The Keweenaw Peninsula is the northernmost part of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. It was the site of the first copper boom in the United States; as of the 2000 census, its population was 43,200. Its major industries are now logging and tourism, as well as jobs related to Michigan Technological University and Finlandia University; the ancient lava flows of the Keweenaw Peninsula were produced during the Mesoproterozoic Era as a part of the Midcontinent Rift between 1.096 and 1.087 billion years ago. This volcanic activity produced the only strata on Earth where large-scale economically recoverable 97 percent pure native copper is found. Much of the native copper found in the Keweenaw comes in either the form of cavity fillings on lava flow surfaces, which has a lacy consistency, or as "float" copper, found as a solid mass. Copper ore may occur within breccia as void or interclast fillings; the conglomerate layers occur as interbedded units within the volcanic pile. The Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royale, formed by the Midcontinent Rift System, are the only sites in the United States with evidence of prehistoric aboriginal mining of copper.
Artifacts made from this copper by these ancient Indians were traded as far south as present-day Alabama. These areas are the unique location where chlorastrolite, the state gem of Michigan, can be found; the northern end of the peninsula is sometimes referred to as Copper Island, although this term is becoming less common. It is separated from the rest of the peninsula by the Keweenaw Waterway, a natural waterway, dredged and expanded in the 1860s across the peninsula between the cities of Houghton on the south side and Hancock on the north. A Keweenaw Water Trail has been established around Copper Island; the Water Trail stretches 125 miles and can be paddled in five to ten days, depending on weather and water conditions. The Keweenaw Fault runs lengthwise through both Keweenaw and neighboring Houghton counties; this ancient geological slip has given rise to cliffs. U. S. Highway 41 and Brockway Mountain Drive, north of Calumet, were constructed along the cliff line. Lake Superior controls the climate of the Keweenaw Peninsula, keeping winters milder than those in surrounding areas.
Spring is cool and brief, transitioning into a summer with highs near 70 °F. Fall begins with winter beginning in mid-November; the peninsula receives copious amounts of lake-effect snow from Lake Superior. Official records are maintained close to the base of the peninsula in Hancock, where the annual snowfall average is about 220 inches. Farther north, in a community called Delaware, an unofficial average of about 240 inches is maintained. At Delaware, the record snowfall for one season was 390 inches in 1979. Averages over 250 inches occur in the higher elevations closer to the tip of the peninsula. Beginning as early as seven thousand years ago and peaking around 3000 B. C. Native Americans dug copper from the southern shore of Lake Superior; this development was possible in large part because, in this region, large deposits of copper were accessible in surface rock and from shallow diggings. Native copper could be found as wiry masses. Copper as a resource for functional tooling achieved popularity around 3000 B.
C. during the Middle Archaic Stage. The focus of copper working seems to have shifted from functional tools to ornamental objects by the Late Archaic Stage c. 1200 B. C. Native Americans would build a fire to heat the rock around and over a copper mass and, after heating, pour on cold water to crack the rock; the copper was pounded out, using rock hammers and stone chisels. The Keweenaw's rich deposits of copper were extracted on an industrial scale beginning around the middle of the 19th century; the industry grew through the latter part of the century and employed thousands of people well into the 20th century. Hard rock mining in the region ceased in 1967 though copper sulfide deposits continued for some time after in Ontonagon; this vigorous industry created a need for educated mining professionals and directly led in 1885 to the founding of the Michigan Mining School in Houghton. Although MTU discontinued its undergraduate mining engineering program in 2006, the university continues to offer engineering degrees in a variety of other disciplines.
Running concurrently with the mining boom in the Keweenaw was the white pine lumber boom. Trees were cut for timbers for mine shafts, to heat the communities around the large copper mines, to help build a growing nation. Much of the logging at the time was done in winter due to the ease of operability with the snow. Due to the logging practices at that time, the forest of the Keweenaw looks much different today from 100 years ago. US 41 terminates in the northern Keweenaw at the Michigan State Park housing Fort Wilkins. US 41 was the so-called "Military Trail" that started in Chicago in the 1900s and ended in the Keweenaw wilderness; the restored fort has numerous exhibits. For detailed information on the region's mineralogical history, see the virtual tour of the peninsula written by the Mineralogical Society of America, found in "External links" on this page. Information on the geological formations of the region are detailed. From 1964 to 1971, the University of Michigan cooperated with NASA and the U.
S. Navy to run the Keweenaw Rocket launch site. A par
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
The eulachon called the candlefish, is a small anadromous ocean fish, a smelt found along the Pacific coast of North America from northern California to Alaska. The name "candlefish" derives from it being so fat during spawning, with up to 15% of total body weight in fat, that if caught and strung on a wick, it can be burned as a candle; this is the name most used by early explorers. The name eulachon is from the Chinook Jargon based on that language. There is a theory that the term "hooligan" was influenced by "eulachon", rather than taken from the Irish surname; the unrelated sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is called "candlefish" in the United Kingdom. Eulachon are distinguished by the large canine like teeth on the vomer bone and 18 to 23 rays in the anal fin. Like salmon and trout they have an adipose fin; the paired fins are longer in males than in females. All fins have well-developed breeding tubercles in ripe males, but these are poorly developed or absent in females. Adult coloration is brown to blue on the back and top of the head, lighter to silvery white on the sides, white on the ventral surface.
