Henry Poole & Co
Henry Poole & Co is a bespoke tailor located at №15 Savile Row in London. The company made the first modern-style dinner jacket based on specifications that the Prince of Wales gave the company in the 1880s; the company advertises its long relationship with the British Royal Family. The business opened first in Brunswick Square, in 1806 specializing in military tailoring, with particular merit at the time of the Battle of Waterloo, their business moved to Savile Row following the death of founder James Poole. Henry Poole ran the business until his death in 1876, was succeeded by cousin Samuel Cundey, whose legacy continued, for five generations, to the present-day owners Angus Cundey and son Simon; the company still holds many royal warrants of appointment, services the Lord Chamberlain's office with court dress, with their livery department creating uniforms for the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar. The company are credited with the creation of the dinner suit. In 2006, the company celebrated their bicentennial with a refurbishment of their premises and 2007 saw a re-issue of a suiting material made famous by Winston Churchill, a Henry Poole customer who ordered his first suit 100 years ago.
In 1860, Henry Poole made a short evening or smoking jacket for the Prince of Wales to wear at informal dinner parties at Sandringham. In 1886, a Mr. James Potter of Tuxedo Park, New York, visited London and subsequently was invited by the Prince to spend a weekend at Sandringham House, he was advised that he could have a smoking jacket made by the Prince’s tailors, Henry Poole & Co. When the Potters returned to New York, Mr. Potter proudly wore his new smoking jacket at the Tuxedo Club and fellow members soon started having copies made for themselves which they adopted as their informal uniform for club "stag" dinners; as a result, the dinner jacket became known as a tux in America. Henry Poole has had customers who belonged to the highest aristocracy. Amongst the many customers who issued official warrants or were regulars were: Emperor Napoleon III 1858 The Prince of Wales 1863 The Duke of Edinburgh 1868 The Crown Prince of Prussia 1868 Queen Victoria 1869 The King of the Belgians 1869 The Crown Prince of Denmark 1869 The Prince of Teck 1870 Prince Christian of Schleswig–Holstein 1870 The Khedive of Egypt 1870 Prince Oscar of Sweden & Norway 1871 King Amadeus I of Spain 1871 Prince Louis of Hesse 1871 Crown Prince of Russia 1874 The Emperor Pedro II of Brazil 1874 Tsar Alexander II of Russia 1875 The King of Hellenes 1877 The Crown Prince of Austria 1878 King Umberto I of Italy 1879 Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany Tsar Alexander III of Russia 1881 King David Kalakaua of Hawai'i 1882 The Duke of Genoa 1891 Friedrich, Grossherzog of Baden 1891 The Duke of Aosta 1892 Prince Emanuel of Savoie 1892 The Shah of Persia The King of Denmark 1893 King Edward VII 1902 Prince Albrecht of Prussia 1903 The Maharajah Gaekwar of Baroda 1905 The Shah of Persia 1906 The Khedive of Egypt 1910 Queen Alexandra 1911 The Prince of Wales 1922 The Imperial Household of Japan 1923 King George V 1928 The King of the Bulgarians 1936 King George VI 1940 Emperor Haile Selassie 1959 Queen Elizabeth II 1976 Savile Row tailoring Stephen Howarth: Henry Poole: Founders of Savile Row - The Making of a Legend.
Godalming: Bene Factum, 2003. ISBN 978-1-903071-06-9 Company website Historical background information
57th Street (Manhattan)
57th Street is one of New York City's major thoroughfares, which runs as a two-way street east-west in the Midtown section of the borough of Manhattan, from the New York City Department of Sanitation's dock on the Hudson River at the West Side Highway to a small park overlooking the East River built on a platform suspended above the FDR Drive. Between Fifth and Eighth Avenue, it is two blocks south of Central Park. 57th Street is notable for restaurants and up-market shops. The street was designated by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 that established the Manhattan street grid as one of 15 east-west streets that would be 100 feet in width. Over its two-mile length, 57th Street passes through several distinct neighborhoods with differing mixes of commercial and residential uses; the first block of 57th Street, at its western end at Twelfth Avenue near the Hudson River waterfront, is home to the VIA 57 West building, designed in the form of a triangular pyramid by Danish architect Bjarke Ingels.
