A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
North Smithfield, Rhode Island
North Smithfield is a town in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States, settled as a farming community in 1666 and incorporated into its present form in 1871. North Smithfield includes the historic villages of Forestdale, Waterford, Branch Village, Union Village, Park Square, Slatersville; the population was 12,314 at the 2015 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 24.7 square miles, of which 24.0 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. North Smithfield is in a New England upland region; the Branch River and Blackstone Rivers provided much of the power for the early mills in the town. The town consists of temperate forests, with minor elevation changes. Residents can expect harsh winters. In the 17th century British colonists settled in North Smithfield developing a farming community that they named after Smithfield, London in England; the town was part of Smithfield, Rhode Island until it was incorporated as North Smithfield in 1871.
The first colonization occurred after a Native American, "William Minnian" of Punkkupage) of Massachusetts Bay on May 14, 1666 with the permission of King Philip, deeded 2,000 acres" to John Mowry and Edward Inman who partnered with Nathaniel Mowry, John Steere, Thomas Walling in dividing up the purchased tract. In the early 18th century, a Quaker colony developed in what is now North Smithfield, which extended into south Uxbridge, Massachusetts. Today North Smithfield is part of the John H. Chaffee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor; the Blackstone Valley is the oldest industrialized region in the U. S. A local North Smithfield industry today, Berroco Yarns, is a continuation of an original family owned woolen company first established in this valley by Daniel Day in 1809; the village of Slatersville was built by Samuel Slater and his brother John Slater beginning in 1803. It is a well-preserved original New England mill village with worker housing and commercial buildings and a church on a village green.
This village is in fact America's first planned industrial mill village. Samuel and John's family owned the village until the turn of the 20th century. Union Village, along Rhode Island Route 146A achieved local prominence as an important stagecoach stop on the route along Great Road. Union Village was home to a hat shop, taverns, an academy and the Union Bank from which the village got its name; the North Smithfield Public Library was founded in 1931 with the first branch in the Union Village school. In 1965 Fogarty Hospital was constructed in the town. In the nineteenth and early twentieth-century, North Smithfield "was served by several trolley and railroad lines. A freight-only spur line of the Providence and Worcester Railroad extends from the main line in Woonsocket and terminates at the Providence Pike" where it "primarily serves a single customer, a steel supplier called Denman and Davis," a company in Slatersville, now part of O’Neal Steel, Inc; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,618 people, 3,954 households, 2,957 families residing in the town.
The population density was 441.7 people per square mile. There were 4,070 housing units at an average density of 169.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.32% White, 0.42% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.47% of the population. 41% reported either French or French Canadian ancestry, 12% Irish, 12% Italian, 8% English. There were 3,954 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.2% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $58,602, the median income for a family was $67,331. Males had a median income of $43,133 versus $30,748 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,031. About 1.9% of families and 3.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.8% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Second Battle of Nipsachuck Battlefield, site of 1676 battle during King Philip's War Slatersville, America's first industrial mill village, established by John Slater and Samuel Slater in 1807 Smithfield Friends Meeting House, Parsonage & Cemetery, 18th-19th-century Quaker community Peleg Arnold Tavern Blackstone Valley National Heritage Corridor Forestdale Mill Village Historic District Tyler Mowry House William Mowry House Smithfield Road Historic District Three Dog Site, RI-151 Todd Farm Union Village Historic District Peleg Arnold, delegate to the Continental Congress.
New England town
The New England town referred to as a town in New England, is the basic unit of local government and local division of state authority in each of the six New England states and without a direct counterpart in most other U. S. states. New England towns overlay the entire area of a state, similar to civil townships in other states where they exist, but they are functioning municipal corporations, possessing powers similar to cities in other states. New Jersey's system of powerful townships, boroughs and cities is the system, most similar to that of New England. New England towns are governed by a town meeting legislative body; the great majority of municipal corporations in New England are based on the town model. S. County government in New England states is weak at best, in some states nonexistent. Connecticut, for example, does Rhode Island. Both of those states retain counties only as geographic subdivisions with no governmental authority, while Massachusetts has abolished eight of fourteen county governments so far.
