Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft generally cruise at faster than about M0.8 at altitudes around 10, Frank Whittle, an English inventor and RAF officer, developed the concept of the jet engine in 1928, and Hans von Ohain in Germany developed the concept independently in the early 1930s. He wrote in February 1936 to Ernst Heinkel, who led the construction of the worlds first turbojet aircraft, however, it can be argued that the English engineer A. A. Griffith, who published a paper in July 1926 on compressors and turbines, deserves credit. After the first instance of powered flight, large number of jet powerplants were suggested, rené Lorin, Harris proposed systems for creating a jet efflux. Rocket-powered jet aircraft were pioneered in Germany, the first aircraft to fly under rocket power was the Lippisch Ente, in 1928. The Ente had previously flown as a glider. The next year, in 1929, the Opel RAK.1 became the first purpose-built rocket plane to fly, the turbojet, was invented in the 1930s, independently by Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain.
The first turbojet aircraft to fly was the Heinkel He 178 V1 first prototype of the German Air Force, the first flight of a jet engined aircraft to come to popular attention was the Italian Caproni Campini N.1 motorjet prototype that flew on August 27,1940. It was the first jet aircraft recognised by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Campini had proposed the motorjet in 1932. The British experimental Gloster E. 28/39 first took to the air on May 15,1941, the United States produced the Bell XP-59A using two examples of a version of the Whittle engine built by General Electric, which flew on October 1,1942. The Meteor was the first production jet as it entered production a few months before the Me 262, which itself had been in development since before the start of the war as Projekt 1065. The first operational jet fighter was the Messerschmitt Me 262, made by Germany during World War II and it was the fastest conventional aircraft of World War II – although there were faster aircraft propelled by unconventional means, such as the rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet.
USSR tested its own Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 in 1942, but the project was scrapped by Joseph Stalin in 1945. The Imperial Japanese Navy developed jet aircraft in 1945, including the Nakajima J9Y Kikka, a modified, and slightly smaller version of the Me 262 that had folding wings. By the end of 1945, the US had introduced their next jet fighter, the Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star into service and the UK its second fighter design, the US introduced the North American B-45 Tornado, their first jet bomber, into service in 1948. Although capable of carrying nuclear weapons it was used for reconnaissance over Korea, the UK put the English Electric Canberra into service in 1951 as a light bomber. It was designed to fly higher and faster than any interceptor, BOAC operated the first commercial jet service, from London to Johannesburg, in 1952 with the de Havilland Comet jetliner. This highly innovative aircraft travelled far faster and higher than the aircraft, was much quieter, smoother
Royal International Air Tattoo
The show typically attracts a total of 150,000 to 160,000 spectators over the weekend. The first Air Tattoo was staged at North Weald Airfield in Essex in 1971, the event was founded by Paul Bowen and Timothy Prince, who were CAA Air Traffic Controllers, and Air Marshal Sir Denis Crowley-Milling. The show took place at Fairford every two years until it became a show from 1993. Due to redevelopment work at RAF Fairford the show was held at RAF Cottesmore, guinness World Records have recognised RIAT2003 as the worlds largest ever military airshow, with 535 aircraft in attendance. In 2014224 aircraft from 32 air arms were on display, the show is a showcase for the worlds military, and has become an important precursor to the Farnborough Airshow, which takes place a week after RIAT, every even year. It allows the military industry to display and present its products outside the commercial pressures of the Farnborough show. The 2008 airshow was to feature two themes, the 90th Anniversary of the Royal Air Force and Global Engagement and was scheduled to be held on 12–13 July.
The United States Air Force Air Combat Commands F-22 Raptor Demonstration Team had made the first trans-Atlantic flight for the new aircraft to participate in the show. On 11 July, the day before the air show opened to the public, Queen Elizabeth II presented, in weather conditions, new colours to the RAF and RAF Regiment in front of selected guests. Following a week of heavy rainfall made the already waterlogged car parks. Safety concerns for the hundreds of thousands of expected visitors led the organisers to a last minute cancellation of the section of RIAT for the first time in the shows history. RIAT2009 was held on 18–19 July 2009, the show celebrated the 60th anniversary of NATO by charting its history in chronological order. The show all featured a Search and Rescue display to recognise the significance of missions undertaken by the aircraft, the show reportedly saw over 160,000 spectators. RIAT2010 was held on 17–18 July 2010, the themes for the show were the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Britain, Training Aircraft and the 150th anniversary of Cadets.
