Concetta Kirschner, better known as Princess Superstar, is an American rapper and DJ. She has had two chart hits in the U. K. Bad Babysitter, #11 on the U. K. Charts in 2002, Perfect Exceeder, #3 on the U. K. charts in 2007. She has recorded with Moby, The Prodigy, Arthur Baker, Prince Paul, Grandmaster Flash, amongst others, her musical style, as she describes it, is "flip-flop"—a mixture of hip hop and electronic. In summer 2014 she debuted her reality television show "I Love Princess Superstar" on her YouTube channel. In 2018 she will release a children's record called "These Are The Magic Days." Kirschner was born in Spanish Harlem, New York City, New York to a Jewish father with ancestry from Russia and Poland, a Sicilian-American mother who converted to Judaism. Kirschner identifies herself as a spiritual Jew, her parents were psychologists. When Kirschner was a child, the family moved to rural Pennsylvania and to the suburbs of Philadelphia, she attended school at the Germantown Academy, a private high school, where she was a member of the Theatre Club and the Black Student Union.
She went to NYU, where she got her BFA in drama. She is an active member of Superstar Machine, was a member of Mensa. In New York City she took up the guitar, her interest in music surpassed her interest in acting, she joined the Gamma Rays, an all-girl power psychedelic band that recorded a 7" single called "Lovely" for TeenBeat Records. Their other recordings appeared on various compilations. Around the same time, Kirschner was composing hip hop-styled songs on a 4-track recorder. In 1994, Kirschner made a demo tape called, Mitch Better Get My Bunny, under the name "Princess Superstar", she sent the tape to the Beastie Boys' Grand Royal Records. While she got callbacks from CMJ and Grand Royal, she went on to sign with Dark Beloved Cloud Records, who released her song "I'm White" on their Sympathy for Count Pococurante compilation. In 1995, she signed with 5th Beetle Records, they recorded her debut album, Strictly Platinum, which gained her some notoriety as being one of few white female rappers.
In 1997, Kirschner went on to launch her own record label, first calling it "A Big Rich Major Label", but eventually settling on "Corrupt Conglomerate". She recruited a new crew of backing musicians and recorded CEO, a concept album about corporate culture, her next album, 2000's Last of the Great 20th Century Composers, was co-produced by Curtis Curtis and contains the song "Kool Keith's Ass", a remix of "Do It Like a Robot" by Blues Explosion. Kirschner went on to collaborate with Kool Keith on "Keith and Me" for the 2001 Princess Superstar Is LP released on Ruthless Records/Studio! K7; the album, co-produced Curtis Curtis, has guest appearances by Beth Bahamadia. The single "Bad Babysitter" was #11 on the UK charts. For 2005's My Machine a futuristic hip-hopera concept double album, she collaborated with various producers such as Arthur Baker, Jacques Lu Cont, Junior Sanchez, Armand Van Helden, Todd Terry, DJ Mighty Mi; this went to #3 on the UK charts in 2007. In 2008, Kirschner sang on the "Licky" single by long-time associate Larry Tee, featured in Get Him to the Greek and other movies and TV shows.
In 2009, Kirschner was featured on Grandmaster Flash's record The Bridge, alongside Snoop Dogg and Busta Rhymes. Kirschner produced New York rapper Kalae All Day's debut album, released March 17, 2010. In 2011, Kirschner released. Princess Superstar released her sixth studio album The New Evolution in 2013; the album was funded by Superstar's fans. In 2014, Princess Superstar began her Hip Hop For Kids classes at Rough Trade in Brooklyn, she released the "I'm A Firecracker" EP in July with label Instant Records. That summer she launched the "I Love Princess Superstar" reality show on her YouTube channel, she wrote the song "My Booty is Effiicient" with comedian Margaret Cho. In 2015, she appeared with Margaret Cho on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert. In 2016, she appeared on The Inside Amy Schumer show on Comedy Central. In 2017, she recorded a children's album called "These are the Magic Days" with producers Nacey, Steve Starks, C. Fire and engineered and mastered by Curtis Curtis Kirschner is a DJ.