From there to Tenth Avenue are low-rise industrial properties, several automobile dealerships, small-scale residential buildings. Much of the south side of the block between Eleventh and Tenth Avenues is occupied by the CBS Broadcast Center, the network's primary East Coast production facility; the street's name was used by CBS to title a newsmagazine program produced by the network in the late 1980s, West 57th. From Tenth Avenue to Eighth Avenue, larger residential buildings appear. Beginning at Eighth Avenue and continuing east through the core of Midtown Manhattan, the street is dominated by large commercial and residential towers, such as at the Hearst Tower at the southwest corner of 57th Street and Eighth Avenue; this stretch of 57th Street is home to several large hotels such as Le Parker Meridien and well-known restaurants such as the Russian Tea Room, to the offices of several magazines including The Economist. The corner of 57th Street and Seventh Avenue is home to the city-owned performance venue Carnegie Hall.
The mid-block between Seventh and Sixth avenues is a terminus of a north-south pedestrian avenue named Sixth and a Half Avenue. East of Sixth Avenue, the street is home to numerous high-end retail establishments including Van Cleef & Arpels, Tiffany & Co. and Bergdorf Goodman. The stores located at 57th Street's intersections with Fifth and Madison Avenues occupy some of the most expensive real estate in the world. Commercial and retail buildings continue to dominate until Third Avenue, where the street returns to a preponderance of large residential buildings; as it continues from here through its final blocks leading to its terminus at Sutton Place, the street consists of a nearly unbroken stretch of upscale apartment buildings with doormen and small commercial establishments such as drug stores, bank branches, restaurants. 57th Street ends at a small city park overlooking the East River just east of Sutton Place. Notable buildings include 300 East 57th Street by architect Emery Roth. Beginning with the construction of One57, a 1,004-foot apartment building between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, completed in 2014, a large number of tall ultra-luxury residential buildings have been constructed or proposed on the section of 57th Street corresponding to the southern edge of Central Park.
Due to the record-breaking prices that have been set for the apartments in these buildings, the press has dubbed this section of 57th Street as "Billionaires' Row". These projects have generated controversy concerning the economic conditions and zoning policies that have encouraged these buildings, as well as the impact these towers will have on the surrounding neighborhoods and the shadows they will cast on Central Park; the 57th Street station on the New York City Subway's IND Sixth Avenue Line is located at the intersection of 57th Street and Sixth Avenue and is served by the F train. The 57th Street – Seventh Avenue station on the BMT Broadway Line is located at 57th Street and Seventh Avenue, served by the N, Q, R, W trains; the M57 and M31 crosstown bus routes share a corridor between 1st Avenues. The M57 extends up the West Side to the 72nd Street subway station, while the M31 extends up the East Side to 92nd Street and 1st Avenue via York Avenue. Several express buses from Brooklyn and Staten Island serve 57th Street as well.
Four Seasons Hotel between Madison and Park Avenues Fuller Building at Madison Avenue: housing many art galleries Tourneau TimeMachine at Madison Avenue Tiffany & Co. at Fifth Avenue Trump Tower Bergdorf Goodman at Fifth Avenue Ascot Chang at Fifth Avenue Formerly: Steinway Hall at Sixth Avenue Carnegie Hall at Seventh Avenue Art Students League of New York between Seventh Avenue and Broadway Russian Tea Room, east of Carnegie Hall Hearst Tower at Eighth Avenue CBS Broadcast Center, from Tenth to Eleventh Avenues International Flavors & Fragrances, between Tenth and Eleventh Avenues The following high-end stores can be found between Sixth Avenue and Park Avenue: Notes Shopping 57th Street by NYC Tourist 57th Street: A New York Songline – virtual walking tour
Leather is a natural durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides and skins. The most common raw material is cattle hide, it can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from artisan to modern industrial scale. Leather is used to make a variety of articles, including footwear, automobile seats, bags, book bindings, fashion accessories, furniture, it is decorated by a wide range of techniques. The earliest record of leather artifacts dates back to 2200 BC; the leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental subprocesses: preparatory stages and crusting. A further subprocess, can be added into the leather process sequence, but not all leathers receive finishing; the preparatory stages are. Preparatory stages may include: soaking, liming, bating and pickling. Tanning is a process that stabilizes the proteins collagen, of the raw hide to increase the thermal and microbiological stability of the hides and skins, making it suitable for a wide variety of end applications.
The principal difference between raw and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard, inflexible material that, when rewetted, will putrefy, while tanned material dries to a flexible form that does not become putrid when rewetted. Many tanning methods and materials exist; the typical process sees tanners load the hides into a drum and immerse them in a tank that contains the tanning "liquor". The hides soak while the drum rotates about its axis, the tanning liquor penetrates through the full thickness of the hide. Once the process achieves penetration, workers raise the liquor's pH in a process called basification, which fixes the tanning material to the leather; the more tanning material fixed, the higher the leather's hydrothermal stability and shrinkage temperature resistance. Crusting is a process that lubricates leather, it includes a coloring operation. Chemicals added during crusting must be fixed in place. Crusting culminates with a drying and softening operation, may include splitting, dyeing, whitening or other methods.
For some leathers, tanners apply a surface coating, called "finishing". Finishing operations can include oiling, buffing, polishing, glazing, or tumbling, among others. Leather can be oiled to improve its water resistance; this currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. Tanning processes differ in which chemicals are used in the tanning liquor; some common types include: Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method, it is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water.
This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather, exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and congeals, becoming rigid and brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances, it was used as armor after hardening, it has been used for book binding. Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium other chromium salts, it is known as "wet blue" for the pale blue color of the undyed leather. The chrome tanning method takes one day to complete, making it best suited for large-scale industrial use; this is the most common method in modern use. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. However, there are environmental concerns with this tanning method. Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using oxazolidine compounds, it is referred to as "wet white" due to its pale cream color.
It is the main type of "chrome-free" leather seen in shoes for infants and automobiles. Formaldehyde has been used for tanning in the past. Chamois leather is a form of aldehyde tanning that produces a porous and water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made using marine oils that oxidize to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather. Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses emulsified oils those of animal brains such as deer and buffalo, they are known for their exceptional washability. Alum leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum leather is not tanned. In general, leather is produced in the following grades: Top-grain leather includes the outer layer of the hide, known as the grain, which features finer, more densely packed fibers, resulting in strength and durability. Depending on thickness, it may contain some of the more fibrous under layer, known as the corium. Types of top-grain leather incl
Bollinger is a Champagne house, a producer of sparkling wines from the Champagne region of France. They produce several labels of Champagne under the Bollinger name, including the vintage Vieilles Vignes Françaises, Grande Année and R. D. as well as the non-vintage Special Cuvée. Founded in 1829 in Aÿ by Hennequin de Villermont, Paul Renaudin and Jacques Bollinger the house continues to be run by members of the Bollinger family. In Britain Bollinger Champagnes are affectionately known as "Bolly". Bollinger has roots in the Champagne region dating back to 1585 when the Hennequins, one of the Bollinger founding families, owned land in Cramant. Before the Bollinger house was founded, in the 18th century the Villermont family practised wine making, though not under their family name. In 1750, Villermont settled in the location 16 rue Jules Lobet, which would become the head office for Bollinger. In 1803 Jacques Joseph Placide Bollinger was born in the kingdom of Württemberg. In 1822, he moved to the Champagne region and began work at the Champagne house of Muller Ruinart, which no longer exists.