Adults can reach maximum lengths of 30 cm but most adults are between 15 and 20 cm They feed on plankton but only while at sea. Eulachon feed on plankton as well as fish eggs, insect larvae, small crustaceans, it forms an important part of the diet of many ocean and shore predators, serves as a prominent food source for people living near its spawning streams. Eulachon, as anadromous fish, spend most of their adult lives in the ocean but return to their natal freshwater streams and rivers to spawn and die As such, one stream may see regular large runs of eulachon while a neighboring stream sees few or none at all. Regular annual runs are common but not predictable, a river which has large runs sees a year with no returns; the eulachon run is characteristic for the early portion being entirely male, with females following about midway through the run to its conclusion. Males are distinguished from females during spawning by fleshy ridges which form along the length of their bodies. Indigenous communities of the Pacific Coast from California to Alaska made eulachon an important part of their diet, as well as a valuable trade item with peoples whose territories did not include spawning rivers.
The species was caught using traps and nets. The harvest continues today, with other residents taking part in the exploitation of the large runs. Today harvested eulachon are stored frozen and thawed as needed, they may be dried, smoked, or canned. Eulachon were processed for their rich oil; the usual process was to allow the fish to decompose for a week or more in a pit in the ground add boiling water and skim off the oil, which would rise to the surface. Eulachon oil was the most important product traded into the interior. Other uses of eulachon by non-Natives include bait for sportfishing and food for dogs. On November 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service received a petition from the Cowlitz Tribe to list a distinct population segment of eulachon from Washington and California, as an endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act.. NMFS found that this petition presented enough information to warrant conducting a status review of the species. Based on the status review NMFS proposed listing this species as threatened on March 13, 2009.
On March 16, 2010, NOAA announced that the Southern DPS of eulachon will be listed as threatened under the ESA, effective on May 17, 2010. On September 6, 2017, the NMFS approved a recovery plan intended to serve as a blueprint for the protection and recovery of the southern Distinct Population Segment of eulachon using the best available science per the requirements of the Endangered Species Act. "Thaleichthys pacificus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 11 March 2006; the First Sign of Spring: OOLIGAN National Marine Fisheries Service eulachon webpage FishBase entry for Thaleichthys pacificus Preserving the Tradition of T'lina Making - Virtual Museum Exhibit of Kwakwaka'wakw eulachon oil production Making Oolichan grease in Kemano, online exhibit on Haisla eulachon grease making Sinumwack: Bella Coola Oolichan Run
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
The Osmeriformes comprise an order of ray-finned fish that includes the true or freshwater smelts and allies, such as the galaxiids and noodlefishes. They belong to the teleost superorder Protacanthopterygii, which includes pike and salmon, among others; the order's name means "smelt-shaped", from Osmerus + the standard fish order suffix "-formes". It derives from Ancient Greek osmé + Latin forma, the former in reference to the characteristic aroma of the flesh of Osmerus. In the classification used here, the order Osmeriformes contains two suborders, six families, some 20 genera, about 93 species. Other authors choose a different arrangement, but whether treated as suborders or superfamilies, the division in two lineages is maintained; the "marine" smelts and allies were included here as suborder Argentinoidei. When the marine smelts were included here, the subdivisions of the Osmeriformes were down-ranked by one. Osmeriformes are small to mid-sized slender fish, their maxilla is included in the mouth's gape, most of them have an adipose fin as is found in the Protacanthopterygii.
Their has a ventral flange, the vomer has a short posterior shaft. They have reduced or missing articular and mesopterygoid teeth, the basisphenoid and orbitosphenoid bones are absent, their scales lack radii. Despite the term "freshwater smelts", the members of the Osmeriformes are marine, or amphidromous or anadromous migrants; the sedentary freshwater species in this family are tolerant of considerable changes in salinity. All osmeriforms spawn in fresh water, thus the marine species are anadromous, they are found in temperate oceans worldwide and in temperate freshwater of the Holarctic and around the South Pacific region. The eggs are surrounded by an adhesive membrane. With the Argentiniformes separated as a distinct order, the remaining Osmeriformes appear to be a monophyletic group, their placement in the Protacanthopterygii is not clear, but may well be the closest living relatives of the Esociformes. Others consider them closer to the Salmoniformes. A closer relationship to the Stomiiformes than assumed is supported by anatomical and DNA sequence data.