She has released DJ recordings, such as Princess Is a DJ in 2002, Now Is the Winter of Our Discothèque in 2005, American Gigolo III on International DeeJay Gigolo Records in 2007. Platinum CEO Last of the Great 20th Century Composers Princess Superstar Is My Machine The Best of Princess Superstar The New Evolution I'm A Firecracker 1994 "Mitch Better Get My Bunny" 1999 "Come Up to My Room" 1999 "I Hope I Sell a Lot of Records at Christmastime" 2001 "Wet! Wet! Wet!/Keith n' Me" 2002 "Bad Babysitter" 2002 "Keith N' Me" 2002 "Fuck Me on the Dancefloor" 2003 "Do It Like a Robot" 2003 "Jam for the Ladies 2004 "Memphis Bells" 2005 "Coochie Coo" 2005 "Perfect" 2005 "My Machine" 2007 "Perfect" 2008 "Licky" 2009 "Life Is But a Dream" 2010 "Ground Control" 2011 "Xmas Swagger" 2014 "I'm a Firecracker" 1996 "Smooth" 2002 "Bad Babysitter" 2002 "Keith n' Me" 20
Hartlepool is a town in County Durham, England. The town lies on the North Sea coast, 7 1⁄2 miles north of Middlesbrough and 17 miles south of Sunderland; the town is governed as part of the Borough of Hartlepool, a unitary authority which controls outlying villages such as Seaton Carew and Elwick. Hartlepool was founded around the monastery of Hartlepool Abbey; the village grew in the Middle Ages and its harbour served as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham. After a railway link from the north was established from the South Durham coal fields, an additional link from the south, in 1835, together with a new port, resulted in further expansion, with the new town of West Hartlepool. Industrialisation and the start of a shipbuilding industry in the part of the 19th century caused Hartlepool to be a target for the Imperial German Navy at the beginning of the First World War. A bombardment of 1,150 shells on 16 December 1914 resulted in the death of 117 people. A severe decline in heavy industries and shipbuilding following the Second World War caused periods of high unemployment until the 1990s when major investment projects and the redevelopment of the docks area into a marina saw a rise in the town's prospects.
The place name derives from Old English heort, referring to stags seen, pōl, a pool of drinking water which they were known to use. Records of the place-name from early sources confirm this: 649: Hereteu. 1017: Herterpol, or Hertelpolle. 1182: Hierdepol. The 8th Century Northumbrian chronicler Bede referred to the spot on which today's town is sited upon as "the place where deer come to drink", in this period the Headland was named by the Angles as Heruteu. At the beginning of the 11th Century the name had evolved into Herterpol, post Norman Conquest the name of the village sited there evolved in Middle English as: Hart-le-pool. Archaeological evidence has been found below the current high tide mark that indicates that an ancient post-glacial forest by the sea existed in the area during this period. Hartlepool is located in north of Middlesbrough and south of Sunderland. Nearby towns and cities include: Billingham: Darlington; the monument at Eston Nab can be seen, to the south. After the Roman Empire abandoned its province of Britannia in the early 5th Century, its North-Eastern sea coast began to be piratically raided by the Angles from across the North Sea in Scandinavia.
They subsequently began crossing the North Sea and settled in the area, creating the Kingdom of Northumbria. Hartlepool began as an Anglian settlement, a town developed in the 7th Century A. D. sited around Hartlepool Abbey, founded in 640 A. D. by the Irish Christian priest Saint Aidan upon a headland overlooking a natural harbour and the North Sea. The monastery became powerful under St Hilda, who served as its abbess from 649–657 A. D; the Abbey fell into decline with the loss of Northumbrian power in the early 8th Century, it was destroyed during a sea raid by Vikings on Hartlepool in the 9th Century. In March 2000, the archaeological investigation television programme Time Team located the foundations of the lost monastery in the grounds of St Hilda's Church. During the Norman Conquest the De Brus family gained over-lordship of the land surrounding Hartlepool. William the Conqueror subsequently ordered the construction of Durham Castle, the villages under their rule were mentioned in records in 1153 when Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale became Lord of Hartness.
The town's first charter was received before 1185, for which it gained its first mayor, an annual two-week fair and a weekly market. By the Middle Ages Hartlepool was growing into an important market town, one of the reasons for its escalating wealth being that its harbour was serving now as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham; the main industry of the town at this time was fishing, Hartlepool in this period established itself as one of the primary ports upon England's Eastern coast. In 1306, Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland, became the last Lord of Hartness. Angered, King Edward I confiscated the title to Hartlepool, began to improve the town's military defences in expectation of war. In 1315, before they were completed, a Scottish army under Sir James Douglas attacked and looted the town. In the late 15th Century a pier was constructed to assist in the harbour's workload. Hartlepool was once again militarily occupied by a Scottish incursion, this time in alliance with the Parliamentary Army during the English Civil War, which after 18 months was relieved by an English Parliamentarian garrison.