9 members of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets and 3 members of the New Zealand Air Training Corps were invited to the event for the first time, the F-22 Raptor appeared in its first RIAT flying display since 2008s cancelled show. Notable visitors to the 2010 show included James May and David Jason, RIAT2011 was held on 16–17 July 2011. This Air Tattoo looked back over the past four decades as it celebrated the shows 40th anniversary with a series of aerial displays. It hosted a gathering of specially-decorated Tiger aircraft from the NATO Tiger Association, Tiger aircraft came from NATO squadrons that have a Tiger or Big Cat in their emblem and their association marked its 50th anniversary in 2011
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano
During the mid-1980s Embraer was working on the Short Tucano alongside a new version designed EMB-312G1, carrying the same Garrett engine. The EMB-312G1 prototype flew for the first time in July 1986, the project was dropped because the Brazilian Air Force was not interested in it. Nonetheless, the lessons from recent combat use of the aircraft in Peru, besides a trainer, it researched a helicopter attack version designated Helicopter killer or EMB-312H. The study was stimulated by the bid for the US military Joint Primary Aircraft Training System program. A proof-of-concept prototype flew for the first time in September 1991, Two new prototypes with the PT6A-68A engine were built in 1993. The second prototype flew for the first time in May 1993, the request for a light attack aircraft was part of the Brazilian governments SIVAM Project. This aircraft would fly with the R-99A and R-99B aircraft in service and be used to intercept illegal aircraft flights, the ALX Project was created by the Brazilian Air Force, which was in need of a military trainer to replace the Embraer EMB 326GB Xavante.
The new aircraft was to be suited to the Amazon region, in August 1995, the Brazilian Ministry of Aeronautics awarded Embraer a $50 million contract for ALX development. Two EMB-312H were updated to serve as ALX prototypes and these made their initial flights in their new configuration in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The initial flight of a production-configured ALX, further modified from one of the prototypes, the second prototype brought up to two-seater configuration and performing its first flight on 22 October 1999. The changes had been so considerable that the type was given a new designation, the total cost of the aircraft development was quoted to be between US$200 million and US$300 million. The aircraft differs from the baseline EMB-312 Tucano trainer aircraft in several respects, the structure is corrosion-protected and the side-hinged canopy has a windshield able to withstand bird strike impacts up to 500 km/h. In 1996, Embraer selected the Israeli firm Elbit Systems to supply the avionics for the ALX.
For this contract, Elbit was chosen over GEC-Marconi and Sextant Avionique, the Israeli company supplies such equipment as the mission computer, head-up displays, and navigation and stores management systems. The test involves a system of hydraulics and tabs that apply pressure to aircraft structure. The simulation continued for year to complete the engine fatigue life test and crack propagation studies for a damage tolerance analysis program of conducted by Embraer. MPS and MDS was enhanced with MAK’s 3D visualization solution to support airforces pre-existing data, including GIS, Web-based servers, in 2012, Boeing Defense, Space & Security was selected to integrate Joint Direct Attack Munition and Small Diameter Bombs for the Super Tucano. In 2013, Embraer Defense and Security CEO disclosed that its subsidiary, a Colombian general disclosed that the side looking airborne radar will be able to locate ground targets smaller than a car with digital precision
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Brazilian Air Force
The Brazilian Air Force is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a military force initially called National Air Forces in 1941. Both air branches transferred their equipment and personnel to the new force, the Brazilian Air Force is the largest air force in the Southern hemisphere and the second largest in the Americas after the United States Air Force. Together with these events the Brazilian strategists were influenced by the theories of Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell and Hugh Montague Trenchard. The first public manifest to create a military air service came up in 1928 when an army Major called Lysias Rodrigues wrote an article called An urgent need. Two years the French Military Mission, working for the Brazilian Army, the idea got more support when a group of Brazilian airmen came from Italy in 1934 and explained the advantages of having a military aviation unified.
Also, the Spanish Revolution and the first movements of World War II at the end of the thirties showed the importance of Air power for military strategies, one of the main supporters of the plan to create an independent air arm was the then-president Getúlio Vargas. He organized a study group early in 1940 and the structure of the Ministry of Aeronautics was established the end of that year. This new governmental agency was responsible for the all aspects of the civil and military aviation including infrastructure, the Ministry of Aeronautics was founded on January 20,1941 and so its military branch called National Air Forces, changed to Brazilian Air Force on May,22. The Army and Navy air branches were extinguished and all personnel, installations, the Brazilian Air force made important contributions to the Allied war effort in World War II, especially as part of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force on the Italian front. From mid-1942 until the end of the war, the FAB patrolled the Atlantic, on 31 July 1943 it claimed the German submarine U-199, which was located on the surface, off Rio de Janeiro, at 23°54′S 42°54′W.
Two Brazilian aircraft, a PBY Catalina and a Lockheed Hudson, the Catalina, named Ärará, was captained by 2º Ten. -Av. Alberto M. Torres, and hit U-199 with depth charges, forty-nine of the crew were killed, although twelve Germans managed to escape, including the captain. This was possible due to the Catalina’s crew, who threw a lifeboat to the survivors, 1º Grupo de Aviação de Caça, which saw action in Italy, was formed on December 18,1943. The group had 350 men, including 43 pilots, the group was divided into four flights, Yellow and Green. The CO of the group and some officers were not attached to any specific flight, unlike the BEFs Army component, the 1º GAVCA had personnel who were experienced Brazilian Air Force pilots. One of them was Alberto M. Torres, who had piloted a PBY Catalina that had sunk U-199, the group trained for combat in Panama, where 2º Ten. -Av. Dante Isidoro Gastaldoni was killed in a training accident, on May 11,1944, the group was declared operational and became active in the air defense of the Panama Canal Zone
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
United Arab Emirates Air Force
The United Arab Emirates Air Force is the air force of the United Arab Emirates. Its predecessor was established in 1968, when the Emirates were still under British rule, since then, it has undergone a continual reorganisation and expansion in terms of both capability and numbers of aircraft. Currently, the UAEAF has around 4,000 personnel and operates approximately 368 fixed, the UAEAFs history starts in 1968, when the Abu Dhabi Army Air Force was formed under British rule. After becoming the ALRAMS Air Force in 1972, major investment assured an expansion in terms of capabilities and instruction was provided by the Pakistan Air Force. In 2014, the United Arab Emirates Air Force along with the Egyptian Air Force carried out airstrikes in Libya against Islamist factions in Tripoli. In September 2014, UAE air force joined in US-led air strikes against terrorist targets in Syria. These operations were suspended after a Jordanian pilot was captured by Islamic State militants in late December 2014, pending improvements in US search, the UAEAF consists of about 4,000 personnel.
In the 1970s and 80s, the UAEAF was instructed by Pakistan Air Force pilots on Dassault Mirage IIIs, even today, many of the personnel are ex-Pakistan Air Force officers and technicians. Most of the instructors at Al Ain are from Pakistan, training pilots using Grob G115, Pilatus PC-7, Aermacchi MB-339. A few officers of No.12 Squadron at Al Minhad Air Base, are from the Pakistan Air Force, some of these officers are on deputation, but most are on civilian contracts with the Air Force Headquarters in Abu Dhabi. Numerous officers of other nationalities have trained UAE pilots, among them Pakistanis, Canadians, women have started training as pilots. The first batch consisted of engineers given approval for flight training, so far, only three women have become actual fighter pilots and one a transport pilot. One woman pilot was grounded due to an ejection from a flight in a Hawk 63. Instructors at Al Dhafra Air Base are now mainly from the US, currently there are five main air bases operational, split between the Western and Central Air Command.
The Special Operations Command has its own airbase and operates a range of helicopters. Candidates apply to the Khalifa bin Zayed Air College, which is located at the Al Ain International Airport in Al Ain and they first go through a rigorous schedule of academics and officer training. Those who are selected as cadets start the phase of academics. Cadets who pass the assessment period of the phase are designated aviation cadets
Finnish Air Force
The Finnish Air Force, is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. Its peacetime tasks are airspace surveillance, identification flights, and production of readiness formations for wartime conditions, as a separate branch of the military, the Finnish Air Force was founded on 4 May 1928, having existed officially since 6 March 1918 as the Army Corps of Aviation. The first steps in the history of Finnish aviation were taken with Russian aircraft, the Russian military had a number of early designs stationed in the country, which until the Russian Revolution of 1917 had been part of the Russian Empire. Soon after the declaration of independence the Finnish Civil War erupted, Finlands White Guard, the Whites, managed to seize a few aircraft from the Russians, but were forced to rely on foreign pilots and aircraft. Sweden refused to send men and material, but individual Swedish citizens came to the aid of the Whites, the editor of the Swedish daily magazine Aftonbladet, Waldemar Langlet, bought a N. A. B.
Albatros aircraft from the Nordiska Aviatik A. B. factory with funds gathered by the Finlands vänner organization and this aircraft, the first to arrive from Sweden, was flown via Haparanda on 25 February 1918 by Swedish pilots John-Allan Hygerth and Per Svanbäck. The aircraft made a stop at Kokkola and had to make a landing in Jakobstad when its engine broke down. It was given the Finnish Air Force designation F.2, Swedish count Eric von Rosen gave the Finnish White government its second aircraft, a Thulin Typ D. Its pilot, Lieutenant Nils Kindberg, flew the aircraft to Vaasa on 6 March 1918, the von Rosen aircraft was given the designation F.1. The Finnish Air Force is one of the oldest air forces of the world – the RAF was founded as the first independent branch on 1 April 1918, von Rosen had painted his personal good luck charm on the Thulin Typ D aircraft. This charm – a blue swastika, the ancient symbol of the sun, the white circular background was created when the Finns tried to paint over the advertisement from the Thulin air academy.
The swastika was officially taken into use after an order by Commander-in-Chief C. G. E. Mannerheim on 18 March 1918, the FAF changed its aircraft insignia after 1944, due to an Allied Control Commission decree prohibiting Fascist organizations and it resembling the 3rd Reichs swastika. The F.1 aircraft was destroyed in an accident, killing its crew, on 7 September 1920, two newly purchased Savoia flying boats crashed in the Swiss Alps en route to Finland, killing all on-board. This day has since been the day for fallen pilots. The Finnish Air Force assigns the numbers to its aircraft by assigning each type a two-letter code following by dash. The two-letter code usually refers to the manufacturer or model, such as HN for F/A-18 Hornet, DK for Saab 35 Draken. Most of the airbases that the Russians had left in Finland had been taken over by Whites after the Russian pilots had returned to Russia, the Reds were in possession of a few airbases and a few Russian aircraft, mainly amphibious aircraft.
They had 12 aircraft in all, the Reds did not have any pilots themselves, so they hired some of the Russian pilots that had stayed behind