Reed Smoot was a businessman and apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints when he was elected by the state legislature to the United States Senate in 1902. From his time in the Senate, Smoot is remembered as the co-sponsor of the 1930 Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act, which increased 900 American import duties. Thomas Lamont, a partner at J. P. Morgan at the time said, "That Act intensified nationalism all over the world"; the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act is regarded as one of the catalysts for the Great Depression. Smoot was a prominent leader of the LDS Church, chosen to serve as an apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1900, his role in the LDS Church led to a lengthy controversy of four years after he was elected to the Senate in 1903. A Senate committee investigated his eligibility to serve, known as the Reed Smoot hearings, recommended against him, but the full Senate voted to seat him. Smoot continued to be re-elected to successive terms. Smoot returned to Utah in 1933. Retiring from politics and business, he devoted himself to the church.
At the time of his death, he was third in the line of succession to lead the LDS Church. Smoot was born in 1862 in Utah Territory, he was the son of Mormon pioneer from Kentucky and Iowa, Abraham O. Smoot, who served as mayor of the city from 1856 to 1862, his mother was Anne Kristina Morrison Smoot known as Anne Kirstine Mauritzen before her marriage. Anne Kristina Morrison Smoot was Smoot's father's fifth wife of six plural marriages and 27 children, three of whom Abraham O. Smoot adopted; the family moved to Provo, when his father was called by Brigham Young to head the stake there. Smoot attended the University of Utah and graduated from Brigham Young Academy in Provo in 1879. Following which, Smoot served as a Mormon missionary in England. After returning to Utah, Smoot married Alpha M. Eldredge of Salt Lake City on September 17, 1884, they had six children together. Thereafter, Smoot became a successful businessman in the Salt Lake City area. In 1895, he became involved in the hierarchy of the LDS Church, advancing in authority.
On April 8, 1900, Smoot was ordained an LDS Church apostle and member of the church's Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. After becoming an apostle in 1900, Smoot received the approval of LDS Church president Joseph F. Smith to run for office in 1902, he had joined the Republican Party. Smoot was elected by the Utah legislature to the United States Senate on January 20, 1903, as a Republican Senator, representing the state. Smoot was introduced to the United States Senate by Utah's senior U. S. Senator, Republican Thomas Kearns, a Catholic, elected in 1901 over Smoot. Two years Smoot ran again and was elected to the Senate. Smoot's election sparked a bitter four-year battle in the Senate on whether Smoot was eligible and should be allowed to serve. Many senators were suspicious of the LDS Church because of its earlier polygamous practices. In addition, some thought Smoot's position as a Mormon apostle would disqualify him from representing all his constituents. Many were convinced that his association with the church disqualified him from serving in the United States Senate.
Only a few years earlier, another prominent Utah Mormon, B. H. Roberts, had been elected to the House of Representatives, he was denied his seat on the basis that he practiced plural marriage, illegal in Utah as well as all other states of the Union. The LDS Church had renounced future plural marriages in an 1890 Manifesto, before Utah was admitted as a state. However, the Salt Lake Tribune reported that church leaders continued to approve secretly of new, post-Manifesto plural marriages; because of the controversy, the Senate began an investigation into Smoot's eligibility. The Smoot Hearings began on January 16, 1904; the hearings included exhaustive questioning into the continuation of plural marriage within the state of Utah and the LDS Church, questions on church teachings and history. Although Smoot was not a polygamist, the charge by those opposed to his election to the Senate was that he could not swear to uphold the United States Constitution while serving in the highest echelons of an organization that sanctioned law breaking.
Some opponents claimed that temple-attending Latter-day Saints took an "oath of vengeance" against the United States for past grievances. As a leader of the LDS Church, Smoot was accused of taking this oath. Although the majority of the investigative committee recommended that Smoot be removed from office, on February 20, 1907, the two-thirds majority required to expel Smoot failed and he was allowed to keep his seat. Smoot was reelected in 1908 and continued to be re-elected to successive terms until 1932, serving in the Senate until March 1933. A constitutional amendment mandated the popular election of US Senators after 1913, he was defeated in the 1932 election. In 1916, William Kent was the lead sponsor in the House of Representatives of legislation to establish the National Park Service. Smoot sponsored the similar Senate bill; the legislation passed the House of Representatives on July 1, 1916, passed the Senate on August 5, was signed by U. S. President Woodrow Wilson on August 25, 1916.