Many other German nationals came to settle in the Champagne region, including Johann-Josef Krug and the Heidsiecks, who founded a house that would become Charles Heidsieck, Piper Heidsieck, Heidsieck & Co Monopole, Veuve Clicquot and others. The Champagne house Renaudin Bollinger was founded on February 6, 1829 in Aÿ by Hennequin de Villermont, Paul Levieux Renaudin and Jacques Bollinger; the partners agreed that the Villermont name would not be used on the labels, hence the house name Renaudin Bollinger. Starting when Jacques Bollinger married Charlotte de Villermont, the house has been managed by the Bollinger family. Though Paul Renaudin passed without an heir to his name, the label did not become Bollinger until the 1960s. Founder Jacques Joseph Bollinger married Charlotte de Villermont; the couple had a daughter, who had two sons Joseph and Georges. These sons took over the company in 1885 and began expanding the family estate by purchasing vineyards in nearby villages; the sons developed the image of the brand, such as when Bollinger received a Royal Warrant in 1884 from Queen Victoria.
In 1918 Jacques Bollinger, the son of Georges, took over the company. Jacques married Emily Law de Lauriston Boubers, known as "Lily". Jacques further expanded the facilities by building new cellars, purchasing the Tauxières vineyards, acquiring the assets of another Champagne house on Boulevard du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny—where Bollinger's offices are presently located; when Jacques Bollinger died in 1941, Lily Bollinger took over. Lily expanded production through the purchase of more vineyards, but is better known for traveling the world to promote the brand. Lily was well-publicized in the Champagne region. I drink it when I'm sad. Sometimes I drink it; when I have company I consider it obligatory. I trifle with it if I drink it when I am. Otherwise, I never touch it --. Lily managed Bollinger until 1971, when her nephews Claude d'Hautefeuille and Christian Bizot succeeded her. Bollinger was modernized under the direction of Claude d'Hautefeuille, who acquired additional vineyards and developed the brand internationally.
Following Claude, his cousin Christian Bizot took over the Bollinger house. In addition to expanding the world distribution of Bollinger, Bizot developed a Charter of Ethics and Quality in 1992. Since 1994, Ghislain de Mongolfier has managed Bollinger. A great-grandson of the founder, Mongolfier has served as president of the Association Viticole Champenoise since 2004, after leading the Commission of Champagne for 10 years; the winemaker has used the popular James Bond film series as a marketing device. In the 1973 film Live and Let Die, James Bond is heard asking for a bottle of Bollinger after entering his hotel. In the 1985 film A View to a Kill, James Bond recognizes the champagne served at the top of the Eiffel Tower as "Bollinger, 75." In the 1987 film The Living Daylights, James Bond delivers a gift basket to General Koskov who, seeing the champagne, exclaims "Bollinger R. D.... The Best!" In the 2002 film Die Another Day, James Bond is heard asking for a bottle of 1961 Bollinger after being released from a North Korean prison.
In The World Is Not Enough, James Bond beds the female lead alongside an iced bottle of Bollinger. In the 2006 film Casino Royale, James Bond requests a bottle of Bollinger. There is a bottle in his car at the end of the car chase at the start of GoldenEye. Bollinger is one of the last remaining independent Champagne houses. Family-managed since 1889, Bollinger maintains more than 150 hectares of vineyards, it produces the following sparkling wines: Special Cuvée: The Bollinger house style. This Champagne blend uses grapes with the addition of reserve wines. Champagne author Tom Stevenson describes the house style as "classic, Pinot-dominated Champagnes of great potential longevity and complexity" which "tends to go toasty." The blend includes up to 10 % reserve wines. This gives the special cuvee structure. Grande Année: When Bollinger believes there is an exceptional harvest, they will produce their prestige Champagne Grande Année designed to express the character of the vintage; the house will select cru by cru, to produce Grande Année.
This Champagne is available as a Rosé. The wine spends five years on
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
DAKS is a British luxury fashion house, founded in 1894 by Simeon Simpson in London. DAKS holds royal warrants granted from three members of one of 15 firms to do so. Granted to DAKS' Simpson Piccadilly store in 1956 was the royal warrant of HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, followed by that of HM The Queen in 1962 and HRH The Prince of Wales in 1982. Worldwide, DAKS is exported to 30 countries and sold in over 2,000 specialty shops, major stores and concessions; the name is a combination of the initials of Alexander Simpson and an initial and final letter of his business associate Dudley Beck. In 1894 Simeon Simpson, aged 16, rented a room on Middlesex Street, East London, with the intention of setting up a business in bespoke tailoring, focused on high standard craftsmanship. Several innovations of technology at the time were being introduced with machinery capable of making buttonholes and electric powered saws to cut many layers of fabric at once – Simpson saw the potential for such equipment for producing garments in higher quantities while still upholding quality tailoring techniques, aiming to improve ready-to-wear standards as no male or female professionals considered ready-to-wear for suitable attire at the time.
Simpson's methods proved successful in speeding up the process and he set up several factories within London, which soon required expansion in its early years through popularity of the label. Alexander Simpson, his second son, joined the business aged 15 in 1917, by 1929 had planned and opened a larger factory in Stoke Newington where production could be centralised, this again had to be enlarged a few years later. With the continued growth of the company Alexander Simpson began to take more control of the business, in 1935 DAKS gained further fame for the S Simpson brand as an innovation in the tailoring world of the first self-supporting trouser, he went about to invent a way to support his trousers that wouldn't need braces as these interrupted his swing whilst playing golf and caused his shirt to become untucked. The DAKS trouser was invented – it had a channel within the waistband at the back wherein an elasticated strip was attached at the sides with tabs attached to one of two buttons for adjustment.
On the inside of the waistband were sewn-on rubber pads that gripped the shirt and stopped it from becoming loose. This happened in a world where to buy a pair of trousers of high quality one would have to have a bespoke pair made by a tailor, thus this new design allowed the ease of ready-to-wear trousers. Simpson was so sure of his new design that he had 100,000 pairs made before being introduced to the public at a high price of 30 shillings in a time when a whole bespoke suit would cost 50 shillings; the trousers were available in many colours and fabrics that weren't associated with menswear. They became so popular that the trousers were incorporated into suits and soon after a DAKS womenswear line was released, using the patented waistband for skirting; the inception of the DAKS name was aiming to be something short and eye catching and is an arrangement of initials from the two men involved in its development –'AS' for Alexander Simpson and'DK' for his business associate Dudley Beck hence why the name is capitalised.
The advertising agent involved for the promotion of these new trousers, Sir William Crawford of WS Crawford Ltd thought up the idea to market them as'Dad's Slacks' as it had connotations of reliability and comfort whilst sounding similar to the name DAKS. At the turn of the 21st century when the company was acquired by Japanese group Sankyo Seiko Co. Limited in 1991, the S Simpson name was dropped and DAKS became the new brand name; the ease-of-wear of the trousers and how they allowed movement, as intended from Simpson's invention, led to DAKS being popular in sporting wear – kitting tennis, motor racing, football players, for the British Olympic team in 1960. The quality of S Simpson tailoring was such that the company was commissioned by the British Government at the time of the Second World War to produce military uniforms for officers in the Army, Royal Airforce and Women's Services despite the semi-destruction of the Stoke Newington factory due to bomb damage and loss of electricity – with about seven million garments made for military services being produced.
After the war when DAKS clothes were announced to start selling to the public again queues of people would form down Piccadilly, to which Simpson tailors would measure them in line and present suitable pairs of trousers to them when they got into the Simpsons of Piccadilly store. Simeon Simpson's son Alexander Simpson, owner of the company, decided he wanted to find a'window' for Simpson clothes in the heart of London, he founded Simpsons of Piccadilly when the Geological Museum had closed and the site to be auctioned. The new building was designed by architect Joseph Emberton as a new and revolutionary retail establishment, the shop front windows exhibited the first curved glass display in Great Britain and the largest in the world at the time, these were designed so that no reflection would be cast to obscure the displays inside; the outstanding feature of the shop's interior was the travertine staircase that ran up through the centre of the store lit by a continuous window up the height of the building.
The current lighting structure suspended through the staircase centre is the original from the 1930s as the building has since become a listed building. The store opened in April 1936 by the world-famous motor-racing driver, and was famed for its visual merchandising and window displays by László Moholy-Nagy, a former director from the Bauhaus school. Opening the s