Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with the relationship between individuals, families and the environment in which they live. Home economics courses are offered internationally and across multiple educational levels. Home economics courses have been important throughout history because it gave women the opportunity to pursue higher education and vocational training in a world where only men were able to learn in such environments. In modern times, home economics teaches both men and women important life skills, such as cooking and finances. With the stigma the term “home economics” has earned over the years, the course is now referred to by different terms, such as “family and consumer science.” Family and consumer science was known in the United States as home economics abbreviated "home ec" or "HE". In 1994, various organizations, including the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences, adopted the new term "family and consumer science" to reflect the fact that the field covers aspects outside of home life and wellness.
The field is known by other names, including human sciences, home science, domestic economy. In addition, home economics has a strong historic relationship to the field of human ecology, since the 1960s a number of university-level home economics programs have been renamed "human ecology" programs, including Cornell University's program. Over the years, homemaking in the United States has been a foundational piece of the education system for women; these homemaking courses, called home economics, have had a prevalent presence in secondary and higher education since the 19th century. By definition, home economics is “the art and science of home management”, meaning that the discipline incorporates both creative and technical aspects into its teachings. Home economics courses consist of learning how to cook, how to do taxes, how to perform child care tasks. In the United States, home economics courses have been a key part of learning the art of taking care of a household. One of the first to champion the economics of running a home was Catherine Beecher, sister to Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Since the 19th century, schools have been incorporating home economics courses into their education programs. In the United States, the teaching of home economics courses in higher education increased with the Morrill Act of 1862. Signed by Abraham Lincoln, the Morrill Act of 1862 granted land to each state or territory in America for higher educational programs in vocational arts mechanical arts and home economics; such land grants allowed for people of a wider array of social classes to receive better education in important trade skills. Home economics courses taught students how to cook, sew and take care of children; the vast majority of these programs were dominated by women. Home economics allowed for women to receive a better education while preparing them for a life of settling down, doing the chores, taking care of the children while their husbands became the breadwinners. At this time, homemaking was only accessible to middle and upper class white women whose families could afford secondary schooling.
In the late 19th century, the Lake Placid Conferences took place. The conferences consisted of a group of educators working together to elevate the discipline to a legitimate profession, they wanted to call this profession "oekology", the science of right living. However, "home economics" was chosen as the official term in 1899. Home economics in the United States education system increased in popularity in the early 20th century, it emerged as a movement to train women to be more efficient household managers. At the same moment, American families began to consume many more goods and services than they produced. To guide women in this transition, professional home economics had two major goals: to teach women to assume their new roles as modern consumers and to communicate homemakers’ needs to manufacturers and political leaders; the development of the profession progressed from its origins as an educational movement to its identity as a source of consumer expertise in the interwar period to its virtual disappearance by the 1970s.
An additional goal of the field was to “rationalize housework”, or lend the social status of a profession to it, based on a theory that housework could be intellectually fulfilling to women engaged in it, along with any emotional or relational benefits. In 1909, Ellen Swallow Richards founded the American Home Economics Association. From 1900 to 1917, more than thirty bills discussed in Congress dealt with issues of American vocational education and, by association, home economics. Americans wanted more opportunities for their young people to learn vocational skills and to learn valuable home and life skills. However, home economics was still dominated by women and women had little access to other vocational trainings; as stated by the National Education Association on the distribution of males and females in vocations, “one-third of our menfolk are in agriculture, one-third in non-agricultural productive areas. Practice homes were added to American universities in the early 1900s in order to model a living situation, although the all-women ‘team’ model used for students was different from prevailing expectations of housewives.
For example, women were graded on collaboration, while households at the time assumed that women would be working independently. The practice homes were valued; these practicum courses took place in a variety of environments including single-family homes, a
Alabama A&M University
Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University is a public black, land-grant university located in Normal, a neighborhood of Huntsville, United States. AAMU is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund and has been accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Founded in the 1870s as a normal school, it took its present name in 1969. Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University Historic District known as Normal Hill College Historic District, has 28 buildings and 4 structures listed in the United States National Register of Historic Places. Teacher and schoolmaster William Hooper Councill won approval for his plan for the Huntsville State Normal School for Negroes, established by an act of the Alabama State Legislature in 1875; the school opened on May 1, 1875, at a church on Eustis Street, with instruction for 61 teaching students overseen by Principal Councill, assisted by Rev. Alfred Hunt. By 1878, the state appropriation increased from $1,000 to $2,000 and the school expanded its enrollment and curriculum.
