Guastalla is a town and comune in the province of Reggio Emilia in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Guastalla is situated in the Po Valley, lies on the banks of the Po River. Guastalla is located at around 30 kilometres from the cities of Reggio Emilia and Mantua; the area of Guastalla was settled by Etruscans as early as the 7th century BCE, but the name of the city is mentioned for the first time in 864 CE. Of Lombard origin, the city was ruled by the Torelli family from 1406 to 1539, when it became the capital of a duchy under the Gonzaga family and housed artists like Guercino and Torquato Tasso. In 1748, by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the city became part of the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza e Guastalla, to which it belonged until 1847, when it was inherited by the Duke of Modena. Since the unification of Italy in 1861 Guastalla has been a part of Italy. SMEG, a major manufacturer of high-design domestic appliances, was founded by Vittorio Bertazzoni in Guastalla in 1948, where it still has its headquarters.
Guastalla town: The Cathedral by Francesco da Volterra. The Ducal Palace of Guastalla; the Civic Theatre Ruggero Ruggeri. The Town Hall; the octagonal Oratory of Madonna della Concezione. The church of Santa Maria dei Servi, designed by Francesco da Volterra. Noteworthy in the interior is a Deposition, canvas by Giuseppe Maria Crespi; the Civic Tower, in the location where once was the Spanish CastleAround Guastalla: The Romanesque Oratory of St. George; the Basilica of St. Peter at Pieve di Guastalla, seat of two Roman Catholic councils, it houses an ancient baptismal font and painted terracotta portraying the Madonna with Child, attributed to Guido Mazzoni. Forcalquier, France Giovinazzo, Italy Gabicce Mare, Italy In-Grid, Italian pop-dance artist County of Guastalla Duchy of Guastalla Rulers of Guastalla Diocese of Guastalla
Mario Bellini is an Italian architect and designer. He graduated from the Milan Polytechnic - Faculty of Architecture in 1959 and began working as an architect himself in the early 1960s, he is the winner among others of 8 Compasso d’Oro and prestigious architecture awards including the Medaglia d’Oro conferred on him by the President of the Italian Republic. Like many other Italian architects, his activities range from architecture and urban planning to product and furniture design, his career as a product and furniture designer began in 1963, from 1963 to 1991 he was chief design consultant for Olivetti. For many years he designed furnishing products and systems for B&B Italia and Cassina, TV sets for Brionvega, hi-fi systems and electric organs for Yamaha. For five years he worked as an automobile design consultant with Renault. In 1972 he was commissioned to design and build the prototype of the Kar-a-Sutra mobile environment for the exhibition “Italy: the New Domestic Landscape” at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
He has designed for Fiat and Lancia, lamps for Artemide and Flos, office furniture for Vitra. Other firms for whom he has designed and/or continues to design products include Acerbis, Driade, Castilia, Kartell, Marcatrè, Meritalia and Poltrona Frau, his early international success grew during the first two decades in the design sector, reached its peak in 1987 with a personal retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art of New York. At the time the museum included 25 of his works in its Permanent Collection, including a remarkable set of Olivetti machines as well as the furniture for B&B and Cassina - such as the famous "Cab" chair - and the innovative office chairs designed for Vitra. MBA's headquarters of 1,500 square metres in Milan were designed by Mario Bellini himself in the early 1990s, today an average of 30 to 35 architects. In 1999, MBA obtained ISO 9001 quality certification. Since the ‘80s, he has been successful in the field of architecture in Europe, the United States and the Arab Emirates.
Projects built Museum of Islamic Arts at Louvre Museum, Paris, 2005-2012 Museum of the City of Bologna, Italy, 2004-2012 Urban redevelopment “Verona Forum”, Italy, 2004–2011 Radical refurbishment of the Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt, Germany, 2007–2011 National Gallery of Victoria extension and redevelopment, Australia, 1996–2003 Essen International Fair Extension, Germany, 1998–2001 Natuzzi Americas Headquarters, High Point, North Carolina, USA, 1996–1998 Arsoa Co./Cosmetics- Headquarters, Japan, 1996–1998 New fair district of the Milan Trade Fair, 1987–1997 Risonare Vivre Club Complex, Japan, 1989–1992 Tokyo Design Center, Japan, 1988–1992 Yokohama Business Park, Japan, 1987–1991 Villa Erba Exhibition and Congress Centre, Cernobbio, 1986–1990 Thermoelectric power plant of Cassano d’Adda-Office building, 1985–1990Projects under construction Milan Convention Centre, Europe’s largest convention centre, 2008 Architectural project of a large Scientific-Technological Park at Erzelli Hill, Italy, 2005 Extension and redevelopment of the Pinacoteca di Brera Milan, 2009 New Cultural Centre of Turin, 2001 Among the best architectural creations New Museum of the city of Berlin, Germany, 2008 Sheikh Zayed National Museum International Competition, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2007 European Patent Office, L’Aja, Holland, 2004 Cittanova 2000, Italy, 2003 Redevelopment of the City Centre of Tian Jin, China, 2003 Banca CR Firenze-New H.