The agency was placed within the cabinet Department of Interior. Smoot was Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee from 1923 to 1933, served on the Senate Appropriations Committee, he became active in the national Republican Party and served as
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church, considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah in the United States, has established congregations and built temples worldwide. According to the church, it has 67,000 full-time volunteer missionaries. In 2012, the National Council of Churches ranked the church as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States, with over 6.5 million members reported by the church, as of January 2018. It is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening. Adherents referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or, less formally, "Mormons", view faith in Jesus Christ and his atonement as fundamental principles of their religion. LDS theology includes the Christian doctrine of salvation only through Jesus Christ, though LDS doctrines regarding the nature of God and the potential of mankind differ from mainstream Christianity.
The church has an open canon which includes four scriptural texts: the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, the Pearl of Great Price. Other than the Bible, the majority of the LDS canon constitutes revelation received by Joseph Smith and recorded by his scribes which includes commentary and exegesis about the Bible, texts described as lost parts of the Bible, other works believed to be written by ancient prophets; because of some of the doctrinal differences, Catholic and several Protestant churches consider the Church to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity. Under the doctrine of continuing revelation, Latter-day Saints believe that the church president is a modern-day "prophet and revelator" and that Jesus Christ, under the direction of God the Father, leads the church by revealing his will to its president. Individual members of the church believe that they can receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives; the president heads a hierarchical structure with various levels reaching down to local congregations.
Bishops, drawn from the laity, lead local congregations. Male members, beginning in January of the year they reach age 12, may be ordained to the priesthood, provided they are living the standards of the church. Women are not ordained to the priesthood but do occupy leadership roles in some church auxiliary organizations. Both men and women may serve as missionaries and the church maintains a large missionary program that proselytizes and conducts humanitarian services worldwide. Faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health and Sabbath observance, contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing; the church teaches about sacred ordinances through which adherents make covenants with God, including baptism, the sacrament, priesthood ordination and celestial marriage —all of which are of great significance to church members. The history of the LDS Church is divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, in common with all Latter Day Saint movement churches.
The LDS Church called the Church of Christ, was formally organized by Joseph Smith on April 6, 1830, in western New York. Smith changed the name to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after he stated he had received a revelation to do so. Initial converts were drawn to the church in part because of the newly published Book of Mormon, a self-described chronicle of indigenous American prophets that Smith said he had translated from golden plates. Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion. In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, where he planned to move the church headquarters. However, in 1833, Missouri settlers brutally expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County, the church was unable via a paramilitary expedition to recover the land; the church flourished in Kirtland as Smith published new revelations and the church built the Kirtland Temple, culminating in a dedication of the building similar to the day of Pentecost.
The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections. Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, but tensions soon escalated into violent conflicts with the old Missouri settlers. Believing the Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that the Saints be "exterminated or driven from the State." In 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, which became the church's new headquarters. Nauvoo grew as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who flooded into Nauvoo. Meanwhile, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates, he established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow righteous people to become gods in the afterlife, a secular institution to govern the Millennial kingdom. He introduced the church to a full accounting of his First Vision, in which two heavenly "personages" (God the Father and his
Abraham O. Smoot
Abraham Owen Smoot was a Mormon pioneer in Kentucky who moved to Utah. He was a politician, elected as the second mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah. There he was an early financial supporter of Brigham Young Academy, which developed into a college and Brigham Young University. Smoot was among early leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints who had polygamous marriages marrying six women and having 27 children, three of whom were adopted, he was among prominent leaders in Utah who were slaveholders. Abraham Owen Smoot was born on February 17, 1815, in Owenton, the son of George W. Smoot and Ann Smoot, his family moved twice in his childhood, first to southwestern Kentucky and to the banks of the Blood River in Tennessee. His mother converted to Mormonism in 1833, he followed her at the age of 20 in March 1835. In February 1836, Smoot was ordained an elder and began preaching in Kentucky and Tennessee with Wilford Woodruff, David W. Patten, others. Woodruff would marry Smoot's niece.
He named Abraham Owen Woodruff, after Smoot. Smoot moved to western Missouri in 1837. From there he embarked on a five-month proselytizing mission to southern Missouri and Arkansas in 1838. After participating in the Missouri Mormon War, Smoot moved to Iowa. In August 1841, he left to preach in South Carolina, returning in July 1842, he led a branch of the church in Iowa. In 1844, he served another mission in Alabama. Smoot served nine proselyting missions for the LDS Church, in addition to two terms as a ward bishop. On November 11, 1838, he married Margaret Thompson McMeans in Missouri. Smoot officiated in the Nauvoo Temple during the winter of 1845-1846, he began practicing polygamy in January 1846 by marrying Sarah Gibbens and Emily Hill. He married three more women and had a total of twenty-seven children, three of whom he adopted, his sons included Reed Smoot, born in Salt Lake City, who became a politician and US Senator. A notable daughter was Ida Smoot Dusenberry. Smoot's fourth child and third daughter, Zina Beal Smoot, married apostle Orson F. Whitney.
Smoot supported slavery. As a missionary, he was asked to distribute literature for Joseph Smith's 1844 presidential campaign, he refused to distribute anything critical of slavery. After arriving in Utah, he bought two female slaves, he was one of the most prominent slave-owners in the territory. His position as a slave owner contributed to the legalization of slavery in Utah; the 1860 Census showed. One was Alex Bankhead, who rejoiced with other slaves when he was set free in 1863. Smoot was instrumental in perpetuating the LDS priesthood ban on blacks. Under John Taylor's presidency, the church had confusion regarding the origin of the racial policy. Elijah Abel had been ordained to the priesthood. Smoot and Zebedee Coltrin provided conflicting testimony that founder Joseph Smith had said that Abel could not hold the priesthood, though the veracity of their testimony is doubted, their accounts contributed to Taylor's decision to maintain the ban. Smoot led companies of pioneers to the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, 1852, 1856.
He was an alderman from the Sugar House district from 1854 to 1857. He was elected as mayor of Salt Lake City in 1857, after the death of his business partner and then-mayor, Jedediah M. Grant. Smoot was re-elected, serving as mayor until 1866, he served twice as a bishop in Salt Lake City. Early in 1868, Brigham Young called Smoot to be president of the Utah Stake in Utah. Young was concerned with church members' unity and cooperation, he expected Smoot to improve the situation. According to family tradition, Smoot protested the call. After more than three decades of church and civic service, including nine missions, Smoot was looking forward to enjoying the comforts brought by his hard work and successful business ventures; when Young told Smoot about the assignment, he said, "There are three places, all on a par, one is as good as the other. They are Hell, or Texas. You can take your choice." Although Smoot responded, "I would sooner go to Hell than to Provo," he took Provo. By February 1868, Smoot had moved at least two of his wives and their children and a slave he had purchased to the wild and somewhat disreputable frontier town 50 miles south of Salt Lake.
Within a week, Smoot was elected mayor, an office he held until 1881. He was a major investor in the Provo Woolen Mills, was co-founder of a bank and a lumber company. Smoot was the first head of the board of trustees of Brigham Young Academy. Smoot is credited with making major financial contributions to the Brigham Young Academy, which allowed its continued operations, it developed as a college and university. Today, the administration building at BYU is named after Smoot. Utah History Encyclopedia: Abraham Owen Smoot, media. Utah.edu Guide to A. O. Smoot missionary diaries at the Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University. Click "see diary" to see scans of the original diaries. A. O. Smoot papers, MSS 896 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University. Contains missionary journals and correspondence written to Abraham Smoot. A. O. Smoot papers, MSS 574 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University. Contains letters and patriarchal blessing
Rowlett is a city in Dallas and Rockwall counties in the U. S. state of Texas, an eastern suburb of Dallas. The population was 62,838 as of the 2017 Census est, it is a growing, upscale community with nearly $1.5 billion in development in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, located on Lake Ray Hubbard. Rowlett derives its name from Rowlett Creek, which flows into Lake Ray Hubbard and is a major tributary of the east fork of the Trinity River; the creek in turn was named for a waterway running through the property of Daniel Rowlett who moved from Kentucky to Bonham, Texas, in 1835. Daniel, a member of the Smoot-Rowlett political family, had no direct dealings with the town that now bears his name; the first post office opened on April 5, 1880, it was called "Morris" after Postmaster Austin Morris. The town was renamed "Rowlett"; the Dallas and Greenville Railway passed through the town in 1886, connecting Dallas with Greenville and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. Shortly after its opening, the line was formally sold to the MKT.
In 1921 the town was a stop on the Bankhead Highway. The town incorporated in 1952 when its population was 250. In the 1960s the town languished as Interstate 30 bypassed Rowlett; the town has had a building boom since the completion of Lake Ray Hubbard in 1971 – growing to 1,600 by 1973. Rowlett gained international notoriety in 1996 when local resident Darlie Routier was convicted of murdering her children as they slept. In 2003 the town made an unsuccessful formal proposal to get the Dallas Cowboys to move to a 1,000-acre "5-Point Park" on the banks of Lake Ray Hubbard when the lease for Texas Stadium expires. In 2013 the Rowlett City Council was challenged by the Freedom From Religion Foundation and Metroplex Atheists regarding opening prayer invocations at city hall meetings. In a court case in May 2014 the U. S. Supreme Court reaffirmed a previous court ruling upholding the tradition of opening legislative sessions with sectarian prayer and additionally ruled in favor of a town’s right to have invocations given by the predominant religion within its borders as long as it did not discriminate or coerce participation.
Atheist proponents asked the Rowlett City Council to be included in giving invocations. They were denied based on the Supreme Court ruling and city policy stating the invocation should be given by members of the community’s locally established religious congregations.”In 2015, the City of Rowlett gained regional recognition when Donahue Development and the City published plans to build the first crystal lagoon in the State of Texas which will span nearly eight acres including two acres of beach frontage. There is a planned one acre show fountain, 300' long with 250 water nozzles and two video mist screens. Located in the development will be a trolley system, marina and concerts, convention center, luxury hotel resort, two condo towers, luxury apartments; this development would be called "Bayside". Bayside is located in the southernmost portion in the City of Rowlett surrounded by Lake Ray Hubbard; the property, once known as "Elgin B. Robertson Park" was acquired from the City of Dallas in late 2015 when the City of Rowlett and Donahue Development began planning this luxury resort known as "Bayside".
Construction on this project is in progress and is expected to be completed in 2023. What once was a bedroom community, is now a community set for success in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. On the evening of December 26, 2015 a violent storm produced a deadly EF-4 tornado that tore a 13 mile path from the neighboring city of Garland, through the southeast portion of Rowlett damaging or destroying hundreds of homes and vehicles along with several businesses and a city water tower. Rowlett is located at 32°54′25″N 96°32′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.0 square miles, of which 19.9 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles, or 0.34%, is water. DART has transit. Rowlett is served by the Downtown Rowlett Station on the Blue Line. Automobile routes include President George Bush Turnpike, Interstate 30, Texas State Highway 66; as of the census of 2010, there were 56,310 people, 22,875 households, 17,275 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,509.2 people per square mile.
There were 19,804 housing units at an average density of 2,509.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.24% White, 9.48% African American, 0.49% Native American, 3.93% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 7.75% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.31% of the population. There were 19,804 households out of which 58.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 87.23% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.43% were non-families. 10.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.5% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 36.9% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $100,872, the median income for a family was $88,442. Males had a median income of $49,394 versus $35,286 for f
Wilford Woodruff Sr. was an American religious leader who served as the fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1889 until his death. Woodruff's large collection of diaries provides an important record of Latter Day Saint history, his decision to formally end the practice of plural marriage among the members of the LDS Church in 1890 brought to a close one of the most controversial periods of church history. Woodruff was known as a conservative religious man, but was enthusiastically involved in the social and economic life of his community, he was an avid outdoorsman, enjoying fishing and hunting. Woodruff learned to fly fish in England, his 1847 journal account of his fishing in the East Fork River is the earliest known account of fly fishing west of the Mississippi River; as an adult, Woodruff was a farmer and stockman by trade and wrote extensively for church periodicals. Woodruff was one of nine children born to Bulah Thompson and Aphek Woodruff, a miller working in Farmington, Connecticut.
Wilford's mother Bulah Thompson died of "spotted fever" in 1808 at the age of 26, when Wilford was fifteen months old. He was raised by his step-mother Azubah Hart; as a young man, Woodruff worked at a sawmill and a flour mill owned by his father. Woodruff joined the Latter Day Saint church on December 31, 1833. At that time, the church numbered only a few thousand believers clustered around Kirtland, Ohio. On January 13, 1835, Woodruff left Kirtland on his first full-time mission, preaching without "purse or scrip" in Arkansas and Tennessee. Like many early Latter Day Saints, Woodruff practiced plural marriage, he was married to nine women. His wives: Phoebe Whittemore Carter, m. April 13, 1837 Mary Ann Jackson, m. Aug 2, 1846 Sarah Elinor Brown, m. Aug 2, 1846 Mary Caroline Barton, m. Aug 2, 1846 Mary Meek Giles Webster m. March 28, 1852 Emma Smith m. March 13, 1853 Sarah Brown, m. March 13, 1853 Sarah Delight Stocking m. July 31, 1857 Eudora Young Dunford m. March 10, 1877 Woodruff's wives bore him a total of 34 children, with 14 preceding him in death.
Woodruff met his first wife, Phoebe Carter, in Kirtland shortly after his return from his first mission through Southern Missouri, Arkansas and Kentucky. Woodruff came to Kirtland on November 25, 1836, along with Abraham O. Smoot, he was introduced to Phoebe by Milton Holmes on January 28, 1837. She was a native of Maine and had become a Latter Day Saint in 1834. Woodruff and Phoebe were married on April 13, 1837, with the ceremony performed by Frederick G. Williams, their marriage was sealed in Nauvoo by Hyrum Smith. Phoebe accopanied her husband on his 1837-1838 mission to the Fox Islands in Maine. During some of this time she resided with her parents in their house in Maine, her decision to head west again with her husband shortly after the birth of their daughter was compared by her to the commitment of Ruth to follow the Lord and leave her people. In the Teachings of Presidents of the Church series, Woodruff shared an experience from December 3, 1838, where Phoebe was ill, lying before him as one who had died.
He stated that following a priesthood blessing, she was raised from this illness and was made whole. During this experience Phebe conversed with two angels who gave her the choice to live or die, she chose to live and persever with the faithful; this was while Woodruff was leading a group of Saints he had converted on the Fox Islands of Maine to join with the body of the Saints. Phoebe was among the members of the Relief Society in Nauvoo. In the late 1840s, Phoebe was set apart as a missionary and served with Woodruff as he presided over the Eastern States Mission. Phoebe was numbered among the "leading ladies" who helped organize the Relief Society in Utah Territory in the 1860s through the 1880s. During Woodruff's time as president of the LDS Church, his wife, Emma Smith Woodruff, accompanied him to public functions, she was the only wife he lived with after Phoebe's death in 1885, she was a niece of Abraham O. Smoot. Although she married Woodruff age 46, when she was 15, she did not have the first of her eight children until she was 20.
Emma was involved in the Relief Society, serving as both a ward and stake president for that organization. She served as a member of the Relief Society General Board from 1892 to 1910. Among Woodruff's children was the LDS Church apostle Abraham O. Woodruff. Woodruff's daughter, was a wife of Lorenzo Snow, Snow succeeded Woodruff as president of the LDS Church. Woodruff operated a farm and orchards in Salt Lake City, he had extensive livestock herds. On multiple occasions, his products won prizes at the Utah Territorial Fair. Woodruff served for 14 years as head of the Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society. In 1855 he became president of the Utah Territorial Horticultural Society. Woodruff served multiple terms in the Utah territorial legislature, he was a member of the legislative house from its formation in 1851 until 1854, served in the legislative council from 1854 until 1876. Woodruff served as a member of the 1862 Utah Constitutional Convention and as a member of the committee that drafted the appeal to the U.