With few exceptions, counties serve as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Towns are laid out so that nearly all land within the boundaries of a state is allocated to a town or other corporate municipality. All land is incorporated into the bounds of a municipal corporation's territory, except in some sparsely populated areas of the three northern New England states. Towns are municipal corporations, with their powers defined by a combination of municipal corporate charter, state statutes, the state constitution. In most of New England, the laws regarding their authority have been broadly construed. In practice, most New England towns have significant autonomy in managing their own affairs, with nearly all of the powers that cities have in most other U. S. states. New Hampshire and Vermont follow Dillon's Rule, which holds that local governments are creatures of the state. Traditionally, a town's legislative body is the open town meeting, a form of direct democratic rule, with a board of selectmen possessing executive authority.
Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings. A town always contains a built-up populated place with the same name as the town. Additional built-up places with different names are found within towns, along with a mixture of additional urban and rural territory. There is no territory, not part of a town between each town. In most parts of New England, towns are not laid out on a grid. Vermont is the leading exception to this, much of the interior of Maine was laid out as surveyed townships; the town center contains a town common used today as a small park. All residents live within the boundaries of a municipal corporation. Residents receive most local services at the municipal level, county government tends to provide few or no services. Differences among states do exist in the level of services provided at the municipal and county level, but most functions handled by county-level government in the rest of the United States are handled by town-level government in New England.
In Connecticut, Rhode Island, most of Massachusetts, county government has been abolished, counties serve as dividing lines for the judicial system. In other areas, some counties provide other limited administrative services. In many cases, the house numbers on rural roads in New England reset to zero upon crossing a town line. Residents identify with their town for purposes of civic identity, thinking of the town in its entirety as a single, coherent community. There are some cases where residents identify more with villages or sections of a town than with the town itself in Rhode Island, but this is the exception, not the rule. More than 90% of the municipalities in the six New England states are identified as towns. Other forms of municipalities that exist are based on the town concept, as well—most notably cities. Most New England cities have adopted a city form of government, with a council and a mayor or manager. Municipal entities based on the concept of a compact populated place are uncommon, such as a Vermont village or Connecticut borough.
In areas of New England where such forms do exist, they remain part of the parent town and do not have all of the corporate powers and authority of an independent municipality. Towns date back to the time of the earliest English colonial settlement, which predominated in New England, they pre-date the development of counties in the region. Areas were organized as towns as they were settled, throughout the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. Town boundaries were not laid out on any kind of regular grid, but were drawn to reflect local settlement and transportation patterns affected by natural features. In early colonial times, recognition of towns was informal connected to local church divisions. By 1700, colonial governments had become more involved in the official establishment of new towns. Towns were governed by a town meeting form of government, as many still are today. Towns were the only form of incorporated municipality in New England; the city form of government was not introduced until much later.
Boston, for instance, was a town for the first two centuries of its existence. The entire land areas of Connecticut an
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain; the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783; the 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796; the Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies and, after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army.
Each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part-time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the raising of temporary "provincial regiments" during specific crises such as the French and Indian War of 1754–63. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading to the war, colonists began to reform their militias in preparation for the perceived potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of a colonial army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut soon raised similar but smaller forces. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense, adopting the forces in place outside Boston and New York.
It raised the first ten companies of Continental troops on a one-year enlistment, riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia to be used as light infantry, who became the 1st Continental Regiment in 1776. On June 15, 1775, the Congress elected by unanimous vote George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, who accepted and served throughout the war without any compensation except for reimbursement of expenses. On July 18, 1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from "all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age." It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of parental consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days. After Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place; as the Continental Congress adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army became the subject of considerable debate.
Some Americans had a general aversion to maintaining a standing army. As a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units. Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, at various times during the war, standard enlistment periods lasted from one to three years. Early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army; the army never numbered more than 17,000 men. Turnover proved a constant problem in the winter of 1776–77, longer enlistments were approved. Broadly speaking, Continental forces consisted of several successive armies, or establishments: The Continental Army of 1775, comprising the initial New England Army, organized by Washington into three divisions, six brigades, 38 regiments. Major General Philip Schuyler's ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada; the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired.
Washington had submitted recommendations to the Continental Congress immediately after he had accepted the position of Commander-in-Chief, but the Congress took time to consider and implement these. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus; this army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a single battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies, with a rank-and-file strength of 640. The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution; the Continental Congress passed the "Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve", ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions.