In 1881, the faculty pooled money from their salaries to purchase two and a half acres on West Clinton Street. In 1885 the school, now with around 180 students, changes its name to State Normal and Industrial School of Huntsville, after the earlier addition of programs for sewing, carpentry, mattress making and gardening. By 1890, the school site became known as Normal, a post office was established. In 1891, the school was designated as a land-grant college through legislative enactment under the terms of the Morrill Act of 1890. In 1896, its name was changed to The State Mechanical College for Negroes. In 1919, the school became the State Mechanical Institute for Negroes. In 1948 it was renamed the Alabama Mechanical College. AAMU became accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1963. In June 1969, the school adopted its current name; the new millennium saw the construction of the West Campus Complex, the erection of the 21,000-seat Louis Crews Stadium, the renovations of buildings and the moving of athletic programs to the Southwestern Athletic Conference.
The School of Engineering and Technology facility was built in 2002, the Ph. D. program in Reading and Literacy was established. Andrew Hugine was approved by the Board of Trustees as the 11th president on June 18, 2009. In 2015, the Board of Trustees approved out-of-state scholarships for the Fall 2016 semester; the scholarships are contingent on prospective students meeting various academic qualifications. The campus grounds were designed by the Olmsted Brothers firm; the J. F. Drake Memorial Learning Resources Center was renovated in 2002, adding over 15,000 square feet, an interactive Distance Learning Auditorium, conference and class rooms and computer lab; the State Black Archives Research Center and Museum is located in the James H. Wilson Building, a national registered historical structure. Louis Crews Stadium is the sixth largest stadium in Alabama. Elmore Gymnasium is home to the basketball teams, was once rated as one of the toughest places for opponents to play. In 1994, the Mamie Foster Student Living/Learning Complex was erected.
Groundbreaking was held for the School of Business facility in 1995 and Louis Crews Stadium and Ernest L. Knight Complex Residence Hall construction began; the Engineering and Technology building known as Bond Hall was completed in 2002 and opened for classes in January 2003. The campus is served by the Bulldog Transit Shuttle bus system. A new 600-bed residence hall was constructed and opened for students January 2018; the Normal Historic Preservation Association was incorporated on April 15, 2009, to help preserve and protect the Alabama A&M University National Historic District. 41 Baccalaureate, 23 Master's, 1 EdS and 4 doctoral degrees offered. Degrees conferred: BA, BGS, BS, BSCE, BSEE, BSET, BSME, EdS, MBA, MEd, MEng, MS, MSW, MURP, PhD. Honors Program available for academically exceptional undergraduate students. College of Agricultural and Natural Sciences College of Business and Public Affairs College of Education and Behavioral Sciences College of Engineering and Physical Sciences School of Graduate Studies 20:1 student-faculty ratio Fewer than 40 students in 86 percent of courses 348 faculty members across all undergraduate and professional programs From 44 states and 11 foreign countries 5,628 undergraduates and 1,123 graduate students.
42 percent first-time college students Middle 50th percentile on ACT: 17–18 93 student clubs and organizations 75 percent student participation in community service projects The National Space Science and Technology Center is a joint research venture between NASA, Alabama A&M and six other research universities of the state of Alabama, represented by the Space Science and Technology Alliance. The aim of the NSSTC is to foster collaboration in research between government and industry; the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 established The Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The system provides educational outreach to the citizens of Alabama on behalf of the state's two land grant universities: Alabama A&M University and Auburn University; the system employs more than 800 faculty, professional educators, staff members operating in offices in each of Alabama's 67 counties and in nine urban centers covering the major regions of the state. In conjunction with the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, the system staffs six extension and research centers located in the state's principal geographic regions.
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
63rd United States Congress
The Sixty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1913, to March 4, 1915, during the first two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. March 4, 1913: Woodrow Wilson became President of the United States. March 9, 1914: The Senate adopted a rule forbidding smoking on the floor of the Senate because Senator Ben Tillman, recovering from a stroke, found the smoke irritating. July 28, 1914: World War I began in Europe August 15, 1914: The Panama Canal was inaugurated August 19, 1914: President Woodrow Wilson declared strict U. S. neutrality November 1914: United States House of Representatives elections, 1914 and United States Senate elections, 1914 November 16, 1914: Federal Reserve Bank opened May 27, 1913: Kern Resolution July 9, 1913: Saboth Act July 15, 1913: Newlands Labor Act October 3, 1913: Revenue Act of 1913, including Underwood Tariff October 22, 1913: Urgent Deficiencies Act December 19, 1913: Raker Act December 23, 1913: Federal Reserve Act, ch.
