Burnie is a port city on the north-west coast of Tasmania. When founded in 1827, Burnie was named Emu Bay but it was renamed for William Burnie, a director of the Van Diemen's Land Company, in the early 1840s. Burnie was proclaimed a city by Queen Elizabeth II on April 26, 1988. At the 2016 Australian Census Burnie had an urban population of 19,385. Burnie is governed by the City of Burnie local government area; the key industries are heavy manufacturing and farming. The Burnie port along with the forestry industry provides the main source of revenue for the city. Burnie was the main port for the west coast mines after the opening of the Emu Bay Railway in 1897. Most industry in Burnie was based around the port that served it. After the hand over of the Surrey Hills and Hampshire Hills lots, the agriculture industry was replaced by forestry; the influence of forestry had a major role on Burnie's development in the 1900s with the founding of the pulp and paper mill by Associated Pulp and Paper Mills in 1938 and the woodchip terminal in the part of the century.
The Burnie Paper Mill closed in 2010 after failing to secure a buyer. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 19,385 people in Burnie - Somerset urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 7.2% of the population. 85.4% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 2.5% and New Zealand 0.8%. 91.5% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 37.5%, Anglican 18.5% and Catholic 15.4%. Tasmania's third largest hospital, The North West Regional Hospital is on Brickport Road, it provides both in and outpatient services for general medicine, general surgery, orthopaedics and paediatrics. Burnie has a central business district with several national retailers. Just outside the CBD there are other major retailers including: Harvey Norman Superstore. Other amenities include the multi-function "Burnie Arts and Function Centre", post office, police station, supreme court and private hospital, as well as numerous sporting and social organisations.
Burnie is home to the Cradle Coast campus of the University of Tasmania, campuses of the Tasmanian Polytechnic and the Tasmanian Academy. The University of Tasmania campus includes the Cuthbertson Research Laboratores run by the Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research. Burnie Airport is located in the adjacent town of Wynyard, a 20-minute drive from the City of Burnie. Burnie Port is Tasmania's largest general cargo port and was once Australia's fifth largest container port, it is the nearest Tasmanian port to the Australian mainland. As with other ports in Tasmania, it is operated by the government owned TasPorts; the port operates as a container port with a separate terminal for the exportation of woodchips. The port was planned to be expanded in 2013 so that it could accommodate extra freight from the proposed north-west mines in the Tarkine. Burnie was the terminus of the former Emu Bay Railway company operations; the railway line is now known as the Melba Line. Burnie is connected with Devonport via the four lane Bass Highway and a rail link, used for freight purposes.
Burnie is connected to the west coast of Tasmania by the Murchison Highway. Bus service Metro Tasmania provides transport around its suburbs. Redline Coaches provides daily coach services to the city of Hobart; the city of Burnie consists of a number of small suburbs including Parklands, Park Grove, Shorewell Park, Montello, Upper Burnie, Havenview, Emu Heights, South Burnie and Wivenhoe. Burnie has an oceanic climate with cool winters; the average temperature in summer ranges from 12 to 21 °C with drier days as warm as 30 °C, with around 16 hours of sunlight per day. In winter, temperature ranges from 6 to 13 °C, only 8 hours of sunlight. Relative humidity averages over 60% for the year in the afternoon. Burnie averages 994 mm of rainfall per year. Most of the rain is during the cooler months from May to October; the summer months bring constant daily sunshine and only occasional rainfall with temperatures up to 30 °C on the warmest and driest days. Nearly every day from January to March has a maximum temperature of 20–25 °C.
Australian rules football is popular in Burnie. The city's team was the Burnie Dockers Football Club in the Tasmanian State League, their ground was West Park Oval. Rugby union is played in Burnie; the local club is the Burnie Rugby Union Club. They are the current Tasmanian Rugby Union Statewide Division Two Premiers and were promoted to the Statewide First Division for the 2008 season, their nickname is "The Mighty Emus". The club has been in existence since 1953 but at the end of the 1980s, were forced into a temporary absence from all competitions and relinquishing their place in the statewide First Division, their home ground is Upper Burnie Sports centre. Gerry Horch is a past player, past president, life member, local identity. Soccer is represented on the north coast with Burnie United FC having four teams compete in the northern premier league, the women's team, under 18 team, reserve team and division one team. Last year they have entered two youth side in the under 16 and under 14 northern league.
