A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Cave City, Arkansas
Cave City is a city in Independence and Sharp counties in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The population was 1,904 at the 2010 census; the city was named for a large cave underneath the Crystal River Tourist Camp, the oldest motor court in Arkansas. Cave City is known for its award-winning "world's sweetest" watermelons and holds an annual watermelon festival in July. Cave City is located at 35°56′53″N 91°33′3″W; the town is centered on, located above, the Crystal River, an underground body of water located in the multi-room Crystal River Cave, for which the town is named. The beginning and ending of the water source has never been determined. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all land. U. S. Highway 167 Arkansas Highway 58 Arkansas Highway 230 As of the census of 2000, there were 1,904 people, 751 households, 504 families residing in the city; the population density was 752.7 people per square mile. There were 838 housing units at an average density of 326.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 0.3% Black, 96.9% white or European, 0.1% Asian, 1.5% from two or more races. 2.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 751 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.1% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 19 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 18% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.9 males. 31.4% of the male population and 40.3% of females were 18 and over. The median income for a household in the city is $23,163, the median income for a family was $27,292. Males had a median income of $21,397 versus $17,424 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $11,925. About 17.0% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.3% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those age 65 or over. Students in the area can attend the Cave City School District
Walnut Ridge, Arkansas
Walnut Ridge is a town in Lawrence County, United States. The population was 4,925 at the 2000 census; the city is the county seat of Lawrence County. Walnut Ridge lies north of Hoxie; the two towns form a contiguous urban area with 8,000 residents. Williams Baptist College is in College City, a separate community that merged into Walnut Ridge in 2017. Walnut Ridge was formally established in 1875 as a result of the railroad coming through the area. There had been settlement in the area known as Old Walnut Ridge not far from the current city since about 1860. In 1964, The Beatles stopped at Walnut Ridge Regional Airport on the way to and from a retreat in Missouri; this visit inspired a monument, a plaza, a music festival in Walnut Ridge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.6 square miles, all land. Climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa".
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,925 permanent residents, 2,065 homeholds, 1,305 families living in the town. The population density was 425.5 people per square mile. There were 2,283 housing units at an average density of 197.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.04% White, 0.59% Black or African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 1.75% from two or more races. 0.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,065 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 22.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.6 males. For every 100 females age >18, there were 77.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,953, the median income for a family was $36,735. Males had a median income of $27,458 versus $20,169 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,974. About 10.0% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the international poverty limit, including 15.9% of those under <18 and 18.6% of those age >65. Public education for elementary and secondary school students in most of the city is provided from the Lawrence County School District, which includes Walnut Ridge Elementary School and Walnut Ridge High School; some portions are within the Hoxie School District. The Walnut Ridge School District was in operation until July 1, 2006, when it merged with the Black Rock School District to form the Lawrence County district. Walnut Ridge Future I-57 / US 67 U. S. 67 Business U. S. 412 Highway 34 Highway 91 James T. Conway - 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps Michelle Gray - Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Izard County, is a former Walnut Ridge resident.
Washboard Sam - blues musician David J. Sanders - member of the Arkansas State Senate from District 15, including part of Little Rock Milt Yarberry - gunfighter, first Town Marshal of Albuquerque, New Mexico Ehron VonAllen - electronic musician, singer List of cities and towns in Arkansas CityOfWalnutRidge.com - Official City Website
Sharp County, Arkansas
Sharp County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,264; the county seat is Ash Flat. The county was formed on July 18, 1868, named for Ephraim Sharp, a state legislator from the area. Sharp County was featured on the PBS program Independent Lens for its 1906 "banishment" of all of its Black residents. A local newspaper at the time was quoted as saying that "The community is better off without them." According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 606 square miles, of which 604 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 62 U. S. Highway 63 U. S. Highway 167 U. S. Highway 412 Highway 56 Highway 58 Highway 175 Oregon County, Missouri Randolph County Lawrence County Independence County Izard County Fulton County As of the 2000 census, there were 17,119 people, 7,211 households, 5,141 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 9,342 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 97.14% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. 0.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,211 households out of which 25.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.90% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.79. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.90% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 22.80% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 23.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 92.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,152, the median income for a family was $29,691.
Males had a median income of $23,329 versus $16,884 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,143. About 13.20% of families and 18.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.40% of those under age 18 and 13.20% of those age 65 or over. Ash Flat Cave City Cherokee Village Hardy Highland Horseshoe Bend Evening Shade Sidney Williford Ben-Gay Ozark Acres Poughkeepsie Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Sharp County are listed below. List of lakes in Sharp County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Sharp County, Arkansas Sharp County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Sharp County official website Ozark Acres Weather
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c