Seneca Caverns (West Virginia)
Seneca Caverns is a karst show cave in Germany Valley near Riverton, West Virginia, USA. It was used for ceremonies of Seneca Indians, an Iroquois confederacy tribe and has been commercially used since 1930; the largest room inside the cave is the Teter Hall, 60 feet tall by 60 feet wide in some areas. A German-American settler named Laven Teter discovered Seneca Caverns in 1742 on a quest for water to supply his livestock; the Teter family maintained ownership until 1928. In 1930 the new owners opened it to the public as a show cave. Smoke Hole Caverns Seneca Caverns Official site Seneca Caverns on showcaves.com
Martinsburg, West Virginia
Martinsburg is a city in and the county seat of Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States, in the tip of the state's Eastern Panhandle region in the lower Shenandoah Valley. Its population was 17,687 in the 2016 census estimate, making it the largest city in the Eastern Panhandle and the ninth-largest municipality in the state. Martinsburg is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Martinsburg was established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, adopted in December 1778 during the American Revolutionary War. Founder Major General Adam Stephen named the gateway town to the Shenandoah Valley along Tuscarora Creek in honor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin, a nephew of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Aspen Hall is the oldest house in the city. Part was built in 1745 by Edward Beeson, Sr. Aspen Hall and its wealthy residents had key roles in the agricultural, religious and political history of the region. Significant events related to the French and Indian War. Three original buildings are still standing, including the rare blockhouse of Mendenhall's Fort.
The first United States post office in what is now West Virginia was established at Martinsburg in 1792. At that time and the larger territory were still part of Virginia; the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops were constructed in 1849 and rebuilt after the American Civil War. According to William Still, "The Father of the Underground Railroad" and its historian, Robert Brown, alias Thomas Jones, escaped from slavery in Martinsburg on Christmas night, 1856, he rode a horse and had it swim across the freezing Potomac River. After riding forty miles, he walked in cold wet clothes to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he received assistance there from the Underground Railroad and traveled by train to Philadelphia, the office of William Still with the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Brown's wife and four children had been sold, he had a likeness of his wife, locks of hair from each of them. In 1854, ten-year-old Isabelle Boyd, known as "Belle" and a noted spy for the Confederacy, moved to Martinsburg with her family.
After the Civil War began, Benjamin joined the Second Virginia Infantry, part of the Stonewall Brigade. His wife Mary was thus in charge of the Boyd home when Union forces under General Robert Patterson took Martinsburg; when a group of Patterson's men tried to raise a Union flag over the Boyd home, Mary refused. One of the soldiers, Frederick Martin, threatened Mary, Belle shot him, she was acquitted. She soon became involved in espionage, sending information to Confederate generals Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and J. E. B. "Jeb" Stuart. She was helped by Eliza Corsey, a Boyd family slave whom Belle had taught to read and write. In 1863, Belle was imprisoned. Boyd's Greek Revival home, which he had built in 1853 and sold in 1855, had numerous owners over the decades. In 1992 it was purchased by the Berkeley County Historical Society; the historical society now operates it as the Berkeley County Museum. It is known as the Belle Boyd House. Most residents of West Virginia were yeomen farmers who supported the Union and, during the Civil War, they voted to separate from Virginia.
The new state was admitted to the Union during the war. The city of Martinsburg was incorporated by an act of the new West Virginia Legislature on March 30, 1868. Martinsburg became a center of its workers; the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began July 14, 1877 in this city at the B&O shops and spread nationwide. Telephone service was established in Martinsburg in 1883. In 1889, electricity began to be furnished to Martinsburg as part of a franchise granted to the United Edison Manufacturing Company of New York; the Interwoven mills began operations in Martinsburg in 1891. Construction of the "Apollo Civic Theatre" was completed in 1913. Over one thousand men from Berkeley County participated in World War I. Of these, forty-one were killed and twenty-one were wounded in battle. A monument to those who fell in battle was erected in Martinsburg in 1925. During World War II, the Newton D. Baker Hospital in Martinsburg treated thousands of soldiers wounded in the war. In 1946 this military hospital became a part of the Veterans Administration.