Burnie hosts an ATP Challenger Tour tennis event, the Burnie International, during the week following the Australian Open. Athletics events include Burnie Ten; the Advocate newspaper was established in 1890 servicing the North West region. The mailroom is located in Burnie whilst the local press operations ceased in mid-2008 and were relocated to Launceston.. Burni
Launceston is a city in the north of Tasmania, Australia at the junction of the North Esk and South Esk rivers where they become the Tamar River. Launceston is the second largest city in Tasmania after Hobart and the Thirteenth-largest non-capital city in Australia. Settled by Europeans in March 1806, Launceston is one of Australia's oldest cities and is home to many historic buildings. Like many Australian places, it was named after a town in the United Kingdom – in this case, Cornwall. Launceston has been home to several firsts such as the first use of anaesthetic in the Southern Hemisphere, the first Australian city to have underground sewers and the first Australian city to be lit by hydroelectricity; the city has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. Local government is split between the City of Launceston and the Meander Valley and West Tamar Councils; the first inhabitants of the area of Launceston were nomadic Aboriginal Tasmanians believed to have been part of the North Midlands Tribe.
The first white visitors did not arrive until 1798, when George Bass and Matthew Flinders were sent to explore the possibility that there was a strait between Australia and Van Diemen's Land. They landed in Port Dalrymple, 40 kilometres to the north-west of Launceston; the first significant colonial settlement in the region dates from 1804, when the commandant of the British garrison Lt. Col. William Paterson, his men set up a camp on the current site of George Town. A few weeks the settlement was moved across the river to York Town, a year was moved to its definitive position where Launceston stands; the settlement was called Patersonia. The name still survives in the tiny hamlet of Patersonia 18 kilometres north-west of Launceston. Paterson himself served as Lieutenant-Governor of northern Van Diemen's Land from 1804 to 1808. By 1827, Launceston's population had climbed to 2,000 and the town had become an export centre for the colony's northern pastoral industry. Small hotels and breweries began to emerge in the 1820s, before larger, more "substantial" hotels were built in the 1830s.
Sporting groups, political groups and schools were established in these hotels. Ships from Launceston carried parties of sealers to the islands of Bass Strait early in the 19th century, they took whalers to the coast of Victoria in the 1820s and 1830s where they established temporary bay whaling stations. Some of these temporary communities, such as the ones at Portland Bay and Port Fairy, were the forerunner of permanent settlement of those places. Walter George Arthur, who petitioned Queen Victoria in 1847 while interned with other Aboriginal Tasmanians on Flinders Island, lived for several years in Launceston as one of numerous homeless children, before being taken into custody by George Augustus Robinson who sent him to the Boy's Orphan School in Hobart in 1832. Newer popular team sports such as cricket and football failed to be sustained in Launceston before the population grew substantially; the sports were middle class recreations, as the working class found it difficult to participate after a six-day working week.
A "demand for facilities" lead to the upgrade of the Northern Tasmanian Cricket Association Ground amongst other sporting facilities in the 1860s. Not long beforehand, Tasmania played Victoria in Australia's first first-class cricket match at the NTCA Ground in 1851. Tin was discovered at Mount Bischoff in 1871 in north-western Tasmania. Gold mining commenced 50 kilometres away in Beaconsfield in 1877. During the following two decades Launceston grew from a small town into an urban centre. In 1889, Launceston was the second town in Tasmania to be declared a city, after state capital Hobart. Launceston is at 43 ° 27 ′ 32 ″ S 141 ° 8 ′ 41 ″ E in Northern Tasmania; the valley was formed by glacial forces over 10 million years ago. The city is 45 kilometres south of the Bass Strait, with its closest neighbour-city being Devonport 99 kilometres to the north west. Launceston combines low-lying areas; as a result, areas of Launceston are subject to landslip problems, while others are liable to poor drainage and periodic flooding.