Q. Italy, 2003 New International Trade Fair of Milan – Rho/Pero, Milan, 2002 Multifunctional Complex “MAB. Zeil Project”, Germany, 2002 Stolitza Towers, Moscow, 1996 Dubai Creek Complex, United Arab Emirates, 1994 Goshikidai Marine Resort, Japan, 1993 Avid art lover and collector, he has been responsible for the exhibition design of many art exhibitions, among which: • "The Treasure of St. Marco in Venice", Grand Palais and the major museums around the world, 1984–87 • "Italian Art in the 20th Century", Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1989 • "The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo; the Representation of Architecture", Palazzo Grassi, Venice in Paris and Berlin, 1994–95 • "The Triumphs of Baroque. Architecture in Europe 1600-1750", Stupinigi Hunting Palace, Turin. A designer at the Court of Queen Victoria", Milan, 2001 • “Annisettanta. Il decennio lungo del secolo breve”, Triennale, 2007–2008 • “Magnificenza e Progetto” Palazzo Reale, Milan, 2008–2009 • In 1987, the Museum of Modern Art in New York organised the exhibition “Mario Bellini: designer”, the first great retrospective on a living artist • In 1996, the Royal Institute of British Architects held an exhibition of Bellini’s work as an architect • In 2000, the Municipal Gallery of Contemporary Art of Trento, Italy held a personal show “Mario Bellini: a path between architecture and cars” • In December 2003, the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne reopened with a major exhibition on his work.
Fiell, Charlotte & Peter. Industrial Design A-Z. London: Taschen. Bellini Studios website
A refrigerator is an appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries; the lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C. A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer; the refrigerator replaced the icebox, a common household appliance for a century and a half. The first cooling systems for food involved using ice. Artificial refrigeration began in the mid-1750s, developed in the early 1800s. In 1834, the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system was built.
The first commercial ice-making machine was invented in 1854. In 1913, refrigerators for home use were invented. In 1923 Frigidaire introduced the first self-contained unit; the introduction of Freon in the 1920s expanded the refrigerator market during the 1930s. Home freezers as separate compartments were introduced in 1940. Frozen foods a luxury item, became commonplace. Freezer units are used in industry and commerce. Commercial refrigerator and freezer units were in use for 40 years prior to the common home models; the freezer-on-top-and-refrigerator-on-bottom style has been the basic style since the 1940s, until modern refrigerators broke the trend. A vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers and freezers. Newer refrigerators may include automatic defrosting, chilled water, ice from a dispenser in the door. Domestic refrigerators and freezers for food storage are made in a range of sizes. Among the smallest is a 4 L Peltier refrigerator advertised as being able to hold 6 cans of beer.
A large domestic refrigerator stands as tall as a person and may be about 1 m wide with a capacity of 600 L. Refrigerators and freezers may be free-standing, or built into a kitchen; the refrigerator allows the modern household to keep food fresh for longer than before. Freezers allow people to buy food in bulk and eat it at leisure, bulk purchases save money. Before the invention of the refrigerator, icehouses were used to provide cool storage for most of the year. Placed near freshwater lakes or packed with snow and ice during the winter, they were once common. Natural means are still used to cool foods today. On mountainsides, runoff from melting snow is a convenient way to cool drinks, during the winter one can keep milk fresh much longer just by keeping it outdoors; the word "refrigeratory" was used at least as early as the 17th centuryThe history of artificial refrigeration began when Scottish professor William Cullen designed a small refrigerating machine in 1755. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which boiled, absorbing heat from the surrounding air.
