Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
An interior designer is someone who plans, researches and manages such projects. Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, in the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building. The profession of design has been a consequence of the development of society. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the interior design profession. The profession of design is separate and distinct from the role of Interior Decorator. The term is common in the UK where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore, strictly speaking. In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers and this can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th century India, in ancient Egypt, soul houses or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings.
Architects would employ craftsmen or artisans to complete design for their buildings. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management and this business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was increasingly usurped by independent, often amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the interior design in the mid-20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits and they framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes, as department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One particularly effective advertising tool was to set up rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see.
Some of the firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons. This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War, the Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the class was the architect Owen Jones. His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament, in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design, in 1882, the London Directory of the Post Office listed 80 interior decorators
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and it is the worlds only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of any country, emerging as one of the worlds first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt was Islamised in the century and remains a predominantly Muslim country. With over 92 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world.
The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, the large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypts territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypts residents live in areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria. Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Egypts economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern name of Egypt. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם, the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian
A teaching assistant or teachers aide or education assistant is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities. By definition, TAs assist with classes, but many graduate students serve as the instructor for one or more classes each semester as a teaching fellow or graduate student instructor. Teaching assistants often help the teacher by managing students with learning disabilities, such as ADHD, or even physical disabilities. Graduate teaching assistants are graduate students employed on a contract by a department at a college or university in teaching-related responsibilities. In New Zealand and some Canadian universities, graduate TAs are known as tutors, professors may use their teaching assistants to help teach discussions during regular class. This gives the graduate student opportunity to use their teaching skills, some graduate students assist in distance education courses by meeting with the students as professors are not able to. Graduate TAs should not be confused with teaching fellows or graduate student instructors, however, at some universities the TF and TA titles are used interchangeably.
The equivalent of this kind of tutor in the United States, UTAs or JTAs usually serve as true assistants to a class, they typically have taken the course with which they are assisting, often with the same professor, and have performed well in it. This case is less common for GTAs, since many would have been undergraduates at other institutions, unlike professors and GTAs, UTAs generally do not have a fixed salary but instead are paid by the hour, earn credit hours, or volunteer their time. The term teaching assistant is used in the school and middle school setting for students or adults that assist a teacher with one or more classes. The responsibilities and conditions of these individuals involvement differ from those in higher education, a less formal position, a TA job in secondary education is generally determined by the supervising teacher. Common tasks include assisting students with their work, and taking attendance, most of the responsibilities of Teaching Assistants do not require the academic expertise of the professor in charge.
Some teaching assistants at this level may teach portions of the class lessons, many TAs work one-on-one with special needs students, these TAs shadow their student and assist with classwork and behavior management. In some parts of the United States it is customary or even required that each classroom have one certified teacher, students attending high school and middle schools can take a course, usually an elective, and perform tasks such as grade and record scores on homework or tests. The work done by the assistant in the role is not tedious, an elementary school teaching assistant is an adult who is hired to help a teacher with class-related duties, which are similar to those encountered in middle and high school settings. They are sometimes referred to as paraprofessionals or teachers aides, elementary school teaching assistants are generally hired on a contract that lasts the entire academic year. Teaching assistants aide with multiple duties within schools, and can be hired in special education as well, Tutor Research assistant Tutor expertise in adult education The Art of TAing What are TA, RA and GA.
National Career Service profile of a Teaching Assistant Teaching Assistant Resource for Jobs and Courses Changing career to a Teaching Assistant
Dovrefjell is a mountain range in central Norway that forms a natural barrier between Eastern Norway and Trøndelag, the area around Trondheim. As a result, it has been heavily trafficked during and probably preceding historical times, several mountain inns were established in the Middle Ages to house pilgrims traveling to Trondheim, and there are even ruins of an old leper colony in the northern area of it. The main south-north highway and Dovre Line in Norway runs over Dovrefjell, the highway is a year-round highway but is at rare occasions closed for short periods during heavy winter weather conditions. The natural habitat for rare plants and animals, it became a national park in several stages starting in 1911. When the railroad was built from Oslo to Trondheim in 1921, in 1974, parts of the range became a national park and the park was extensively enlarged in 2002. Together with Rondane, it has Norway and Europes last stock of wild reindeer of Beringian origin, Dovrefjell has a stock of musk oxen, imported from East-Greenland in 1932.