The topography of the area is not conducive to easy dispersion of airborne pollution, due to the phenomenon of thermal inversion. During recent years the city's air quality has improved. Studies indicate that 73% percent of air pollution in Launceston and surrounding areas during the winter period is caused by wood smoke, while about 8% is from motor vehicle pollution. During the early 1990s about 60% of households used wood heaters, but since the mid 2000s only 25–30% of households use wood heating. According to the 2011 Tasmanian Air Monitoring report, particulate matter met the Air NEPM goals starting in 2006, did not exceed the PM10 standard in the years 2009–2011. Launceston is situated at the confluence of the South Esk River and the North Esk River, forming the Tamar River estuary, it is boating. In earlier years, oceangoing shipping used the river to obtain access to the Port of Launceston wharves located in the city centre and Invermay; the Port for Launceston is now located at the
Devonport is a city in northern Tasmania, Australia. It is situated at the mouth of the Mersey River. Devonport had an urban population of 23,046 at the 2016 Australian census During the 1850s the twin settlements of Formby and Torquay were established on opposite banks at the mouth of the Mersey River. Torquay on the eastern shore was the larger community with police, magistrate, at least three hotels and stores. A river ferry service connected the two communities. Between 1870 and 1880 the shipping industry grew and work was undertaken to deepen the mouth of the river; when the mouth of the river could support a shipping industry the first regular steamer services commenced, operating directly between the Mersey and Melbourne. In 1882 the Marine Board building remains the oldest standing building in Devonport. In 1889 the Bluff lighthouse was completed and the turn of the century saw the railway make a significant difference to the Formby community, it combined a port facilities in the one place.
A wharf was created on the west bank, close to warehouses. The railway brought a building boom to Formby. In 1890 a public vote united Torquay and Formby, the settlements became the town of Devonport; the Victoria bridge was opened in 1902 which enabled a land transport link between Devonport and East Devonport. Devonport was proclaimed a city by Prince Charles of Wales on 21 April 1981 in a ceremony conducted on the Devonport Oval; the cross river ferry service was discontinued in 2014 after 160 years of continuous service when the vessel the "Torquay" was taken out of service. It has since resumed operating. Areas within Devonport as a suburb include Highfield Areas within East Devonport as a suburb includes Pardoe Downs, Pannorama Heights The full list of Suburbs of the City of Devonport are: List of suburbs The main CBD is on the west side of the Mersey River and includes a pedestrian mall, speciality stores, chain stores such as IGA and hotels. There are several local cafes. Local theatre and Conventions are held at the Devonport Entertainment and Convention Centre in the city's CBD.
The Devonport Regional Gallery evolved from the inception of The Little Gallery, founded by Jean Thomas as a private enterprise in 1966. The Gallery presents an annual program of exhibitions and public programs including events and workshops. Another smaller gallery is the Blue Apple Gift Gallery. A selected range of local artisan works are displayed at the North West Regional Craft Centre in the CBD. Tiagarra Aboriginal Culture Centre and Museum displays petroglyphs, designs in rock and exhibits that depict the traditional lifestyle of Tasmanian Aboriginal people; the Bass Strait Maritime Centre housed in the former Harbour Master's House has objects and photographs that tells the stories of Bass Strait and Devonport. A Railway Museum is situated at Don; the former Devonport Maternity Hospital was demolished and the land sold to a developer for building affordable housing. The Mersey Community Hospital at Latrobe serves the Devonport community for their health needs. Devonport's night club was known as "City Limits" in the 1980s, "The Warehouse" from 1991, re-branded as "House" in 2014.
Kokoda Barracks is an army barracks in Devonport. Annette Rockliff was elected mayor of the City of Devonport in 2018. There are 9 aldermen that govern the Devonport City Council Devonport AirportDevonport Airport is located at Pardoe Downs 7 km to the east of the city of Devonport, about a 15 min drive by car; the airport is serviced by Bombardier Dash 8 turboprop aircraft, operated by QantasLink, with four daily services to Melbourne, Victoria. There are several bus companies serving Devonport including Mersey Link, Redline Coaches and Phoenix Coaches. Metropolitan Devonport bus services are limited on Saturdays and there are no services on Sundays or Public holidays. Freight Searoad Road Shipping operate two roll on roll off vessel of general freight between Devonport and King Island; these vessels include MV Searoad Mersey II and MV Searoad Tamar. Cement Australia has exported cement products produced from Railton to Melbourne since 1926. Other exports via ships include tallow. In early days coal was an export product.
Imports include petroleum, bunker fuel and caustic soda. RailA rail line still services the ports area of Devonport. Devonport once had a railway maintenance yards on the foreshore of the Mersey River. A park exists there today. Passenger Ferry TerminalDevonport is the southern terminus for the Spirit of Tasmania ferries – Spirit I and II travel the 11 hours to Melbourne. Melbourne – Devonport Passenger Ferry History The Devonport area has rich red soils that are ideal for producing vegetable crops and significant values of cereals, oil poppies and other crops. Hillcrest Primary School Devonport Primary School Miandetta Primary School East Devonport Primary School Nixon Street Primary School Spreyton Primary School Devonport Christian School Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Primary School Devonport High School Reece High School St Brendan-Shaw College The Don College St Brendan-Shaw CollegeA TasTAFE campus, an adult training institution, is situated in Valley Road. Devonport has an oceanic climate with mild to warm summers and moist winters and high humidity all year round.
