A computer virus is a type of malicious software that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are said to be "infected" with a computer virus. Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to infect systems and to spread the virus; the vast majority of viruses target systems running Microsoft Windows, employing a variety of mechanisms to infect new hosts, using complex anti-detection/stealth strategies to evade antivirus software. Motives for creating viruses can include seeking profit, desire to send a political message, personal amusement, to demonstrate that a vulnerability exists in software, for sabotage and denial of service, or because they wish to explore cybersecurity issues, artificial life and evolutionary algorithms. Computer viruses cause billions of dollars' worth of economic damage each year, due to causing system failure, wasting computer resources, corrupting data, increasing maintenance costs, etc.
In response, open-source antivirus tools have been developed, an industry of antivirus software has cropped up, selling or distributing virus protection to users of various operating systems. As of 2005 though no existing antivirus software was able to uncover all computer viruses, computer security researchers are searching for new ways to enable antivirus solutions to more detect emerging viruses, before they have become distributed; the term "virus" is misused by extension to refer to other types of malware. "Malware" encompasses computer viruses along with many other forms of malicious software, such as computer "worms", spyware, trojan horses, rootkits, malicious Browser Helper Object, other malicious software. The majority of active malware threats are trojan horse programs or computer worms rather than computer viruses; the term computer virus, coined by Fred Cohen in 1985, is a misnomer. Viruses perform some type of harmful activity on infected host computers, such as acquisition of hard disk space or central processing unit time, accessing private information, corrupting data, displaying political or humorous messages on the user's screen, spamming their e-mail contacts, logging their keystrokes, or rendering the computer useless.
However, not all viruses carry a destructive "payload" and attempt to hide themselves—the defining characteristic of viruses is that they are self-replicating computer programs which modify other software without user consent. The first academic work on the theory of self-replicating computer programs was done in 1949 by John von Neumann who gave lectures at the University of Illinois about the "Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata"; the work of von Neumann was published as the "Theory of self-reproducing automata". In his essay von Neumann described. Von Neumann's design for a self-reproducing computer program is considered the world's first computer virus, he is considered to be the theoretical "father" of computer virology. In 1972, Veith Risak directly building on von Neumann's work on self-replication, published his article "Selbstreproduzierende Automaten mit minimaler Informationsübertragung"; the article describes a functional virus written in assembler programming language for a SIEMENS 4004/35 computer system.
In 1980 Jürgen Kraus wrote his diplom thesis "Selbstreproduktion bei Programmen" at the University of Dortmund. In his work Kraus postulated that computer programs can behave in a way similar to biological viruses; the first known description of a self-reproducing program in a short story occurs in a 1970 story by Gregory Benford which describes a computer program called VIRUS which, when installed on a computer with telephone modem dialling capability, randomly dials phone numbers until it hit a modem, answered by another computer. It attempts to program the answering computer with its own program, so that the second computer will begin dialling random numbers, in search of yet another computer to program; the program spreads exponentially through susceptible computers and can only be countered by a second program called VACCINE. The idea was explored further in two 1972 novels, When HARLIE Was One by David Gerrold and The Terminal Man by Michael Crichton, became a major theme of the 1975 novel The Shockwave Rider by John Brunner.
The 1973 Michael Crichton sci-fi movie Westworld made an early mention of the concept of a computer virus, being a central plot theme that causes androids to run amok. Alan Oppenheimer's character summarizes the problem by stating that "...there's a clear pattern here which suggests an analogy to an infectious disease process, spreading from one...area to the next." To which the replies are stated: "Perhaps there are superficial similarities to disease" and, "I must confess I find it difficult to believe in a disease of machinery." The Creeper virus was first detected on the forerunner of the Internet, in the early 1970s. Creeper was an experimental self-replicating program written by Bob Thomas at BBN Technologies in 1971. Creeper used the ARPANET to infect DEC PDP-10 computers running the TENEX operating system. Creeper gained access via the ARPANET and copied itself to the remote system where the message, "I'm the creeper, catch me if you can!" was displayed. The Reaper program was created to delete Creeper.
