In the 2000s, NTT DoCoMo's i-mode platform, BlackBerry, Nokia's Symbian platform, Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models featuring QWERTY keyboards or resistive touchscreen input, emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet. Since the unveiling of the iPhone in 2007, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store, use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants, as well as mobile payment services. Improved hardware and faster wireless communication have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013; the development of the smartphone was enabled by several key technological advances.

The exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOSFETs down to sub-micron levels during the 1990s–2000s made it possible to build portable smart devices such as smartphones, as well as enabling the transistion from analog to faster digital wireless mobile networks. Other important enabling factors include the lithium-ion battery, an indispensable energy source enabling long battery life, invented in the 1980s and commercialized in 1991, the development of more mature software platforms that allowed mobile device ecosystems to develop independently of data providers. In the early 1990s, IBM engineer Frank Canova realised that chip-and-wireless technology was becoming small enough to use in handheld devices; the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator.

In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, appointment scheduler, world time clock, notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news; the IBM Simon was manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric, which integrated features from its own wireless personal digital assistant and cellular radio technologies. It featured a liquid-crystal PC Card support; the Simon was commercially unsuccessful due to its bulky form factor and limited battery life, using NiCad batteries rather than the nickel–metal hydride batteries used in mobile phones in the 1990s, or lithium-ion batteries used in modern smartphones. The term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator. Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC.

These operating systems would evolve into early mobile operating systems. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware; the results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access. PDA and mobile phone manufacturers competed in reducing the size of devices; the bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity. In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it, it had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, t

Arnau Ferrer

Arnau Ferrer is a Spanish para-alpine ski guide. He was Gabriel Gorce's guide in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Ferrer was born on 3 September 1990, is from Barcelona. Ferrer is a para-alpine ski guide, he was Gabriel Gorce's guide in 2010, 2011 and 2012. He is a member of the LMCE ski club. At the first World Cup event in the 2010/2011 season, held in Arta Terme, Ferrer guided Gorce; the pair finished fifth in the first of the four events held. Ferrer competed in a November 2010 ski competition in Netherlands, he earned a gold medal in the downhill event while skiing with Gorce. He was the only Spaniard at the competition. In December 2010, he competed in the second stage of the European Cup with Gorce at a competition in Austria; the pair earned an eighth and eleventh-place finish, a DNF in the slalom event. He skied with Gorce again at a January 2011 World Cup event; this one was held in Italy. They finished fifth in the slalom, sixth in the giant slalom with a combined run time of 2'45"93; the pair failed to finish in the slalom event.

The pair competed at the Spanish national championships in April 2011. They finished second in the slalom event with a combined time of 1'13"79. In November 2011 at the first IPC sanctioned event of the year, held in the Netherlands, the pair had times of 56"75 and 30"43 for a combined time of 1'27 "18 in the slalom event; this time earned them a first place. In January 2012, the pair competed in the World Cup event held in Italy; the pair finished fifth in the giant slalom event with a combined time of 2'43"24. The pair did not medal in any other events at that Cup event, he participated in the 2012 Campeonatos de España de Esquí held in Valle de Arán, where the Slalom, Giant Slalom and Super G events were contested. Skiing with Gorce, they earned silvers in every event. In a February 2012 European Cup event held in Tignes, he skied with Gorce; the pair was unable to finish any of the races they competed in at the event. In early March 2012, he competed in a World Cup event in Colorado with Gorce, where the pair earned a bronze medal in the giant slalom.

His performance at the competition was the best for the pair during 2011/2012 season. In March 2012, he competed at the Canadian hosted World Cup Alpine Skiing with Gorce, they finished their first run in the Super G with a time of 1' 42 "19. They had a time of 1' 38 "18 in their second run. At the end of the event, they had 460 total World Cup points. Near the end of the 2011/2012 ski season, he participated in a World Cup event in Italy where he failed to finish in the giant slalom event while skiing with Gorce. At a January 2013 World Cup event in Switzerland, skiing with Gorce, he finished sixth in the Slalom event. Arnau Gabriel Ferrer & Gorce – Paralympic Skiing

Negotiator (TV series)

Negotiator is a 2018 Chinese television series starring Yang Mi and Huang Zitao. It is a spin-off of the 2016 television series The Interpreter starring Yang Mi; the series premiered on Hunan TV starting February 4, 2018. Tong Wei, a brilliant commercial negotiator, the star executive of the US-China Business Council, is hired to represent Xie Xiaofei's company interests at the negotiating table. Xiaofei is the sole heir of a wealthy Chinese-American corporation but wants nothing to do with the family business, he vents his frustrations on Tong Wei, though their bickering relationship soon takes a romantic turn. The couple separates; however after time they find each other. In the table below, the blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings