A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. A bass drum is cylindrical with the drum's diameter much greater than the drum's depth. There is a struck head at both ends of the cylinder; the heads may be made of calf plastic. There is a means of adjusting the tension either by threaded taps or by strings. Bass drums are built in a variety of sizes, but size has little to do with the volume produced by the drum; the size chosen being based on convenience and aesthetics. Bass drums are used in several musical genres. Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished; the type seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum. It is the largest drum of the orchestra; the kick drum. It is struck with a beater attached to a pedal seen on drum kits; the pitched bass drum used in marching bands and drum corps, is tuned to a specific pitch and is played in a set of three to six drums. In many forms of music, the bass drum is used to keep time.
The bass drum makes a low, boom sound. In marches it is used to project tempo. A basic beat for rock and roll has the bass drum played on the first and third beats of a bars of common time, with the snare drum on the second and fourth beats, called back beats. In jazz, the bass drum can vary from entirely being a timekeeping medium to being a melodic voice in conjunction with the other parts of the set. Bass drums have many synonyms and translations, such as gran cassa, grosse caisse, Grosse Trommel, bombo; the earliest known predecessor to the bass drum was the Turkish davul, a cylindrical drum that featured two thin heads. The heads were stretched over hoops and attached to a narrow shell. To play this instrument, a person would strike the right side of the davul with a large wooden stick, while the left side would be struck with a rod; when struck, the davul produced a sound much deeper than that of the other drums in existence. Because of this unique tone, davuls were used extensively in war and combat, where a deep and percussive sound was needed to ensure that the forces were marching in proper step with one another.
The military bands of the Ottoman Janissaries in the 18th century were one of the first groups to utilize davuls in their music. Davuls were ideal for use as military instruments because of the unique way in which they could be carried; the Ottoman janissaries, for example, hung their davuls at their breasts with thick straps. This made it easier for the soldiers to carry their instruments from battle to battle; this practice does not seem to be limited to just the Ottoman Empire, however. The davul, was used extensively in non-military music. For example, davuls were a major aspect of Turkish folk dances. In Ottoman society and shawm players would perform together in groups called davul-zurnas, or drum and shawm circles. Long drumsAt its peak, the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Caucuses down to northern Africa and parts of the middle east; this long reach meant that many aspects of Ottoman culture, including the davul and other janissary instruments, were introduced to other parts of the world.
In Africa, the indigenous population took the basic idea of the davul – that is, a two-headed cylindrical drum that produces a deep sound when struck – and both increased the size of the drum and changed the material from which it was made, leading to the development of the long drum. The long drum can be made a variety of different ways but is most constructed from a hollowed out tree trunk; this is vastly different from the davul, made from a thick shell. Long drums were 2 meters in length and 50 centimetres in diameter, much larger than the Turkish drums on which they were based; the indigenous population believed that the tree from which the long drum was made had to be in perfect shape. Once an appropriate tree was selected and the basic frame for the long drum was constructed, the Africans took cow hides and soaked them in boiling hot water, in order to stretch them out. Although the long drum was an improvement on the davul, both drums were played in a similar fashion. Two distinct sticks were used on the two distinct sides of the drum itself.
A notable difference between the two is that long drums, unlike davuls, were used for religious purposes. Gong drumsAs the use of the long drum began to spread across Europe, many composers and musicians started looking for deeper tones that could be used in compositions; as a result of this demand, a narrow-shelled, single-headed drum called the gong drum was introduced in Britain during the 19th century. This drum, 70-100 centimetres in diameter and deep-shelled, was similar to the long drum in both size and construction; when struck, the gong drum produced a deep sound with a rich resonance. However, the immense size of the drum, coupled with the fact that there was not a second head to help balance the sound, meant that gong drums tended to produce a sound with a definite pitch; as a result, they fell out of favour with many composers, as it became nearly impossible to incorporate them in an orchestra in any meaningful way. Orchestral bass drums and drum kitsB
Jermaine Dupri Mauldin is an American rapper, record producer and record executive. He was raised in Atlanta, he has worked with and produced for Kris Kross, Mariah Carey, Jay-Z, Monica, Migos, Da Brat, Janet Jackson, TLC, Aretha Franklin, Alicia Keys, Bow Wow. Jermaine Dupri Mauldin was born on September 23, 1972, son of Tina and Michael Mauldin, a Columbia Records executive. Dupri's promising musical career began before he was ten years old, his father an Atlanta talent manager, had coordinated a Diana Ross show in 1982. Dupri got his start as a dancer for the hip hop group Whodini, he made an appearance in their music video for the song "Freaks Come Out At Night". He began performing around the country, appearing with Herbie Hancock and Cameo before he opened the New York Fresh Festival, with Run-D. M. C. Whodini, Grandmaster Flash. In 1990, he produced the female hip hop trio Silk Tymes Leather, he formed the teen duo Kris Kross after meeting the boys at a local mall in 1991. The group's first album, Totally Krossed Out, was released in 1992 and went multi-platinum due to their singles "Jump" and "Warm It Up", both written and produced by Dupri.