But this can be taken to suggest that the superorder "Stenopterygii" ought to be included in the Protacanthopterygii, rather than a close relationship between the two orders. The classification of the Osmeriformes as approached here is: Family †Spaniodontidae Jordan 1905 Suborder Retropinnoidei Family Retropinnidae Suborder Osmeroidei Family Osmeridae Family Plecoglossidae Family Salangidae A possible fossil osmeriform is Spaniodon, a piscivore from Late Cretaceous seas; the group originated somewhat earlier, but a Cretaceous age maybe about 110 million years ago or so is likely. The families Galaxiidae and Lepidogalaxiidae were at one time place together with Retropinnidae in the sub order Galaxoidei, however with new molecular studies they have been elevated to the ordinal level. Sepkoski, Jack. "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Retrieved 2011-05-17
Udupi is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Udupi District, it is one of the fastest growing cities in Karnataka & the city has got a modern touch due to its educational suburb Manipal, a part of the city. Udupi is one of the top tourist attractions in Karnataka, it is notable for the Krishna Temple. It lends its name to the popular Udupi cuisine, it is known as Lord Parashurama Kshetra, is famous for Kanakana Kindi. A centre of pilgrimage, Udupi is known as Rajata Shivalli, it is known as the temple city. Udupi is situated about 55 km north of the educational, commercial & industrial hub Mangalore and about 422 km west of state capital Bangalore by road. Udupi is one of the districts of Karnataka in India. There are 233 villages and 21 towns in Udupi district; as per the Census India 2011, Udupi district has 2,53,078 households, population of 11,77,361 of which 5,62,131 are males and 6,15,230 are females. The population of children between age 0-6 is 1,03,160, 8.76% of the total population.
The sex-ratio of Udupi district is around 1094 compared to 973, average of Karnataka state. The literacy rate of Udupi district is 78.69% out of which 82.85% males are literate and 74.89% females are literate. The total area of Udupi is 3,582 sq.km with a population density of 329 per sq.km. Out of the total population, 71.63% of the population lives in the Urban area and 28.37% lives in Rural area. There are 4.49 % Scheduled Tribe of the total population in Udupi district. Sthanika Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins, Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins, Billavas, Mangalorean Catholics, Beary, Padmashalis, Ramakshatriyas are some prominent communities in Udupi. Udupi, which had a Town Municipal Council now has a City Municipal Council which came into existence in 1995. Areas around Udupi, such as Manipal, Malpe and Santhekatte were merged to form the City Municipal Council. Udupi was carved out as a separate district from the erstwhile Dakshina Kannada district on 25 August 1997. Udupi and Karkala were bifurcated from the Dakshina Kannada District and the Udupi District was formed.
Dinakar Babu and Sheela K Shetty of the Bharatiya Janata Party are the current president and vice-president of the Udupi Zilla Panchayat after the election held at the Zilla Panchayat on 27 April 2016. In February 2018, the district was split to into 3 more taluks, with Byndoor being carved out of Kundapur taluk and the Udupi taluk being split into three parts. Along with the initial Udupi taluk and Brahmavar were created. Tulu and Kannada are the most spoken languages in Udupi. Other spoken languages include Konkani, English and Kundagannada. Muslims in Udupi speak Urdu and Beary. Udupi has an elevation of 27 m above mean sea level; the climate in Udupi is hot in pleasant in winter. During summers the temperature reaches up to 38 °C and in winters it is between 32 °C and 20 °C; the monsoon period is from June to September, with rainfall averaging more than 4000 mm every year and heavy winds. Bhuta Kola, Aati kalenja and Nagaradhane are some cultural traditions of Udupi; the residents celebrate festivals such as Makara Sankranti, Krishna Janmashtami, Deepavali, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr and Christmas.
Folk arts like Yakshagana are popular. Rathabeedhi Geleyaru and Kalavrinda are local non-profit organisations, founded to encourage creative pursuits those that keep alive the traditions of the region, its primary focus has been historical dramas. The term Udupi is synonymous with vegetarian food now found all over the world; the origin of this cuisine is linked to Krishna Matha. Lord Krishna is offered food of different varieties every day, there are certain restrictions on ingredients during Chaturmasa; these restrictions coupled with the requirement of variety led to innovation in dishes incorporating seasonal and locally available materials. This cuisine was developed by Shivalli Madhwa Brahmins who cooked food for Lord Krishna, at Krishna Matha in Udupi, the food is provided free of cost. Restaurants specialised in Udupi cuisine can be seen in most metropolitan and large cities around the length and breadth of India. Although popular for its vegetarian cuisine, Udupi has its fair share of non-vegetarian dishes that are similar to Tuluva or Mangalorean cuisine.
Some of these include Kori Roti, Kori Pulimunchi, Chicken Sukka, more. Udupi is becoming a major town in Karnataka. Udupi is the birthplace of the Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank and Harsha Retail, the leading retailer of coastal Karnataka. Udupi's economy consists of agriculture and fishing. Small-scale industries like the cashew industry, other food industries and milk cooperatives are the most prominent. Udupi is making its mark in the real estate industry influenced by its neighboring spearhead Mangalore; the Karnataka government had signed a memorandum of understanding with the Cogentrix Light and Power Industry to set up a thermal power plant in the district at Nandikur. However, because of stiff opposition from citizens and environmentalist groups, the project has been temporarily suspended. An attempt by the Nagarjuna Power Corporation to set up a similar plant at nearby Padubidri met strong opposition. Now, the power plant has been set up, generating 1,200 MW of power under the name of Udupi Power Corporation Limited, a subsidiary of Lanco Infra, an Andhra Pradesh-based infrastruc
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results