The VA Medical Center in Martinsburg still provides care to United States veterans. Due to restructuring beginning in the late 1940s and continuing through the 1970s, many of the mills and factories operating in Martinsburg shut down and went out of business, dealing a major blow to the local economy. Jobs were moved to the Deep South and offshore. Martinsburg is located at 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W. Martinsburg is 24 miles southeast of Hagerstown, 89 miles west of Baltimore, 92 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. and 138 miles east of Morgantown. U. S. Route 11 runs through the center of town, Interstate 81 passes along the northern side of the town. Martinsburg is 212 miles distant from the state capital of Charleston. However, it is closer to no less than five other state capitals: Harrisburg PA - 80 miles, Annapolis MD - 85 miles, Dover DE - 132 miles, Richmond VA - 135 miles, Trenton NJ - 179 miles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.67 square miles, of which 6.65 square
Gunns Plains Cave
Gunns Plains Cave is a limestone show cave, near Gunns Plains in the North West of Tasmania, twenty kilometres from Ulverstone. The cave was first entered in 1906 by a local Gunns Plains man, Bill Woodhouse, while hunting for possums. A possum eluded him down a hole; this opening served as the original entrance to the cave and early tourists needed to descend by rope from it, three stories to the cave floor. 54 steps were constructed from concrete, leading from the natural cave floor to a new entrance cut into the hillside. This steep and narrow staircase still exists in its entirety and remains the only public entrance and exit to the cave Because candlelight and torchlight were troublesome and fixture lighting was installed throughout to illuminate the walking track and the cave's unique features. In 2003 the system was updated to be of more benefit to visitors; as of 2004 the cave is maintained on behalf of the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service by Geoff and Patricia Deer, who lease the rights to manage the cave.
There are daily tours. The cave tour was re-lit using LED lighting in 2008; the public section of the cave is well lit and is for the most part a simple walk. Many beautiful cave formations are present, such as stalactites, helictites and a large array of dazzling flowstone are present in the public section of the cave. A further one kilometre of wild cave was mapped in the early 20th century, but is more difficult to access; the cave is a host to an assortment of wildlife. The cave is inhabited by the endangered Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Crayfish, freshwater fish and eels. Glow worms can be found with their silk threads dangling from the ceiling. Cave crickets and spiders are present. Gunns Plains List of caves in Australia Show cave Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service: Gunns Plains Cave Australian Speleological Federation, a national environmental organisation promoting the protection of Australia's unique cave systems
Petersburg, West Virginia
Petersburg is a city in Grant County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 2,467 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Grant County. Petersburg was founded circa 1745 by Jacob Peterson. In the 1830 United States Census, the population center of the United States was recorded as being about 9 miles southwest of the town; the settlement was incorporated in 1910. The Manor Hermitage Motor Inn Grant County Courthouse Rohrbaugh Cabin Located near Petersburg is the Old Judy Church, listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1976. Petersburg is located at 38°59′36″N 79°7′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.62 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Petersburg has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,467 people, 1,113 households, 614 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,522.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,310 housing units at an average density of 808.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.3% White, 2.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 1,113 households of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.8% were non-families. 38.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.77. The median age in the city was 47.1 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.2% male and 53.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,423 people, 1,086 households, 620 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,482.6 people per square mile. There were 1,222 housing units at an average density of 747.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.44% White, 1.57% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.29% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population. There were 1,086 households out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.9% were non-families. 38.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.75. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.0% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 24.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,867, the median income for a family was $32,941. Males had a median income of $23,654 versus $20,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,642. About 11.9% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. Joan Banks, prolific radio actress, a regular on Gang Busters and 33 episodes of CBS Radio Mystery Theater, who appeared in many classic TV series like Perry Mason and Alfred Hitchcock Presents, she was married to actor Frank Lovejoy. M. Blane Michael, Circuit Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit
Cacapon Resort State Park
Opened in 1933, the 6,115-acre Cacapon Resort State Park is located on the eastern slopes of Cacapon Mountain in Morgan County, West Virginia, USA. Panorama Overlook, at the southern end of the park and 2,320 feet above sea level, is the highest point in the park and in Morgan County. 48-room Lodge 12-room Old Inn 25 cabins Efficiency bungalows 18 hole, par 72 golf course, designed by Robert Trent Jones Lake swimming Rowboat and paddle boat rentals Horseback riding Fishing Conference rooms Picnic Shelters Gift Shop Tennis courts Basketball court Volleyball court Nearby activities Accessibility for the disabled was assessed by West Virginia University. The assessment found the campground, picnic areas, lake swimming to be accessible. During the 2005 assessment some issues were identified concerning signage and the width of the sidewalk to the playground. Two of the newest park cabins were design to be accessible. List of West Virginia state parks Official website
Prohibition in the United States
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933. During the nineteenth century, family violence, saloon-based political corruption prompted prohibitionists, led by pietistic Protestants, to end the alcoholic beverage trade to cure the ill society and weaken the political opposition. One result was that many communities in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries introduced alcohol prohibition, with the subsequent enforcement in law becoming a hotly debated issue. Prohibition supporters, called "drys", presented it as a victory for public morals and health. Promoted by the "dry" crusaders, the movement was led by pietistic Protestants and social Progressives in the Prohibition and Republican parties, it gained a national grass roots base through the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. After 1900, it was coordinated by the Anti-Saloon League. Opposition from the beer industry mobilized "wet" supporters from the Catholic and German Lutheran communities.
They had funding to fight back, but by 1917–18 the German community had been marginalized by the nation's war against Germany, the brewing industry was shut down in state after state by the legislatures and nationwide under the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920. Enabling legislation, known as the Volstead Act, set down the rules for enforcing the federal ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. For example, religious use of wine was allowed. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol were not made illegal under federal law, but local laws were stricter in many areas, with some states banning possession outright. Criminal gangs were able to gain control of the liquor supply for many cities. By the late-1920s a new opposition mobilized nationwide. Wets attacked prohibition as causing crime, lowering local revenues, imposing "rural" Protestant religious values on "urban" United States. Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 5, 1933.
Some states continued statewide prohibition. Research shows that prohibition reduced overall alcohol consumption by half during the 1920s, consumption remained below pre-Prohibition levels until the 1940s, suggesting that Prohibition did socialize a significant proportion of the population in temperate habits, at least temporarily. Rates of liver cirrhosis "fell by 50% early in Prohibition and recovered promptly after Repeal in 1933." Criticism remains that Prohibition led to unintended consequences such as a century of Prohibition-influenced legislation and the growth of urban crime organizations, though some scholars have argued that violent crime did not increase while others have argued that crime during the Prohibition era was properly attributed to increased urbanization, rather than the criminalization of alcohol use. As an experiment it lost supporters every year, lost tax revenue that governments needed when the Great Depression began in 1929. In the United States, once the battle against slavery was won, social moralists turned to other issues, such as Mormon polygamy and the temperance movement.
On November 18, 1918, prior to ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment, the U. S. Congress passed the temporary Wartime Prohibition Act, which banned the sale of alcoholic beverages having an alcohol content of greater than 1.28%. The Wartime Prohibition Act took effect June 30, 1919, with July 1, 1919 becoming known as the "Thirsty-First"; the U. S. Senate proposed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 18, 1917. Upon being approved by a 36th state on January 16, 1919, the amendment was ratified as a part of the Constitution. By the terms of the amendment, the country went dry one year on January 17, 1920. On October 28, 1919, Congress passed the Volstead Act, the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto; the act established the legal definition of intoxicating liquors as well as penalties for producing them. Although the Volstead Act prohibited the sale of alcohol, the federal government lacked resources to enforce it. Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkenness, rates of absenteeism.
While some allege that Prohibition stimulated the proliferation of rampant underground and widespread criminal activity, many academics maintain that there was no increase in crime during the Prohibition era and that such claims are "rooted in the impressionistic rather than the factual." By 1925, there were anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000 speakeasy clubs in New York City alone. Wet opposition talked of personal liberty, new tax revenues from legal beer and liquor, the scourge of organized crime. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Cullen–Harrison Act, legalizing beer with an alcohol content of 3.2% and wine of a low alcohol content. On December 5, 1933, ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment. However, United States federal law still prohibits the manufacture of distilled spirits without meeting numerous licensing requirements that make it impractical to produce spirits for personal beverage use. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been a contentious topic in America since the colonial period.
In May 1657, the General Court of Massachusetts made the sale of strong li
Berkeley County, West Virginia
Berkeley County is located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States. The county is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the county population was 104,169, making it the second-most populous of West Virginia's 55 counties, behind Kanawha. The City of Martinsburg is the county seat. Created on May 15, 1772 by an act of House of Burgesses from the northern third of Frederick County when it was part of Virginia, Berkeley County became West Virginia's second oldest county after the Mountain State was admitted to the Union in 1863 during the American Civil War. At the time of the county's formation, Berkeley County comprised areas that now are part of present-day Jefferson and Morgan counties in West Virginia. Most historians believe the county was named for Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, Colonial Governor of Virginia from 1768 to 1770. West Virginia's Blue Book, for example, indicates, he served as a colonel in England's North Gloucestershire militia in 1761, represented that division of the county in parliament until he was made a peer in 1764.
Having incurred heavy gambling debts, he solicited a government appointment and in July 1768, was made governor of Virginia. In 1769, he reluctantly dissolved the House of Burgesses after it adopted resolutions opposing parliament's replacement of requisitions with parliamentary taxes as a means of generating revenue and a requirement the colonists send accused criminals to England for trial. Despite his differences with the House of Burgesses, Berkeley was well respected by the colonists after he sent Parliament letters encouraging it to repeal the taxes; when Parliament refused to rescind them, Governor Berkeley requested to be recalled. In appreciation of his efforts, the colonists erected a monument to his memory which stands in Williamsburg, two counties were named in his honor: Berkeley in present-day West Virginia and Botetourt in Virginia. Other historians claim Berkeley County may have been named in honor of Sir William Berkeley, born near London, graduated from Oxford University in 1629 and was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1642.
He served as Governor until 1652 and was reappointed Governor in 1660. Berkeley presided over the colony during Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676, was called back to England the following year. According to missionary reports, several thousand Hurons occupied present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle region, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. During the 17th century, the Iroquois Confederacy drove the Hurons from the state; the Iroquois Confederacy was headquartered in New York and was not interested in occupying present-day West Virginia. Instead, they used it as a hunting ground during the summer months. During the early 18th century, West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle region was inhabited by the Tuscarora, they migrated northward into New York and, in 1712, became the sixth nation to be formally admitted into the Iroquois Confederacy. The Eastern Panhandle region was used as a hunting ground by several other Indian tribes, including the Shawnee who resided near present-day Winchester and Moorefield, West Virginia until 1754 when they migrated into Ohio.
The Mingo, who resided in the Tygart Valley and along the Ohio River in present-day West Virginia's Northern Panhandle region, the Delaware, who lived in present-day eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware, but had several autonomous settlements as far south as present-day Braxton County used the area as a hunting ground. Following the French and Indian War, the Mingo retreated to their homes along the banks of the Ohio River and were seen in the Eastern Panhandle region. Although the French and Indian War was over, many Indians continued to view the British as a threat to their sovereignty and continued to fight them. In the summer of 1763, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, led raids on key British forts in the Great Lakes region. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua known as Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements, starting with attacks in present-day Greenbrier County and extending northward to Berkeley Springs, into the northern Shenandoah Valley. By the end of July, Indians had destroyed or captured all British forts west of the Alleghenies except Fort Detroit, Fort Pitt, Fort Niagara.
The uprisings were ended on August 6, 1763 when British forces, under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet, defeated Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in western Pennsylvania. During the American Revolutionary War, the Mingo and Shawnee, headquartered at Chillicothe, allied themselves with the British. In 1777, a party of 350 Wyandots and Mingos, armed by the British, attacked Fort Henry, near present-day Wheeling. Nearly half of the soldiers manning the fort were killed in the three-day assault; the Indians left the area celebrating their victory. For the remainder of the war, smaller raiding parties of Mingo and other Indian tribes terrorized settlers throughout northern and eastern West Virginia; as a result, European settlement throughout present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle, came to a virtual standstill until the war's conclusion. Following the war, the Mingo and Shawnee, once again allied with the losing side, returned to their homes; as the number of settlers in present-day West Virginia began to grow, both the Mingo and Shawnee moved further inland, leaving their traditional hunting ground to the white settlers.
In 1670, John Lederer, a German physician and explorer employed by S