He established his own record label called So So Def in 1993. Shortly after, he discovered female R&B group Xscape at a festival in Atlanta and signed them to the label, their debut album, produced by Dupri, Hummin' Comin' at'Cha, went platinum with the support of the singles "Understanding", "Love on My Mind", "Tonight" and "Just Kickin' It", with the peaking at number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100. During the same year, on Yo! MTV Raps he met Da Brat through Kris Kross, signed her to his label So So Def Recordings, released her debut Funkdafied which went platinum. So So Def Recordings entered into a distribution partnership with Columbia Records in 1993. In 1995, he collaborated with Mariah Carey for the first time on the number one hit single "Always Be My Baby." He contributed to Lil' Kim's 1996 album, Hard Core on the track "Not Tonight". In 1997, Dupri produced several tracks on Usher's second album, My Way; the lead single, "You Make Me Wanna", reached number-one on the Rhythmic Top 40 and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop chart.
The follow up single "Nice & Slow" went to number-one on the Billboard 100 and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop chart, the last single, "My Way" peaked at number-two on Billboard 100. All three singles have been certified Platinum by Recording Industry Association of America. A featured guest on the album, would later become a protegé of Dupri, with her sophomore album, The Boy Is Mine, dropping in July of that year. Dupri produced the single of the album "The First Night", which peaked atop the U. S. Billboard charts, with the album receiving the triple platinum certification and universal acclaim. In 1998, Jermaine Dupri was involved in the release of Destiny's Child's eponymous debut album. Dupri renewed the focus on his own music career, which proved successful with release of the singles "Sweetheart" featuring Mariah Carey, "The Party Continues" featuring Da Brat and Usher, "Money Ain't a Thang" featuring Jay-Z, the lead singles from his debut studio album Life In 1472; that year he met soon-to-be frequent collaborator and production partner Bryan-Michael Cox, as well as 11-year old rapper, known as Lil' Bow Wow and signed him to So So Def Recordings.
The two would part ways after only 2 albums, but continued to collaborate on projects. The deal with Columbia was terminated in 2003 Dupri switched to Arista Records. Dupri worked on Tamar Braxton's debut album, Tamar on the track "Get None" as well as with Weezer and Lil Wayne on the song "Can't Stop Partying." He collaborated with DJ Chuckie to make a vocal version of the song "Let The Bass Kick". He soon released his sophomore studio album Instructions in October 2001. In 2004 Dupri connected again with Usher contributing to Confessions co-writing and co-producing three consecutive singles Billboard Hot 100 number one songs "Burn", "Confessions Part II", "My Boo". Confessions won Best Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals. Confessions has been certified diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America and, as of 2012, has sold 10 million copies in the US and over 20 million copies worldwide. Dupri in early 2005 worked with Mariah Carey on her The Emancipation Of Mimi with the smash hit "We Belong Together".
It stayed at number one for fourteen non-consecutive weeks, becoming the second longest running number one song in US chart history, behind Carey's 1996 collaboration with Boyz II Men on "One Sweet Day". We Belong Together" won Grammy's for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance and Best R&B Song; the same year he worked on Wanted with Bow Wow, he co-produced and co-wrote "Let Me Hold You". In December, Dupri produced and co-wrote Nelly's single "Grillz", which struck atop the Billboard charts yet again. In early 2006, Dupri signed both Dem Franchize Boyz and Daz Dillinger to his label So So Def after transferring it from Arista Records to Virgin Records; the latter's album, So So Gangsta, was released in September of that year, while the former's label debut was released the following year with the album On Top of Our Game which topped the US Top Rap Albums with the hit songs "I Think They Like Me" and "Lean wit It, Rock wit It." The group featured alongside Dupri on Monica's snap single, "Everytime tha Beat Drop" off her fifth album, The Makings of Me.