The experiment created a small amount of ice, but had no practical application at that time. In 1805, American inventor Oliver Evans described a closed vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for the production of ice by ether under vacuum. In 1820, the British scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures, in 1834, an American expatriate in Great Britain, Jacob Perkins, built the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system, it was a closed-cycle device. A similar attempt was made in 1842, by American physician, John Gorrie, who built a working prototype, but it was a commercial failure. American engineer Alexander Twining took out a British patent in 1850 for a vapor compression system that used ether; the first practical vapor compression refrigeration system was built by James Harrison, a Scottish Australian. His 1856 patent was for a vapor compression system using alcohol or ammonia, he built a mechanical ice-making machine in 1851 on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in Geelong and his first commercial ice-making machine followed in 1854.
Harrison introduced commercial vapor-compression refrigeration to breweries and meat packing houses, by 1861, a dozen of his systems were in operation. The first gas absorption refrigeration system using gaseous ammonia dissolved in water was developed by Ferdinand Carré of France in 1859 and patented in 1860. Carl von Linde, an engineering professor at the Technological University Munich in Germany, patented an improved method of liquefying gases in 1876, his new process made possible the use of gases such as ammonia, sulfur dioxide and methyl chloride as refrigerants and they were used for that purpose until the late 1920s. In 1913, refrigerators for home and domestic use were invented by Fred W. Wolf of Fort Wayne, with models consisting of a unit, mounted on top of an ice box. In 1914, engineer Nathaniel B. Wales of Detroit, introduced an idea for a practical electric refrigeration unit, which became the basis for the Kelvinator. A self-contained refrigerator, with a compressor on the bottom of the cabinet was invented by Alfred Mellowes in 1916.
Mellowes produced this refrigerator commercially but was bought out by William C. Durant in 1918, who started the Frigidaire company to mass-produce refrigerators. In 1918, Kelvinator company introduced the first refrigerator with
Province of Reggio Emilia
The Province of Reggio Emilia is one of the nine provinces of the Italian Region of Emilia-Romagna. The capital city, the most densely populated comune in the province, is Reggio Emilia, it has an area of around 2,292 square kilometres and, As of 2017, has a population of 531,942. There are 42 comuni in the province. Rolo, the smallest commune in the province by area, is the commune farthest to the East. Ventasso is the commune farthest to the West; the border towns of the Province are Ventasso, the smallest commune by population, to the south and Luzzara in the north. Luzzara is the second largest commune in Emilia-Romagna and has the highest number of foreign nationals in the region; the province is home to the historical Canossa Castle, property of the countess Matilde. Representatives of the free municipalities of Reggio, Modena and Ferrara met in Reggio Emilia's Sala del Tricolore in 1797 to proclaim the Repubblica Cispadana, adopting the three colour green-white-red flag to represent their newly formed Republic.
Four faculties of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia are located in Reggio Emilia. The Faculty of Engineering and Agriculture was established in Reggio Emilia in 1998, followed by the Faculties of Communication Sciences and of Education Sciences, it is home to the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia. The Reggio Emilia approach to preschool education was started by the schools of Reggio Emilia after World War II and it's well-known all over the world, being one of the most advanced systems at present times, it is based and inspired on theories of Malaguzzi, Vygotsky, Dewey and Gardner. Reggio Emilia helds the International Centre Loris Malaguzzi, a modern structure where the Reggio Emilia approach is implemented and spread around the world. With sports arenas including the Stadio Giglio and Palabigi, Reggio Emilia is home to the basketball team Pallacanestro Reggiana; the Camparini Gioielli Cup is a yearly challenger-level tennis tournament played on clay in Reggio Emilia.
A. C. Reggiana 1919 is the historical soccer team of Reggio Emilia, at the moments plays in the third national soccer league Prima Divisione. Stadio Giglio is the home play ground for A. C. Reggiana 1919. A. C. Reggiana 1919 Art collection of Fondazione Manodori Comuni of the Province of Reggio Emilia Palabigi Pallacanestro Reggiana Reggio Emilia approach Reggio Emilia chess tournament Stadio Giglio University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Official website
Marc Andrew Newson CBE is an industrial designer who works in aircraft design, product design, furniture design and clothing. His style uses smooth geometric lines, strength and tends to have an absence of sharp edges. Newson was born in Sydney, in 1984 he graduated at the Sydney College of the Arts in Sydney, Australia studying jewellery and sculpture. In 1986 he was awarded a grant from the Australian Crafts Council and staged a first exhibition featuring the Lockheed Lounge; the following year he moved to Tokyo, where he lived and worked until he moved to Paris in 1991 where he set up a studio. He describes his 1988 Embryo Chair as "one of the first pieces where I hit upon a discernible style", he co-founded the Ikepod watch company in 1994, leaving the company in 2012. In 1997 he moved to London, where he and business partner Benjamin de Haan set up Marc Newson Ltd though he still has a house in Paris, he is adjunct professor in design at Sydney College of the Arts and is the creative director for Qantas.