Dovre National Park, founded 2003, connecting the areas in the Dovrefjell-Sunndalsfjella National Park with Rondane National Park. The highest mountain in the region is Snøhetta at 2,286 meters above sea level, the range provides cross-country skiing and hiking opportunities. The river Driva, running north through the municipality of Oppdal, has its source in the Dovrefjell range, the first element refers to the geographic area, Dovre. It is common to use the shortened form Dovre for the mountainous area around Dovrefjell. From the oldest times has Dovrefjell been the region between the northern and southern parts of Norway, and the road over the mountain was well known. The expression til Dovre faller is widely used in Norwegian and it was used in the oath sworn during the Norwegian Constituent Assembly in 1814, when Norway formed an independent nation after being a part of Denmark. At this time it was assumed that Snøhetta in Dovrefjell was the highest mountain in Norway, Dovrefjell - the official travel guide to Norway
Ryerson University is a public research university in Toronto, Canada. Its urban campus surrounds the Yonge-Dundas Square, located at the busiest intersection in downtown Toronto, the university has a focus on applied, career-oriented education. The majority of its buildings are in the blocks northeast of the Yonge-Dundas Square in Torontos Garden District, the universitys most recent expansion, the Mattamy Athletic Centre, is in the historical Maple Leaf Gardens arena, formerly home of the Toronto Maple Leafs. The university is composed of 36, 000+ undergraduate students,2, 000+ graduate students, Ryerson is ranked 4th in Ontario and 10th in Canada by student enrollment. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education, in 1852 at the core of the present main campus, the historic St. James Square, Egerton Ryerson founded Ontarios first teacher training facility, the Toronto Normal School. It housed the Department of Education and the Museum of Natural History and Fine Arts, an agricultural laboratory on the site led to the founding of the Ontario Agricultural College and the University of Guelph.
St. James Square went through various other uses before housing a namesake of its original founder. Egerton Ryerson was an educator and Methodist minister. He is known as the father of Ontarios public school system, howard Hillen Kerr was given control of nine Ontario Training and Re-establishment centres to accomplish this. His vision of what these institutions would do was broader than what others were suggesting, in 1943, he visited the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was convinced Canada could develop its own MIT over one hundred years. Along the way, such an institution could respond to the societys needs, when the Province approved the idea of technical institutes in 1946, it proposed to found several. It turned out all but one would be special purpose schools, only the Toronto retraining centre, which became the Ryerson Institute of Technology in 1948, would become a multi-program campus, Kerr’s future MIT of Canada. This vision is reflected in Ryersons Motto and its mission statement, the Toronto Training and Re-establishment Institute was created in 1945 on the former site of the Toronto Normal School at St James Square, bounded by Gerrard, Church and Gould.
The Gothic-Romanesque building was designed by architects Thomas Ridout and Frederick William Cumberland in 1852, the site had been used as a Royal Canadian Air Force training facility during World War II. The institute was a joint venture of the federal and provincial government to train ex-servicemen and women for re-entry into civilian life, the Ryerson Institute of Technology was founded in 1948, inheriting the staff and facilities of the Toronto Training and Re-establishment Institute. In 1966, it became the Ryerson Polytechnical Institute and that year, it became a member of the Council of Ontario Universities. In 1992, Ryerson became Toronto’s second school of engineering to receive accreditation from the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board, the following year, Ryerson formally became a University, via an Act of the Ontario Legislature. In 1993, Ryerson received approval to grant graduate degrees
Norges Bank / Noregs Bank is the central bank of Norway. The limited transparency of some SWFs makes it difficult to make assessments of their assets under management. On 31 December 2010, the bank had 590 employees, all Executive Board appointments are made by the King of Norway, after a decision by the Council of State. The Chairman of the Executive Board, Øystein Olsen, who presides over the Bank, is the acting Central Bank Governor, both the Governor and the Deputy Governor make speaking appearances across the country on a number of occasions each year. The bank decided that the unit was to be the speciedaler. The Money Act of 17 April 1875 discontinued the terms daler and skilling and this was done to prepare for Norways entry, on 16 October that year, into the Scandinavian Monetary Union. This union had established between Denmark and Sweden in 1873 on the recommendation of a joint commission to establish a common Scandinavian coin based on gold. It meant that the other coins were to be legal tender on the same basis as those struck at home.