Most days from January to March are pleasantly warm. The warmest and driest days can reach up to 28 °C. Unlike the south and east coasts of Tasmania, humid northerly winds prevent heatwaves and temper
National Broadband Network
The National Broadband Network is an Australian national wholesale open-access data network project. It includes radio communication components rolled out and operated by NBN Co Limited. Retail service providers Internet service providers, contract with NBN to access the network and sell fixed internet access to end users. Rationales for this national telecommunications infrastructure project included replacing the existing copper cable telephony network, approaching end of life, the growing demand for internet access; as proposed in 2009, wired connections would have provided up to 100 Mbit/s increased to 1000 Mbit/s. The largest infrastructure project in Australia's history, NBN was the subject of significant political contention and was an issue in federal elections; the Liberal party stated that the Multi-Technology Mix would be completed by 2016, however this was changed after the election to 2019 and again to 2020. The project cost jumped from the Liberal Party's estimated $29.5 billion before the 2013 federal election, to $46-56 billion afterwards.
In 2016 NBN Co. said it was on target for $49 billion, but by late 2018 the estimated final cost was $51 billion. A fast broadband initiative was announced in the run-up to the 2007 federal election by the Labor opposition with an estimated cost of A$15 billion including a government contribution of A$4.7 billion that would be raised in part by selling the Federal Government's remaining shares in Telstra. The Labor Party Rudd government was elected on 24 November 2007 and initial planning commenced; the NBN was to deliver its wholesale service through fibre to the node and reach 98% of premises in Australia by June 2021. A new satellite network would be built to reach the rest of the country. An initial request for proposal to build the NBN was issued but not executed. Organisations lodging compliant proposals were neither able to meet the requirements nor able to raise the necessary capital. A non-compliant proposal was received from Telstra and they were excluded from consideration; the Rudd Government announced it would bypass the existing copper network by constructing a new national network combining fibre to the premises, fixed wireless and satellite technologies.
The first Rudd government had proposed to develop a modern optical fibre telecommunications network to provide broadband access to 93% of the Australian population at 100 Mbit/s, with those areas and people outside the network footprint to be provided broadband access through fixed wireless and geosynchronous telecommunications satellite. The cost estimate rose to A$43 billion and revised to A$37.4 billion. The project was to be financed by a combination of a Federal Government investment of A$30.4 billion and private investment for the remainder. Dividends were to be paid after completion in 2021 to the Federal Government, with the government's contribution repaid by 2034. A return on investment of 7.1% was expected on revenue of A$23.1 billion by 2021. Tasmania was selected for a trial deployment based on the Tasmanian Government's submission to the RFP. A forced structural separation of Telstra was threatened but not completed. NBN Co was established on 9 April 2009 and Mike Quigley appointed chief executive officer on 25 July.
An implementation study was released on 6 May. In April, NBN Co issued a request for tender for the major FTTP rollout. Fourteen vendors submitted a proposal; the first FTTP customers were connected in July 2010. The Gillard government was elected at the Australian federal election, 2010; as a minority government priority was given to regional and rural areas, areas from which supporting cross-bench MPs were elected. An increase in the peak speed to one gigabit per second was announced in response to Google Fiber developments in the USA. Tony Abbott, as Leader of the Opposition, Malcolm Turnbull, as Shadow Minister for Communications and Broadband, stated in 2010 that in government they would'demolish' the NBN. NBN Co's business plan was released on 20 December 2010, including forecasts and network design incorporating these priorities. Tasmania was selected. Stage one was announced on July 2009; the first customers were connected a year later. Stages two and three were announced on 1 March 2010, respectively.