6, 38 Stat. 251, 12 U. S. C. § 221, et seq. May 8, 1914: Smith–Lever Act, ch. 79, 38 Stat. 372, 7 U. S. C. § 341 June 24, 1914: Cutter Service Act June 30, 1914: Cooperative Funds Act July 17, 1914: Agricultural Entry Act July 18, 1914: Aviation Service Act July 21, 1914: Borland Amendment August 13, 1914: Smith–Hayden Act August 15, 1914: Sponge Act August 18, 1914: Cotton Futures Act of 1914 August 18, 1914: Foreign Ship Registry Act August 22, 1914: Glacier National Park Act of 1914 September 2, 1914: War Risk Insurance Act September 26, 1914: Federal Trade Commission Act, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, 15 U. S. C. § 41 October 2, 1914: River and Harbors Act of 1914 October 15, 1914: Clayton Antitrust Act, ch. 323, 38 Stat. 730, 15 U. S. C. § 12, et seq. October 22, 1914: Emergency Internal Revenue Tax Act December 17, 1914: Harrison Narcotics Tax Act January 28, 1915: Coast Guard Act March 4, 1915: Merchant Marine Act of 1915 March 4, 1915: River and Harbors Act of 1915 March 4, 1915: Standard Barrel Act For Fruits and Dry Commodities March 4, 1915: Federal Boiler Inspection Act March 4, 1915: Uniform Bill of Lading Act March 4, 1915: Occupancy Permits Act April 8, 1913: Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, establishing the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states, was ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution Democratic: 291 Republican: 134 Progressive: 9 Independent: 1TOTAL members: 435 President of the Senate: Thomas R. Marshall President pro tempore: James P. Clarke Majority Whip: J. Hamilton Lewis Minority Whip: James W. Wadsworth Jr. until March 4.
A few senators were elected directly by the residents of the state. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1914; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 3 Democratic: 2 seat net gain Republican: 2 seat net loss deaths: 3 resignations: 3 vacancy: 3 Total seats with changes: 9 replacements: 20 Democratic: 1 seat gain Republican: 2 seat loss Progressive: 1 seat gain deaths: 11 resignations: 19 contested elections: 2 Total seats with changes: 15 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Banking and Currency Canadian Relations Census Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Coast and Insular Survey Coast Defenses Commerce Conservation of National Resources Corporations Organized in the District of Columbia Cuban Relations Disposition of Useless Papers in the Executive Departments District of Columbia Education and Labor Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Establish a University in the United States Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Servic
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
Asbury Francis Lever
Asbury Francis "Frank" Lever was a member of the United States House of Representatives from South Carolina. Frank Lever was born near Springhill, Lexington County, South Carolina on January 5, 1875, he was the son of a farmer, Asbury Francis Washington Lever, Mary Elvira Derrick. He attended the county schools and graduated from Newberry College with honors in 1895, he taught school for two years. He moved to Washington, D. C. as the private secretary to Representative J. William Stokes from 1897 to 1901, he graduated from the Law Department of Georgetown University, Washington, D. C. did not practice. He married Lucile Scurry Butler in 1911, they had two children. He was a delegate to the Democratic State conventions in 1896 and 1900, he was elected a member of the South Carolina House of Representatives in 1901. He was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-seventh Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of J. William Stokes was reelected to the Fifty-eighth and to the eight succeeding Congresses and served from November 5, 1901, until August 1, 1919.
Lever was the chairman of the House Committee on Education from 1911 to 1913 and Committee on Agriculture. His major legislative achievements were in the area of state and federal efforts in agricultural and rural life. Major bills were the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 that established the Cooperative Extension Service, the Cotton Futures Act of 1914, the Cotton Warehouse Act of 1916, Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 that created the Farm Credit Administration, the Food and Fuel Control Act of 1917 that created a Food Administration and a Fuel Administration for World War I, he resigned from Congress to become a member of the Federal Farm Loan Board, in which capacity he served until 1922. He ran for the Democratic nomination for Governor of South Carolina in 1930, but sickness ended his campaign, he was a Chair of the Board of Trustees of Newberry College and Life Trustee of Clemson College from 1913 to 1940. He was elected president of the First Carolinas Joint Stock Land Bank at Columbia, South Carolina, in 1922 and was a field representative of Federal Farm Board.
He was a director of the public relations administration of the Farm Credit Administration until his death. He died on April 1940, at "Seven Oaks," in Lexington County, South Carolina, he is interred at College Hill Cemetery, on campus of Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina, South Carolina. The Cooperative Extension Service is a legacy to Lever; this helped transform rural America. The Liberty Ship SS A. Frank Lever was named after Lever. Lever Hall, a high-rise dormitory on the Clemson University campus, is named after Lever; the Clemson University Library has Lever's papers
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of