The union functioned until 1914, thereafter it lacked all practical significance, during the second world war, the seat of Norges Bank was temporarily moved to London in 1940, in that the Norwegian government-in-exile established a new board. The banks gold reserves were evacuated via Åndalsnes and Tromsø to London and this gold and the banks other currency reserves were under the control of the London board. At the same time, the bank continued its operations in Norway under the direction of the Nazis until the war was over, a commission of inquiry after the war concluded that the Banks Oslo management had taken a firm and correct attitude towards the Nazi authorities. In 1962, the Mint Supervisory Authority and the Royal Mint were transferred from the state to Norges Bank, NBIM is a separate part of Norges Bank and is responsible for the operational management of the Government Pension Fund - Global. NBIM manages Norges Banks foreign exchange reserves, NBIM invests the funds assets and the foreign exchange reserves in international equities and fixed income instruments, money market instruments and derivatives.
Karl Gether Bomhoff Nicolai Rygg Arnold C
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. It is both a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, and an attempt to rekindle something of the brilliance that this center of study. The notion of recreating the ancient library was adopted by other individuals, an architectural design competition was organized by UNESCO in 1988 to choose a design worthy of the site and its heritage. The competition was won by Snøhetta, a Norwegian architectural office, the first pledges were made for funding the project at a conference held in 1990 in Aswan, USD $65 million, mostly from the Arab states. Construction work began in 1995 and, after some USD $220 million had been spent, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina is trilingual, containing books in Arabic and French. In 2010, the received a donation of 500,000 books from the National Library of France. The gift makes the Bibliotheca Alexandrina the sixth-largest Francophone library in the world, the BA is now the largest depository of French books in the Arab world, surpassing those of Tunisia and Morocco, in addition to being the main French library in Africa.
The dimensions of the project are vast, the library has space for eight million books. The librarys architecture is equally striking, the main reading room stands beneath a 32-meter-high glass-panelled roof, tilted out toward the sea like a sundial, and measuring some 160 m in diameter. The walls are of gray Aswan granite, carved with characters from 120 different human scripts, the collections at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina were donated from all over the world. The Spanish donated documents that detailed their period of Moorish rule, the French donated, giving the library documents dealing with the building of the Suez Canal. The BA/IA partnership is built with the aims to preserve heritage for future generations, the BA maintains the only mirror and external backup of the Internet Archive. The Taha Hussein Library contains materials for the blind and visually impaired using special software that makes it possible for readers to read books and journals. It is named after Taha Hussein, the Egyptian professor of Arabic and literary critic and one of the figures of the Arab Renaissance in literature.
Contains book collections of Nobel Prize Laureates in Literature from 1901 to present, the Nobel Section was inaugurated by Queen Silvia of Sweden and Queen Sonja of Norway on 24 April 2002. Nobel Section Established in 2001, the BA Antiquities Museum is the first archeological museum to be situated within a library, the primary aims of the museum are to promote research and cultural awareness. The collection includes underwater antiquities from the Mediterranean seabed near the Eastern Harbour, the museum provides descriptions of artifacts in three languages, English and French. The Manuscript Museum provides visitors and researchers with rare manuscripts and books, Established in 2001, the Manuscript Museum contains the worlds largest collection of digital manuscripts
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction. Design has different connotations in different fields, in some cases, the direct construction of an object is considered to use design thinking. Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, economic, and it may involve considerable research, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, corporate identities, business processes, and even methods or processes of designing. Thus design may be a substantive referring to an abstraction of a created thing or things. It is an act of creativity and innovation, here, a specification can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and primitives are the elements from which the design object is composed. With such a broad denotation, there is no language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines.
This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject, the person designing is called a designer, which is a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas usually specifying which area is being dealt with. A designers sequence of activities is called a process while the scientific study of design is called design science. Another definition of design is planning to manufacture an object, thus the word design can be used as a noun or a verb. In a broader sense, the design is an applied art, while the definition of design is fairly broad, design has a myriad of specifications that professionals utilize in their fields. Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, the prevailing view has been called The Rational Model, Technical Problem Solving and The Reason-Centric Perspective. The alternative view has been called Reflection-in-Action, Evolutionary Design, co-evolution, the Rational Model was independently developed by Herbert A.
Simon, an American scientist, and Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists. The Rational Model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the waterfall model, systems development life cycle, according to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the process, each stage has many associated best practices. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, the Action-Centric Perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to The Rational Model. Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers, like the Rational Model, the Action-Centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. Designers context-dependent experience and professional judgment take center stage more than technical rationality, at least two views of design activity are consistent with the Action-Centric Perspective