In late 2006, Dupri
Snapping one's fingers is the act of creating a snapping or clicking sound with one's fingers. This is done by building tension between the thumb and another finger and moving the other finger forcefully downward so it hits the palm of the same hand at a high speed. In Ancient Greece snapping of fingers was used by musicians and dancers as a way to keep the rhythm and it was known with the words "ἀποληκέω", "ἀποκρότημα" and "ἐπίπταισμα". Finger snapping is still common in modern Greece. Finger snapping may be used as a substitute for hand clapping; the University of Michigan Men's Glee Club has a long tradition of doing this. The club's history states, "The reason behind this is you can't clap and hold a beer! Another possible reason is that snapping is less disruptive than clapping during speeches and announcements." Finger snapping at poetry readings has become traditional. Snapping one's fingers abruptly and repetitively in conjunction with one or more spoken exclamations, is employed in getting someone else's attention.
In many cultures, finger snapping is a form of body percussion. Sounds of a fingersnap are sampled and used in many disparate genres of music, used as percussion. Beshkan known as the "Persian snap", is a traditional Iranian finger snap requiring both hands; the snapper creates a crackling/clicking noise similar in mechanism to the normal snap but louder in practice. There are two variations of the Persian snap; the most common of the two for a right-handed individual is as follows: Place hands together and rotate until the three right hand fingers are at the junction of the hand and fingers. Rest the right middle finger on the left hand securely. Using the tension provided by the left thumb, snap the right index finger onto the gap between the junction and right middle finger; the Persian hand snap found its way to the UK through the dexterous hands of British soldier Samuel Taylor, of Leeds, who had learnt the snap whilst stationed abroad and brought it back to England, where it became a craze amongst school children.
In some parts of Yorkshire it is referred to as a Taylor Snap
Stayve Jerome Thomas, better known by his stage name Slim Thug, is an American rapper. He gained mainstream attention for his contribution to the hit single by rapper Mike Jones, "Still Tippin'". Stayve Thomas is engaged to Leslie Harden. Slim Thug grew up in Houston's Northside neighborhood of Homestead/Scenic Woods. Slim says that his rap name came from the fact that as a teenager, he was tall and lanky before he filled out, he stands 6'6" tall. The Thug part comes from people's assumptions of him due to his sunglasses. At age 17, he performed freestyle raps at local high school parties, he began his rap career with Swishahouse in the late 1990s. After realizing how much money he could make distributing his own mixtapes, he parted ways with Swishahouse on good terms and formed his own independent label, Boss Hogg Outlawz. Thomas worked in real estate. Slim Thug's big debut album with Star Trak Entertainment & Interscope Records, Already Platinum, was released in July 2005 after many delays, it sold 130,000 copies in its first week.
Singles included "3 Kings", "I Ain't Heard of That". Slim Thug appeared on Still Tippin' with Mike Jones and Paul Wall, Beyoncé Knowles's #1 single "Check on It" and Gwen Stefani's "Luxurious". With the Boss Hogg Outlawz, Slim Thug released three albums, Boyz N Blue, Serve & Collect and Back by Blockular Demand: Serve & Collect II, he left Star Trak & Interscope Records in 2008. Slim Thug's second solo album Boss of All Bosses was released in 2009. Although not as successful as his debut album, Boss of All Bosses debuted at #15 on the Billboard 200 with 32,000 copies sold in the first week released, it included the single "I Run". Slim Thug's third studio album Tha Thug Show, his first single was "Gangsta". His second single featured rapper/singer B.o. B entitled "So High", it was released November 30, 2010. On April 23, 2013 he released a new EP titled Welcome to Texas EP featuring guest appearances from Rick Ross, Pimp C and Ludacris among others. In October 2009 he appeared on The Daily Show, in a parody discussing the effects of the recession upon wealthy rappers such as himself.