In 2005, he was selected as one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people of the year. His work has become amongst the highest selling in auctions. One of his three Lockheed Lounge chairs sold for $968,000 at Sotheby's in 2006, £1,100,000 at a 2009 auction at Phillips de Pury & Company. At the 2006 Design Miami fair he produced 12 Chop Top tables, all of which sold out in 20 minutes at an estimated $170,000. In April 2015 his Lockheed Lounge chair sold at auction for £UK2.4 million, making it the most expensive object sold by a living designer. Every year he races one of his four vintage sports cars – an Aston Martin, a Lamborghini, a Ferrari and a Cisitalia, in the Italian Mille Miglia and was quoted as saying: "I'm not a motor head, I don't like the new versions of any of those cars."Newson was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to design. He joined Apple Inc. in September 2014. Objects he has designed include: MN bicycles for Biomega in 1999 Trek Art Bike for Lance Armstrong LiveStrong Ford 021C concept car for the Ford Motor Company in 1999 Qantas first class lounges in Melbourne and Sydney, as well as the invitation-only Chairman’s Lounges Qantas International Skybed I and II business class seat and Airbus A380 economy class seat, winner of the 2009 Australian International Design Award of the Year Cabin design for the Sky Jet, an airline/rocketship planning to take passengers into space from 2012.
Riva Aquariva speedboat Qantas A330 business class suite in 2013 Qantas premium economy seat Lockheed Lounge Chop Top table New range for Smeg in 2009–2010 Furniture for Cappellini Ikepod watches A collection of fittings and a sink for Ideal Standard in 2003 The Zvezdochka shoe for Nike in 2004 A Magnum Presentation Set for Dom Pérignon in 2006 and 2010 Black Box The Dish Doctor for Magis in 1997 The Scope series of bags for Samsonite The Atmos 561 and 566 clocks for Jaeger-LeCoultre Cookware for Tefal Items for Alessi Glass for Iittala Clothes for the clothing company G-Star Raw Timepieces for freelance companies Kelvin 40 concept plane as a personal project Pentax K-01 mirrorless interchangeable lens camera Louis Vuitton Celebrating Monogram Backpack Caroma range of plumbing fixtures - Apple Watch Sport, Apple Watch, Apple Watch Edition Decanter design for Hennessy's new Cognac, James Hennessy Montblanc M pen Louis Vuitton Newson designed the Lever House Restaurant & Bar in New York in 2002 and the Canteen in New York, in 1999.
In 2005 he designed the reception, meeting rooms, the 6th floor of the Hotel Puerta America in Madrid, where each floor is designed by a world-renowned architect or designer. He was selected as the artistic director for the 2011 Sydney New Year's Eve fire work display. Marc Newson. Design tra organicità e fantascienza by Cinzia Ferrara, Lupetti, 2005. ISBN 88-8391-127-X Newson was born in Sydney, Australia on 20 October 1963 to Paul Newson, an electrician and Carol. Carol was 19 years old, she married Paul during the pregnancy, however Paul left the family soon after Marc was born. Carol moved back into her parent's house to raise Marc. Marc's father figure came in the form of his grandfather, Andrew Rolfe, his uncle, Stephen. Newson is of Greek origins on his mother's side. Newson married Charlotte Stockdale, a fashion stylist, in 2008 and they have two children. One of Newson's best friends is Jonathan Ive of Apple Inc.. In a 2012 article in The New York Times, Ive described Newson's work. I think Marc is peerless now.
Marc's forms are imitated, but what other designers imitate is his preoccupation with materials and processes. You have to start with an understanding of the material. Your innovation is just coming up with a new way to use material. In 2013, Ive and Newson collaborated in an auction at Sotheby's for Bono's Product Red. Over forty objects – "each of which we both like... functional and capable of being made in volume", per Ive. Marc Newson Ltd. homepage Marc Newson at Gagosian Gallery Design Museum: Marc Newson Marc Newson – Design Dictionary Illustrated article about Marc Newson G-Star Raw's official website KDDI au: au design proj