Enlistment terms extended to three years or to "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that deplet
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. In 1851, she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who became her lifelong friend and co-worker in social reform activities in the field of women's rights. In 1852, they founded the New York Women's State Temperance Society after Anthony was prevented from speaking at a temperance conference because she was female. In 1863, they founded the Women's Loyal National League, which conducted the largest petition drive in United States history up to that time, collecting nearly 400,000 signatures in support of the abolition of slavery. In 1866, they initiated the American Equal Rights Association, which campaigned for equal rights for both women and African Americans. In 1868, they began publishing.
In 1869, they founded the National Woman Suffrage Association as part of a split in the women's movement. In 1890, the split was formally healed when their organization merged with the rival American Woman Suffrage Association to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association, with Anthony as its key force. In 1876, Anthony and Stanton began working with Matilda Joslyn Gage on what grew into the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage; the interests of Anthony and Stanton diverged somewhat in years, but the two remained close friends. In 1872, Anthony was arrested for voting in her hometown of Rochester, New York, convicted in a publicized trial. Although she refused to pay the fine, the authorities declined to take further action. In 1878, Anthony and Stanton arranged for Congress to be presented with an amendment giving women the right to vote. Introduced by Sen. Aaron A. Sargent, it became known colloquially as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment, it was ratified as the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution in 1920. Anthony traveled extensively in support of women's suffrage, giving as many as 75 to 100 speeches per year and working on many state campaigns, she worked internationally for women's rights, playing a key role in creating the International Council of Women, still active. She helped to bring about the World's Congress of Representative Women at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893; when she first began campaigning for women's rights, Anthony was harshly ridiculed and accused of trying to destroy the institution of marriage. Public perception of her changed radically during her lifetime, however, her 80th birthday was celebrated in the White House at the invitation of President William McKinley. She became the first actual woman to be depicted on U. S. coinage. Susan Anthony was born on February 15, 1820, to Daniel Anthony and Lucy Read in Adams, the second oldest of seven children, she was named for her mother's mother Susanah, for her father's sister Susan.
In her youth and her sisters responded to a "great craze for middle initials" by adding middle initials to their own names. Anthony adopted "B." as her middle initial because her namesake aunt Susan had married a man named Brownell. Her family shared a passion for social reform, her brothers Daniel and Merritt moved to Kansas to support the anti-slavery movement there. Merritt fought with John Brown against pro-slavery forces during the Bleeding Kansas crisis. Daniel owned a newspaper and became mayor of Leavenworth. Anthony's sister Mary, with whom she shared a home in years, became a public school principal in Rochester, a woman's rights activist. Anthony's father was a temperance advocate. A Quaker, he had a difficult relationship with his traditionalist congregation, which rebuked him for marrying a non-Quaker and disowned him for allowing a dance school to operate in his home, he continued to attend Quaker meetings anyway and became more radical in his beliefs. Anthony's mother was a Methodist and helped raise their children in a more tolerant version of her husband's religious tradition.
Their father encouraged them all, girls as well as boys, to be self-supporting, teaching them business principles and giving them responsibilities at an early age. When Anthony was six years old, her family moved to Battenville, New York, where her father managed a large cotton mill, he had operated his own small cotton factory. When she was seventeen, Anthony was sent to a Quaker boarding school in Philadelphia, where she unhappily endured its severe atmosphere, she was forced to end her studies after one term because her family was financially ruined during an economic downturn known as the Panic of 1837. They were forced to sell everything they had at an auction, but they were rescued by her maternal uncle, who bought most of their belongings and restored them to the family. To assist her family financially, Anthony left home to teach at a Quaker boarding school. In 1845, the family moved to a farm on the outskirts of Rochester, New York, purchased with the inheritance of Anthony's mother.
There they associated with a group of Quaker social reformers who had left their congregation because of the restrictions it placed on reform activities, who in 1848 formed a new organization called the Congregational Friends. The Anthony farmstead soon became the Sunday afternoon gathering place for local activists, including Frederick Douglass, a former slave and a prominent abolitionist who became Anthony's lifelong friend; as several others in that group were doing, the Anthony family began to attend services at
Bryant University is a private university in Smithfield, Rhode Island. Until August 2004, it was known as Bryant College. Bryant has two colleges, the College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Business, is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges and the AACSB International. Bryant University was founded in 1863 as a branch of a national school which taught bookkeeping and methods of business communication and was named after founders, John Collins Bryant and Henry Beadman Bryant; this chain of schools is called Bryant & Stratton College. In 1916, the Rhode Island branch was merged with the Rhode Island Commercial School. Classes for Bryant and Stratton College were held in the now demolished Butler Exchange building located in downtown Providence, at 111 Westminster Street on Kennedy Plaza. Bryant became non-profit in 1949 and offered its first master's program in 1969. From August 1, 1935 to 1971, Bryant College of Business Administration campus was located on College Hill near Brown University.