S. Congress to approve the constitution and grant statehood for Utah; this attempt to join the Union failed. Woodruff served as a member of the Provo City Council in 1868 and 1869. Woodruff and his brother, A
President of the Church (LDS Church)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the President of the Church is the highest office of the church. It was the office held by the church's founder; the President of the LDS Church is the church's leader and the head of the First Presidency, the church's highest governing body. Latter-day Saints consider the president of the church to be a "prophet and revelator" and refer to him as "the Prophet," a title, given to Smith; when the name of the president is used by adherents, it is prefaced by the title "President". Russell M. Nelson has been the president since January 14, 2018. Latter-day Saints consider the church's president to be God's spokesman to the entire world and the highest priesthood authority on earth, with the exclusive right to receive revelations from God on behalf of the entire church or the entire world; the President of the Church serves as the head of both the Council on the Disposition of the Tithes and the Council of the Church. The President of the Church serves as the ex officio chairman of the Church Boards of Trustees/Education.
The concept that the Church of Christ would have a single presiding officer arose in late 1831. After the church's formation on April 6, 1830, Joseph Smith referred to himself as "an apostle of Jesus Christ, elder of the church." However, there was another apostle, Oliver Cowdery, several other elders of the church, making the formal hierarchy of the church unclear. In September 1830, after Hiram Page said he had received revelations for the church, a revelation to Smith stated that "no one shall be appointed to receive commandments and revelations in this church excepting my servant Joseph Smith, Jun. for he receiveth them as Moses." That established Smith's exclusive right to lead the church. In early June 1831, Smith was ordained to the "high priesthood," along with twenty-two other men, including prominent figures in the church such as Hyrum Smith, Parley P. Pratt, Martin Harris; as "high priests", they were higher in the priesthood hierarchy than the elders of the church. However, it was still unclear whether Smith's and Cowdery's callings as apostles gave them superior authority to that of other high priests.
On November 11, 1831, a revelation to Smith stated that "it must needs be that one be appointed of the high priesthood to preside over the Priesthood and he shall be called President of the high priesthood of the Church... and again the duty of the President of the high priesthood is to preside over the whole church." Smith was ordained to that position and sustained by the church on January 25, 1832, at a conference in Amherst, Ohio. In 1835, the "Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ" were revised, changing the phrase "an... elder of the church" to "the first elder of this Church." Thus, after 1835, Smith was sometimes referred to as the "First Elder" of the church. The 1835 revision added a verse that referred to the office of "president of the high priesthood", which had since been added to the church hierarchy. In 1844, in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith was killed by an armed mob. Hyrum Smith, his presumed successor, was killed in the same incident. Smith had not indisputably established, next in line as successor to President of the Church.
Several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church. Brigham Young opposed that reasoning and motion, as Smith had earlier recorded a revelation, which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency, so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles. Most who were in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles should lead the church and Young was sustained as "the president of the quorum of the Twelve and first presidency of the church," thereby assuming leadership of the church. However, Young was not ordained President of the Church at the time. On December 27, 1847, three-and-a-half years after Smith's death, Young was ordained the President of the Church.
At the time, seniority was determined by the first date of ordination as an apostle. By that definition, Heber C. Kimball was the most senior. However, since he was called to the First Presidency, Orson Hyde, the next most senior apostle became the President of the Quorum. In 1869, Brigham Young changed the order of the seniority, placing Brigham Young Jr., the most called member of the Quorum, ahead of Joseph F. Smith. Smith had been in the Quorum longer. In 1875, Young changed the definition of seniority to be determined by the longest continuous term as an apostle. Since Orson Hyde and Parley P. Pratt had been temporarily removed from the apostleship during Nauvoo, they were removed from their position and placed in seniority, based on when they were reinstated as an apostle; that gave John Taylor the highest seniority. When Young died in 1877, Taylor assumed leadership instead of Hyde. Wilford Woodruff, explained in 1879, "Elder Taylor is the oldest in Ordination and, why he presides today."
The First Presidency was absolved, the previous members were ordained as counselors to the Twelve. Other men were called to fill the vacancies in the Quorum; when Taylor died, the pattern changed, the members of the First Presidency rejoined the Quorum based on their seniority. Two years Wilford Woodruff was ordained as President of the