NBN Co planned for a centralised model with only 14 points of interconnect. The ACCC considered the plan to be'mission creep' and would have given NBN Co a monopoly over backhaul. ACCC recommended 121 Pols after public consultation. Internode criticised the'insane' number of POIs and after its pricing announcement warned it might have to charge more in regional areas because of the increased costs. In response Turnbull said the'government can't deliver on a crucial promise' of'national uniform pricing'. Internode warned that increasing the number of POIs was to lead to consolidation in the ISP industry. Following this warning the industry consolidated, resulting in four major RSPs who accounted for the majority of the market share; the Parliament p
A jetty is a structure that projects from the land out into water. "jetty" refers to a walkway accessing the centre of an enclosed waterbody. The term is derived from the French word jetée, "thrown", signifies something thrown out. Another form of jetties, wing dams are extended out, opposite one another, from each bank of a river, at intervals, to contract a wide channel, by concentration of the current to produce a deepening. Where docks are given sloping sides, openwork timber jetties are carried across the slope, at the ends of which vessels can lie in deep water or more solid structures are erected over the slope for supporting coal-tips. Pilework jetties are constructed in the water outside the entrances to docks on each side, so as to form an enlarging trumpet-shaped channel between the entrance, lock or tidal basin and the approach channel, in order to guide vessels in entering or leaving the docks. Solid jetties, lined with quay walls, are sometimes carried out into a wide dock,at right angles to the line of quays at the side, to enlarge the accommodation.
The approach channel to some ports situated on sandy coasts is guided and protected across the beach by parallel jetties. In some cases, these are made solid up to a little above low water of neap tides, on which open timber-work is erected, provided with a planked platform at the top raised above the highest tides. In other cases, they consist of solid material without timber-work; the channel between the jetties was maintained by tidal scour from low-lying areas close to the coast, subsequently by the current from sluicing basins. It is protected to some extent by the solid portion of the jetties from the inroad of sand from the adjacent beach, from the levelling action of the waves; the bottom part of the older jetties, in such long-established jetty ports as Calais and Ostend, was composed of clay or rubble stone, covered on the top by fascine-work or pitching, but the deepening of the jetty channel by dredging and the need that arose for its enlargement led to the reconstruction of the jetties at these ports.
The nes jetties at Dunkirk were founded in the sandy beach, by the aid of compressed air, at a depth of 22.75 feet. Below low water of spring tides. Above low water of neap tides. A small tidal rise spreading tidal water over a large expanse of lagoon or inland backwater causes the influx and efflux of the tide to maintain a deep channel through a narrows no longer confined by a bank on each side, becomes dispersed, owing to the reduction of its scouring force, is no longer able at a moderate distance from the shore effectually to resist the action of tending to form a continuous beach in front of the outlet. Hence a bar is produced. By carrying out a solid jetty over the bar, however on each side of the outlet, the tidal currents are concentrated in the channel across the bar, lower it by scour, thus the available depth of the approach channels to Venice through the Malamocco and Lido outlets from the Venetian Lagoon have been deepened several feet over their bars by jetties of rubble, carried out across the foreshore into deep water on both sides of the channel.
Other examples are provided by the long jetties extended into the sea in front of the entrance to Charleston harbour constructed of fascines weighed down with stone and logs, but subsequently of rubble stone, by the two converging rubble jetties carried out from each shore of Dublin Bay for deepening the approach to Dublin harbour. Jetties have been constructed on each side of the outlet river of some of the rivers flowing into the Baltic, with the objective of prolonging the scour of the river and protecting the channel from being shoaled by the littoral drift along the shore; the most interesting application of parallel jetties is in lowering the bar in front of one of the mouths of a deltaic river flowing into a tide — a virtual prolongation of its less sea, by extending the scour of the river out to the bar by banks. Jetties prolonging the Sulina branch of the Danube into the Black Sea, the south pass of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico, formed of rubble stone and concrete blocks, have enabled the discharge of these rivers to scour away the bars obstructing the access to them.
Where a river is narrow near its mouth, has a feeble discharge and a small tidal range, the sea is liable on an exposed coast to block up its outlet during severe storms. The river is thus forced to seek another exit at a weak spot of the beach, which along a low coast may be at some distance off; this inconvenient cycle of changes may be stopped by fixing the outlet of the river at a suitable site, by carrying a jetty on each side of this outlet across the beach, thereby concentrating its discharge in a definite channel and protecting the mouth from being blocked up by littoral drift. This system was lon
Dame Enid Muriel Lyons was an Australian politician, the first woman elected to the House of Representatives and the first woman to serve in federal cabinet. Prior to her own political career, she was best known as the wife of Joseph Lyons, Prime Minister of Australia and Premier of Tasmania. Lyons was born in Tasmania, she grew up in various small towns in northern Tasmania, trained as a schoolteacher. At the age of 17, she married politician Joseph Lyons, 18 years her senior, they would have twelve children together. As her husband's career progressed, Lyons began assisting him in campaigning and developed a reputation as a talented public speaker. In 1925, she became one of the first two women to stand for the Labor Party at a Tasmanian state election, she followed her husband into the new United Australia Party following the Labor split of 1931. After her husband became prime minister in 1932, Lyons began living at The Lodge in Canberra, she was one of the best-known prime minister's wives, writing newspaper articles, making radio broadcasts, giving open-air speeches.