Housed first at "South Hall" at the corner of Hope Street and Young Orchard Avenue, formally Hope Hospital, the college expanded into neighboring buildings. The "South Hall" building was the 19th century home of a manufacturing family Sprague; when the school relocated to Smithfield, it sold the Providence campus to Brown University. The property, 26 buildings on 10 acres of land, became known as Brown's East Campus; the former South Hall became home to Brown's music department, is now called the Orwig Music Center. In October 1967, Earl S. Tupper and inventor of Tupperware, donated his 428-acre hillside estate to Bryant College for the creation of the new campus. To thank Tupper for his generous gift, Bryant named the campus after him and awarded him a second degree, an honorary Ph. D. in Humane Letters. In 1971, the University moved to the new campus; the famous Bryant Archway was relocated. The old Emin Homestead and Captain Joseph Mowry homestead occupied much of the land that makes up the present day Smithfield campus.
The land was purchased and farmed for three generations between the late 19th century and the mid-20th century. Today, many descendants of the original Emin settlers still live near the Bryant campus; the school claims a handful of family members as alumni and offers a scholarship for accounting students as a tribute to the Emin family. Historical pictures of the Emin Homestead can still be found in the Alumni house. Students at Bryant have a particular way of symbolizing the completion of their education: walking through the archway; the story of the archway dates back to 1875. Isaac Gifford Ladd, an associate of Charles M. Schwab and a famous U. S. steel tycoon, constructed a one million dollar building which contained the iron arch on Young Orchard Avenue on the east side of Providence. This building was meant to be a sign of his endearment to his newlywed wife. However, his wife expressed hatred for the structure, named after her, he took this as a personal rejection, Ladd took his own life.
The building remained unoccupied until Thomas Marsden transformed it into Hope Hospital, part of Bryant College. To provide more space for classes, an addition was constructed and Hope Hospital was renamed South Hall. Four years prior to the school's move from Providence to Smithfield, the wrought-iron arch at the entrance to South Hall was transported to the new campus. Today, the archway remains the only physical link to the Providence campus. After the archway was transferred from the old campus, students began to avoid passing through this out-of-place structure; as a rumor had it, walking through the archway before graduation mysteriously jeopardized chances of graduating. Since this is quite a large price to pay for not following tradition, most students opted not to take the chance, which has resulted in worn paths around the arch; this tradition has shaped the behavior of thousands of Bryant University students on Tupper campus for the past 30 years, has become a focal point in the legend and mystique of Bryant.
The Bryant Seal represents the educational mission of its worldwide implications. The central symbol is an ellipsoid globe with quills on each side to signify the traditional emblem of communication in business. In the center, behind the globe, is a torch symbolizing liberty, the spirit of free inquiry, academic freedom, learning; the Archway, forming the background for the globe and quills, is a University landmark affectionately and superstitiously by Bryant alumni. The Latin motto expresses the purpose of the University: "Cognitio. Virtus. Successus." – Which means Knowledge. Character. Success; the original Latin motto has remained unchanged and has been translated into the university's current day motto, The Character of Success. Ronald K. Machtley is the eighth president of Bryant University; the president is the chief executive officer of the college and is responsible for the success of the college's mission in providing superior academic programs and research. Theodore Stowell, 1863–1916 Henry L. Jacobs, 1916–1961 E. Gardner Jacobs, 1961–1970 Schyler Hosler, 1969–1970 Harry F. Everts, 1970–1976 William T. O'Hara, 1976–1989 William E. Trueheart, 1989–1996 Hon. Ronald K. Machtley, 1996–present Bryant continued to grow after the move to Smithfield, but began to face serious problems starting in the early 1990s.
Nationwide, the number of students applying to college had dropped precipitously, Bryant was no exception. Applications and interest in the college were way down and enrollment had dropped to below 2,000 students. Three of the school's 16 dormitories sat empty. Although the campus was clean