In 1982, a program called "Elk Cloner" was
Red Dwarf is a British science fiction comedy franchise which consists of a television sitcom that aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1999, on Dave since 2009, gaining a cult following. To date, eleven full series of the show plus one "special" miniseries have aired; the most recent series, Red Dwarf XII, started airing in October 2017. The series was created by Doug Naylor. In addition to the television episodes, there are four novels, a radio version adapted from the audiobooks, two pilot episodes for an American version of the show, tie-in books and other merchandise. Set on the eponymous mining spaceship, the main characters are Dave Lister the last known human alive, Arnold Rimmer, a hologram of Lister's deceased bunkmate; the others members of the crew are Cat, a life form which evolved from the descendants of Lister's pregnant pet cat Frankenstein. One of the series' highest accolades came in 1994, when an episode from the sixth series, "Gunmen of the Apocalypse", won an International Emmy Award in the Popular Arts category, in the same year the series was awarded "Best BBC Comedy Series" at the British Comedy Awards.
The series attracted its highest ratings, of more than eight million viewers, during the eighth series in 1999. The revived series on digital channel Dave has delivered some of the highest ratings for non-Public Service Broadcasting commissions in the UK; the show has been critically acclaimed, has a Metacritic score of 84/100. Series XI was voted "Best Returning TV Sitcom" and "Comedy of the Year" for 2016 by readers for the British Comedy Guide.2019 Australian streaming service released the 12 seasons All streaming on Stan The main setting of the series is the eponymous mining spaceship Red Dwarf. In the first episode, set sometime in the late 22nd century, an on-board radiation leak kills everyone except lowest-ranking technician Dave Lister, in suspended animation at the time, his pregnant cat, safe in the cargo hold. Following the accident, the ship's computer Holly keeps Lister in stasis until the radiation levels return to normal – a process that takes three million years. Lister therefore emerges as the last human being in the universe – but not alone on-board the ship.
His former bunkmate and immediate superior Arnold Judas Rimmer is resurrected by Holly as a hologram to keep Lister sane. They are joined by a creature known only as Cat, the last member of a race of humanoid felines that evolved in the ship's hold from Lister's pregnant cat during the 3 million years that Lister was in stasis; the series revolves around Lister being the last human alive, 3 million years from Earth, with his companions. The crew encounters phenomena such as time distortions, faster-than-light travel, mutant diseases and strange lifeforms that had developed in the intervening millions of years. Though it has a science fiction setting, much of the humour comes from the interactions of the characters the laid-back Lister and the stuck-up Rimmer. In Series III, the computer Holly changes from male to female, the mechanoid Kryten joins the crew and becomes a regular character. In Series VI, a story arc is introduced where Red Dwarf has been stolen, the crew pursues it in the smaller Starbug craft, with the side-effect that the character Holly disappears.
Series VII is set in Starbug. Early in series VII, Rimmer departs and is replaced by Kristine Kochanski, Lister's long-term love interest, from an alternate universe. Kochanski becomes a regular character for Series VII and VIII. At the end of Series VII, we learn that Kryten's service nanobots, which had abandoned him years earlier, were behind the theft of the Red Dwarf at the end of series five. At the beginning of the eighth series, Kryten's nanobots reconstruct the Red Dwarf, which they had broken down into its constituent atoms; as a consequence, Series VIII features the entire original crew of Red Dwarf resurrected, including a pre-accident Rimmer. The series ends with a metal-eating virus loose on Red Dwarf; the entire crew evacuates save the main cast. Series IX onwards revert to the same four main characters of Series 3–6, on Red Dwarf and without Kochanski or Holly, it has not been confirmed whether the Rimmer onboard ship is the one who left, the revived version, or a third incarnation entirely.
Dave Lister, played by Craig Charles, is a genial Scouser and self-described bum. He was the lowest-ranking of the 169 crew members on the ship before the accident. Lister survived the accident, he has a long-standing desire to return to Earth and start a farm and/or diner on Fiji, but is left impossibly far away by the accident, which renders him the last surviving member of the human race. He likes Indian food chicken vindaloo, a recurring theme in the series. Arnold Judas Rimmer Bsc Ssc ("Bronze swimming certific