The skit was filmed in part at The Lion's Den Recordings in Texas. According to MTV News, Lupe Fiasco's video for "Hip Hop Saved My Life" was based on Slim Thug's life story. "It is based on Slim Thug," Fiasco revealed. On June 7, 2010, Vibe released controversial statements Slim Thug had made regarding treatment of black men by black and white women saying "it’s hard to find so Black women have to bow down and let it be known that they gotta start working hard. White women treat they man like a king." The article elicited varied reactions from online commentators. Cultural critic and Columbia University professor Marc Lamont Hill and singers Aubrey O'Day, D. Woods, Talib Kweli have all responded publicly to his comments. Platinum Boss of All Bosses Tha Thug Show Boss Life Hogg Life: The Beginning Hogg Life, Vol. 2: Still Surviving Hogg Life, Vol. 3: Hustler of the Year Hogg Life, Vol. 4: American King Welcome 2 Houston The World Is Yours Suga Daddy Slim: On tha Prowl MTV Video Music Awards Slim Thug on IMDb Slim Thug on Twitter
Sampler (musical instrument)
A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument similar in some respects to a synthesizer, but instead of generating new sounds with voltage-controlled oscillators, it uses sound recordings of real instrument sounds, excerpts from recorded songs or other sounds. The samples are recorded by the user or by a manufacturer; these sounds are played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device to perform or compose music. Because these samples are stored in digital memory, the information can be accessed. A single sample may be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords. Samplers offer filters, effects units, modulation via low frequency oscillation and other synthesizer-like processes that allow the original sound to be modified in many different ways. Most samplers have Multitimbrality capabilities – they can play back different sounds simultaneously. Many are polyphonic – they are able to play more than one note at the same time.
Prior to computer memory-based samplers, musicians used tape replay keyboards, which store recordings on analog tape. When a key is pressed the tape head plays a sound; the Mellotron was the most notable model, used by a number of groups in the late 1960s and the 1970s, but such systems were expensive and heavy due to the multiple tape mechanisms involved, the range of the instrument was limited to three octaves at the most. To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument; the emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical. The earliest digital sampling was done on the EMS Musys system, developed by Peter Grogono, David Cockerell and Peter Zinovieff at their London Studio c. 1969. The system ran on Digital Equipment PDP-8's; these had a pair of fast D/A and A/D converters, 12,000 bytes of core memory, backed up by a hard drive of 32k and by tape storage. EMS equipment was used to control the world's first digital studio, their earliest digital sampling was done on that system during 1971-1972 for Harrison Birtwistle's "Chronometer" released in 1975.
The first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell, while the first polyphonic digital sampling synthesizer was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMI, first available in 1979. These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable sample-based synthesis. Since the 1980s, samplers have been using pulse-code modulation for digital sampling; the first PCM digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic. The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM; the LMD-649 was used by other Japanese synthpop artists in the early 1980s, including Chiemi Manabe and Logic System. The E-mu SP-1200 percussion sampler, upon its release in August 1987, popularized the use of digital samplers within hip hop music in the late 1980s.
Akai pioneered many processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa. The Akai MPC60, released in 1988, went on to become the most influential sampler in hip hop music. During the 1980s, hybrid synthesizers began to utilize short samples along with digital synthesis to create more realistic imitations of instruments than had been possible. Examples are the Korg M1, Roland U-110, Yamaha's SY series, the Kawai K series of instruments. Limiting factors at the time were the cost of physical memory and the limitations of external data storage devices, this approach made best use of the tiny amount of memory available to the design engineers; the 2010s-era music workstation uses sampling, whether simple playback or complex editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, includes features such as a sequencer. Samplers, together with traditional Foley artists, are the mainstay of modern sound effects production.
Using digital techniques various effects can be pitch-shifted and otherwise altered in ways that would have required many hours when done with tape. A sampler is controlled by an attached music keyboard or other external MIDI controller or source; each note-message received by the sampler accesses a particular sample. Multiple samples are arranged across the keyboard, each assigned to a note or group of notes. Keyboard tracking allows samples to be shifted in pitch by an appropriate amount in semitones and tones; each group of notes to which a single sample has been assigned is called a "keyzone", the resultant set of zones is called a keymap. For example, in Fig 1, a keymap has been created with four different samples; each sample, if pitched, should be associated with a particular center pitch. The first sample is distributed across three different notes, G2, G#2, A2. If the note G#2 is received the sampler will play back the Violin G#2 sample at its original pitch. If the note received is G2 the sampler will shift the sample down a semitone while the note A2 will play it back a semitone tone higher.
If the next note is input the sampler will select the Violin B2 sample, playing it a semitone lower than its center pitch of B2. In gene
DeAndre Cortez Way, known professionally as Soulja Boy Tell'Em, or Soulja Boy, is an American rapper, record producer and entrepreneur. In September 2007, his debut single "Crank That" peaked at number one on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100; the single was self-published to the internet, became a number-one hit in the United States for seven non-consecutive weeks starting in September 2007. On August 17, Way was listed at number 18 on the Forbes list of Hip-Hop Cash Kings of 2010 for earning $7 million for that year. Way was born in Chicago and moved to Atlanta at the age of six, where he became interested in rap music. At age 14, he moved to Batesville, with his father who provided a recording studio for Way to explore his musical ambitions. In November 2005, Way posted his songs on the website SoundClick. Following positive reviews on the site, he established accounts on Myspace. In March 2007, he recorded "Crank That" and released his first independent album Unsigned & Still Major: Da Album Before da Album, followed by a low-budget video demonstrating the "Crank That" dance.