Her husband's sudden death in office in 1939 came as a great shock, she withdrew from public life for a time. At the 1943 federal election, Lyons stood for the UAP in the Division of Darwin, she and Senator Dorothy Tangney became the first two women elected to federal parliament. Lyons joined the new Liberal Party in 1945, served as Vice-President of the Executive Council in the Menzies Government from 1949 to 1951 – the first woman in cabinet, she retired from parliament after three terms, but remained involved in public life as a board member of the Australian Broadcasting Commission and as a social commentator. Lyons was born Enid Muriel Burnell in Smithton, one of three daughters of William and Eliza Burnell, she was educated at the Burnie State School, went on to the Teacher's Training College, Hobart, to train as a school teacher. Her mother was an activist in Labor and community groups in Tasmania, was one of the first women appointed as a Justice of the Peace in Tasmania. Eliza Burnell introduced her 15-year-old daughter to Joseph Lyons, a rising Tasmanian Labor politician.
On 28 April 1915, the two married at Tasmania. Enid became, at Lyons' request, a Roman Catholic, they would have twelve children. In 1931 Joseph Lyons left the Labor Party and joined the United Australia Party, becoming prime minister at the subsequent election. Enid Lyons was made a Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in the Coronation Honours of 1937. Joseph Lyons died in 1939, aged 59, the first Australian prime minister to die in office, Dame Enid returned to Tasmania, she bitterly resented Joseph Lyons's successor as leader of the UAP, Robert Menzies, who had, she believed, betrayed her husband by resigning from the cabinet shortly before Joseph's death. At the 1943 election Dame Enid Lyons narrowly won the Division of Darwin in north-western Tasmania for the UAP, becoming the first woman in the House of Representatives, her Labor opponent, who received more primary votes than she did, was the future Tasmanian Premier Eric Reece. At the same election, Dorothy Tangney was elected as a Labor Senator for Western Australia, the nation's first woman Senator.
In 1945 the UAP became the Liberal Party of Australia. On 23 August 1944, Lyons was one of four speakers in a debate on population which became the Australian Broadcasting Commission's "largest controversy during the war years" Lyons devoted a chapter to this Australian Broadcasting Corporation debate in her 1972 autobiography, calling it'one of the most disturbing experiences I was to know as a member of parliament', her fellow debaters were Jessie Street and the economist Colin Clark. By the time she was elected to parliament in her own right, there was little left of her Labor ties, her speeches in parliament espoused traditional views on the family and other social issues. In 1949 the Liberals came to power under Menzies' leadership; the frosty personal relations between Menzies and Dame Enid thawed when Menzies gave her the role of Vice-President of the Executive Council. This was a honorary post which gave her a seat in cabinet but no departmental duties, her health declined under the strain of regular travel between Canberra and Tasmania, she retired from parliament prior to the 1951 election.
In retirement, Dame Enid's health recovered. She was a newspaper columnist, a commissioner of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, remained active in public life promoting family and women's issues, she published three volumes of memoirs, which embarrassed the Liberal Party by reviving her complaints about Menzies' 1939 behaviour towards her husband. Lyons was made a Dame of the Order of Australia on Australia Day 1980, the second woman to receive this honour after Alexandra Hasluck, she was the first Australian woman to receive damehoods in different orders. She died the following year and was accorded a state funeral in Devonport, before being buried next to her husband at Mersey Vale Memorial Park. An informal political faction of the Liberal/National opposition parties called the Lyons Forum was formed in 1992; the group's name alluded to Lyons' maiden speech to the House of Representatives. The faction was considered to be defunct in 2004. Lyons first fell pregnant a few months after her marriage, but miscarried just after her 18th birthday.
She suffered a second miscarriage the following year, in her memoirs recoun
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful