Induced demand – related to latent demand and generated demand – is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed. This is consistent with the economic theory of supply and demand; this phenomenon, called induced traffic, is a contributing factor to urban sprawl. City planner Jeff Speck has called induced demand "the great intellectual black hole in city planning, the one professional certainty that everyone thoughtful seems to acknowledge, yet no one is willing to act upon."The inverse effect, or reduced demand, is observed. According to CityLab: Induced demand is used as a catch-all term for a variety of interconnected effects that cause new roads to fill up to capacity. In growing areas where roads were not designed for the current population, there may be a great deal of latent demand for new road capacity, which causes a flood of new drivers to take to the freeway once the new lanes are open clogging them up again, but these individuals were already living nearby.
They may have taken alternative modes of transport, traveled at off hours, or not made those trips at all. That’s why latent demand can be difficult to disentangle from generated demand—the new traffic, a direct result of the new capacity.. The technical distinction between the two terms, which are used interchageably, is that latent demand is travel that cannot be realized because of constraints, it is thus "pent-up". Induced demand is demand, realized, or "generated", by improvements made to transportation infrastructure. Thus, induced demand generates the traffic, "pent-up" as latent demand. Latent demand has been recognised by road traffic professionals for many decades, was referred to as "traffic generation". In the simplest terms, latent demand is demand that exists, for any number of reasons, most having to do with human psychology, is suppressed by the inability of the system to handle it. Once additional capacity is added to the network, the demand, latent materializes as actual usage.
The effect was recognized as early as 1930, when an executive of a St. Louis, Missouri electric railway company told a Transportation Survey Commission that widening streets produces more traffic, heavier congestion. In New York, it was seen in the highway-building program of Robert Moses, the "master builder" of the New York City area; as described by Moses' biographer, Robert Caro, in The Power Broker: During the last two or three years before, a few planners had...begun to understand that, without a balanced system, roads would not only not alleviate transportation congestion but would aggravate it. Watching Moses open the Triborough Bridge to ease congestion on the Queensborough Bridge, open the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge to ease congestion on the Triborough Bridge and watching traffic counts on all three bridges mount until all three were as congested as one had been before, planners could hardly avoid the conclusion that "traffic generation" was no longer a theory but a proven fact: the more highways were built to alleviate congestion, the more automobiles would pour into them and congest them and this force the building of more highways – which would generate more traffic and become congested in their turn in an ever-widening spiral that contained the most awesome implications for the future of New York and of all urban areas.
The same effect had been seen earlier with the new parkways that Moses had built on Long Island in the 1930s and 40s, where...every time a new parkway was built, it became jammed with traffic, but the load on the old parkways was not relieved. The building of the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel failed to ease congestion on the Queens-Midtown Tunnel and the three East River bridges, as Moses had expected it to. By 1942, Moses could no longer ignore the reality that his roads were not alleviating congestion in the way he expected them to, but his answer to the problem was not to invest in mass transit, it was to build more roads, in a vast program which would expand or newly create 200 miles of roads, including additional bridges, such as the Throgs Neck Bridge and the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. J. J. Leeming, a British road-traffic engineer and county surveyor between 1924 and 1964, described the phenomenon in his 1969 book, Road Accidents: Prevent or Punish?: Motorways and bypasses generate traffic, that is, produce extra traffic by inducing people to travel who would not otherwise have done so by making the new route more convenient than the old by people who go out of their direct route to enjoy the greater convenience of the new road, by people who use the towns bypassed because they are more convenient for shopping and visits when through traffic has been removed.
Leeming went on to give an example of the observed effect following the opening of the Doncaster Bypass section of the A1 in 1961. By 1998, Donald Chen quoted the British Transport Minister as saying "The fact of the matter is that we cannot tackle our traffic problem by building more roads." In Southern California, a study by the Southern California Association of Governments in 1989 concluded that steps taken to alleviate traffic congestion, such as adding lanes or turning freeways into double-decked roads, would have nothing but a cosmetic effect on the problem. Als
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
A motor vehicle known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle wheeled, that does not operate on rails and is used for the transportation of people or cargo. The vehicle propulsion is provided by an engine or motor an internal combustion engine or an electric motor, or some combination of the two, such as hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. For legal purposes, motor vehicles are identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light trucks and regular trucks; these classifications vary according to the legal codes of each country. ISO 3833:1977 is the standard for road vehicle types and definitions. To avoid requiring handicapped persons from having to possess an operator's license to use one, or requiring tags and insurance, powered wheelchairs will be excluded by law from being considered motor vehicles; as of 2010, there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world, excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment.
Global vehicle ownership per capita in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people. China has the largest motor vehicle fleet in the world, with 322 million motor vehicles registered at the end of September 2018; the United States has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 832 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016. China became the world's largest new car market in 2009. In 2011, a total of 80 million cars and commercial vehicles were built, led by China, with 18.4 million motor vehicles manufactured. The US publisher Ward's estimates that as of 2010, there were 1.015 billion motor vehicles in use in the world. This figure represents the number of cars and buses, but does not include off-road vehicles or heavy construction equipment; the world vehicle population passed the 500 million-unit mark in 1986, from 250 million motor vehicles in 1970. Between 1950 and 1970, the vehicle population doubled every 10 years. Two US researchers estimate that the world's fleet will reach 2 billion motor vehicles by 2020, with cars representing at least 50% of all vehicles.
China’s and India’s automobile fleets are expected to grow at an annual rate of around 7 or 8%, while the slowest growth is expected in the United States, with less than 1% a year, Western Europe, with 1 to 2%. Navigant Consulting forecasts that the global stock of light-duty motor vehicles will reach 2 billion units in 2035. Global vehicle ownership in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people, a ratio of 1:6.75 vehicles to people down from 150 vehicles per 1000 people in 2009, a rate of 1:6.63 vehicles to people. The global rate of motorization increased in 2013 to 174 vehicles per 1000 people. In developing countries vehicle ownership rates exceed 200 cars per 1,000 population; the following table summarizes the evolution of vehicle registrations in the world from 1960 to 2012: The 27 European Union member countries had a fleet of over 256 million in 2008, passenger cars accounted for 87% of the union's fleet. The five largest markets, Italy, the UK, Spain, accounted for 68% of the region's total registered fleet in 2008.
The EU-27 member countries had in 2009 an estimated ownership rate of 473 passenger cars per 1000 people. According to Ward's, Italy had the second highest vehicle ownership per capita in 2010, with 690 vehicles per 1000 people. Germany had a rate of motorization of 534 vehicles per 1000 people and the UK of 525 vehicles per 1000 people, both in 2008. France had a rate of 575 vehicles per 1000 people and Spain 608 vehicles per 1000 people in 2007. Portugal, between 1991 and 2002 grew up 220% on its motorization rate, having had in 2002, 560 cars per 1000 people. Italy leads in alternative fuel vehicles, with a fleet of 779,090 natural gas vehicles as of June 2012, the largest NGV fleet in Europe. Sweden, with 225,000 flexible-fuel vehicles, has the largest flexifuel fleet in Europe by mid-2011. More than one million plug-in electric passenger cars and vans have been registered in Europe by June 2018, the world's second largest regional plug-in stock after China. Norway is the leading plug-in market with over 296,00 units registered as of December 2018.
In October 2018, Norway became the world's first country where 10% of all passenger cars on the road are plug-in electrics. The Norwegian plug-in car segment market share has been the highest in the world for several years, achieving 39.2% in 2017, 49.1% in 2018. The United States has the second largest fleet of motor vehicles in the world after China; as of 2016, had a motor vehicles stock of 259.14 million, of which, 246 million were light duty vehicles, consisting of 112.96 million passenger cars and 133 million light trucks. A total of 11.5 million heavy trucks were registered at the end 2016 Vehicle ownership per capita in the U. S. is the highest in the world, the U. S. Department of Energy reports a motorization rate of 831.9 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016, or a ratio of 1:1.2 vehicles to people. According to USDoE, the rate of motorization peaked in 2007 at 844.5 vehicles per 1000 people. In terms of licensed drivers, as of 2009 the country had 1.0 vehicle for every licensed driver, 1.87 vehicles per household.
Passenger car registrations in the United States declined -11.5% in 2017 and -12.8% in 2018. As of 2016, the stock of alternative fuel vehicles in the United States included over 20 million flex-fuel cars and light trucks, the world's second largest flexible-fuel fleet in the world after Brazil. However, actual use of ethanol fuel is limited due to the lac
An aircraft is a machine, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent – and safe descent – in modern times took place by larger hot-air balloons developed in the 18th century; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914.
First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939. Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the jet age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons called sky lanterns were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts."
In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". – though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons; the nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC.
Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by Geo
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method; the terms thoughts and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others, they study conditions under which certain behavior and feelings occur. Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, beliefs and goals are cognitively constructed and how these mental representations, in turn, influence our interactions with others.
Social psychology traditionally bridged the gap between sociology. During the years following World War II there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists; the two disciplines, have become specialized and isolated from each other in recent years, with sociologists focusing on "macro variables" to a much greater extent than psychologists. Sociological approaches to psychology remain an important counterpart to psychological research in this area. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists; as a generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena. Although there were some older writings about social psychology, such as those by Islamic philosopher Al-Farabi, the discipline of social psychology, as its modern-day definition, began in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century.
By that time, the discipline had developed a significant foundation. Following the 18th century, those in the emerging field of social psychology were concerned with developing concrete explanations for different aspects of human nature, they attempted to discover concrete cause and effect relationships that explained the social interactions in the world around them. In order to do so, they believed that the scientific method, an empirically based scientific measure, could be applied to human behavior; the first published study in this area was an experiment in 1898 by Norman Triplett, on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During the 1930s, many Gestalt psychologists, most notably Kurt Lewin, fled to the United States from Nazi Germany, they were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition. Attitudes and small group phenomena were the most studied topics in this era.
During World War II, social psychologists studied persuasion and propaganda for the U. S. military. After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems, including gender issues and racial prejudice. Most notable and contentious of these were the Stanley Milgram shock experiments on obedience to authority. In the sixties, there was growing interest in new topics, such as cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, aggression. By the 1970s, social psychology in America had reached a crisis. There was heated debate over the ethics of laboratory experimentation, whether or not attitudes predicted behavior, how much science could be done in a cultural context; this was the time when a radical situationist approach challenged the relevance of self and personality in psychology. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s social psychology reached a more mature level. Two of the areas social psychology matured in were methods. Careful ethical standards now regulate research. Pluralistic and multicultural perspectives have emerged.
Modern researchers are interested in many phenomena, but attribution, social cognition, the self-concept are the greatest areas of growth in recent years. Social psychologists have maintained their applied interests with contributions in the social psychology of health, education and the workplace. In social psychology, attitudes are defined as learned, global evaluations of a person, place, or issue that influence thought and action. Put more attitudes are basic expressions of approval or disapproval, favorability or unfavorability, or as Bem put it, likes and dislikes. Examples would include liking chocolate ice cream, or endorsing the values of a particular political party. Social psychologists have studied attitude formation, the structure of attitudes, attitude change, the function of attitudes, the relationship between attitudes and behavior; because people are influenced by the situation, general attitudes are not always good predictors of specific behavior. For example, for a variety of reasons, a person may value the environment but not recycle a can on a particular day.
In recent times, research on attitudes has examined the distinction between traditional, self-reported attitude measures and "implicit" or unconscious attitudes. For example, experiments using the Implicit Association Test have found that people demonstrate implicit bias against other races when their explicit responses
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England