By the end of May 2007, "Crank That" had received its first airplay and Way met with Mr. Collipark to sign a deal with Interscope Records. On August 12, 2007, "Crank That" was used on the television series Entourage, on September 1 it topped the US Billboard Hot 100 and Hot RingMasters charts. Way's major label debut album, Souljaboytellem.com, was released in the United States on October 2, peaking at number four on both the Billboard 200 and Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts. The album was recorded using just the demo version of FL Studio. For the 50th Grammy Awards, Way was nominated for Best Rap Song with "Crank That", but lost to Kanye West and T-Pain's "Good Life". Souljaboytellem.com received a favorable review from Allmusic, but received negative reviews from other sources such as Entertainment Weekly. Several reviewers credited Soulja Boy with spearheading a new trend in hip-hop, while speculating he would be a one-hit wonder; the follow-up to souljaboytellem.com, iSouljaBoyTellem, was released on December 16, 2008 to negative critical reception.
The first single from the album, "Bird Walk", peaked at number 40 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart and the top 20 on the Hot Rap Tracks chart. It was performed on YouTube Live on November 2008, with an introduction from MC Hammer. "Kiss Me Thru the Phone", with Sammie, peaking at number three on the Hot 100 and number one on the Hot Rap Tracks charts. Chris Brown was Way's first choice to sing the hook, but had respectfully turned down the offer. Way tried to do it on his own with Auto-Tune but he found it unacceptable, it sold over 2,000,000 digital copies in the United States, becoming his second song to reach the two million mark in downloads. On January 26, 2009, Way released the third single "Turn My Swag On", it topped the US Rap Charts and peaked at number 19 on the Billboard Hot 100. As of August 23, 2009 it has sold more than 1,000,000 digital downloads in the United States. Way stated that his third studio album, The DeAndre Way, was intended to be his most personal and successful album thus far.
When speaking on possible collaborations, he stated that he wished to work with artists such as Jay-Z, Lil Wayne, Kanye West and Eminem. The lead single from the album, "POW", was released in January 2009 but failed to garner success and was dubbed a promo single. On October 30, 2009, Way released three mixtapes: Dat Piff and Cortez, it was announced on February 18, 2010, that the first single from the album was going to be "All Black Everything" but the single was cancelled and the track was put on another promotional mixtape, Legendary. The album's title was changed to Dre in an early 2010 commercial with a video snippet for "Do It Big" as the first single but this was cancelled as well; the album title was reverted to The DeAndre Way in July 2010. On June 8, 2010, the official lead single from the album was "Pretty Boy Swag"; the single reached number 34 on the Billboard Hot 100, number six on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart and number five on the Rap Songs chart. The album's second single was due to be "Digital", instead used on his promotional mixtape Best Rapper.
It was announced that "Speakers Going Hammer" was going to be the second single, but "Blowing Me Kisses" was released on August 31, 2010, as the second single instead. On October 13 Way performed "Pretty Boy Swag" and a snippet of his third single "Speakers Going Hammer". On October 19, 2010, Way released "Speakers Going Hammer" on iTunes with the single peaking at number 48 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip Hop Songs. Way backed-out of the Summerbeatz tour in Australia in November 2010, where he was to have performed alongside Flo Rida, Jay Sean and Travie McCoy, in order to embark on his "Who They Want" tour in support of his upcoming album; the DeAndre Way was released on November 30, 2010, has so far only sold 70,000 copies, making it Way's lowest-selling album. In 2011, Way released a series of mixtapes; the first, on January 22, was titled Smooky and had cartoon cover art of Way doing a 360 on a bicycle. On March 17, Way released the mixtape 1UP which had cover art based on the Naruto anime, with Way stating: "If I was in a video game, this mixtape would advance me to the next level with an extra life.
Power up with the new offering." On April 20, Way released his mixtape Juice with cover art based on the film of the same name. Way stated he would release a mini-movie of his own to go along with the mixtape, that he was headed to greatness with the mixtape. On July 15, Way released his EP mixtape titled Bernaurd Arnault EP. On August 1, Way rel
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of