In 1795 Hartlepool artillery emplacements and defences were constructed in the town as a defensive measure against the threat of French attack from seaborne Napoleonic forces. During the Crimean War two coastal batteries were constructed close together in the town to guard against the threat of seaborne attacks from the Imperial Russian Navy, they were entitled the Lighthouse Battery and the Heugh Battery. Hartlepool in the 18th Century became known as a town with medicinal springs the Chalybeate Spa near the Westgate; the poet Thomas Gray visited the town in July 1765 to "take the waters", wrote to his friend Dr. Wharton: A few weeks he wrote in greater detail: By the early nineteenth century, Hartlepool was still a small town of around 900 people, with a de
Trip hop is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom Bristol. It has been described as "a fusion of hip hop and electronica until neither genre is recognizable", may incorporate a variety of styles, including funk, soul, psychedelia, R&B, house, as well as other forms of electronic music. Trip hop can be experimental. Deriving from idioms of acid house, the term was first used by the British music media to describe the more experimental variant of breakbeat emerging from the Bristol Sound scene in the early 1990s, which contained influences of soul and jazz, it was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, has been described as "Europe's alternative choice in the second half of the'90s." Common musical aesthetics include a bass-heavy drumbeat emulating the slowed down breakbeat samples typical of hip hop in the 1990s, giving the genre a more psychedelic feel. Vocals in trip hop are female and feature characteristics of various singing styles including R&B, jazz and rock.
The female-dominant vocals of trip hop may be attributable to the influence of genres such as jazz and early R&B, in which female vocalists were more common. However, there are notable exceptions - Massive Attack and Groove Armada collaborates with male & female vocalists, Tricky features vocally in his own productions along with Martina Topley-Bird, Chris Corner provided vocals for albums with Sneaker Pimps. Trip hop is known for its melancholy sound; this may be due to the fact that several acts were inspired by post-punk bands. Tricky opened his second album Nearly God by a version of "Tattoo", a proto-trip-hop song of Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded in 1983. Trip hop tracks incorporate Rhodes pianos, saxophones and flutes, may employ unconventional instruments such as the theremin and Mellotron. Trip hop differs from hip hop in theme and overall tone. Instead of gangsta rap with its hard-hitting lyrics, trip hop offers a more aural atmospherics with instrumental hip hop, turntable scratching, breakbeat rhythms.
Regarded in some ways as a 1990s update of fusion, trip hop may be said to "transcend" the hardcore rap styles and lyrics with atmospheric overtones to create a more mellow tempo. The term "trip-hop" first appeared in print in June 1994. Andy Pemberton, a music journalist writing for Mixmag, used it to describe Mo' Wax Records Artist RPM and DJ Shadow's "In/Flux" single. In Bristol hip hop began to seep into the consciousness of a subculture well-schooled in Jamaican forms of music. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems. Like the pioneering Bronx crews of DJs Kool Herc, Afrika Bambataa and Grandmaster Flash, the soundsystems provided party music for public spaces in the economically deprived council estates from which some of their members originated. Bristol's soundsystem DJs, drawing on Jamaican dub music used a laid-back and heavy drum beat. Bristol's Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a local spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristol's signature sound of trip hop termed "the Bristol Sound".
The Wild Bunch and its associates included at various times in its existence the MC Adrian "Tricky Kid" Thaws, the graffiti artist and lyricist Robert "3D" Del Naja, producer Jonny Dollar and the DJs Nellee Hooper, Andrew "Mushroom" Vowles and Grant "Daddy G" Marshall. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, the golden era of the soundsystem began to end; the Wild Bunch signed a record deal and evolved into Massive Attack, a core collective of 3D, Mushroom and Daddy G, with significant contributions from Tricky Kid and Hooper on production duties, along with a rotating cast of other vocalists. Another influence came from Gary Clail's Tackhead soundsystem. Clail worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart; the latter experimented with his band Mark Stewart & the Maffia, which consisted of New York session musicians Skip McDonald, Doug Wimbish, Keith LeBlanc, a part of the house band for the Sugarhill Records record label.
Produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hip hop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released "Angel", one of the first examples of the genre crossing over to pop, a hybrid that dominated the charts toward the end of the 1990s. Massive Attack's first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK. Blue Lines was seen as the first major manifestation of a uniquely British hip hop movement, but the album's hit single "Unfinished Sympathy" and several other tracks, while their rhythms were sample-based, were not seen as hip hop songs in any conventional sense. Produced by Dollar, Shara Nelson featured on the orchestral "Unfinished", Jamaican dance hall star Horace Andy provided vocals on several other tracks, as he would throughout Massive Attack's career. Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. Although Tricky stayed on in a lesser role, Hooper again produced, the fertile dance music scene of the early 1990s had informed the record, it was seen as an more significant shift away from the Wild Bunch era.
In the June 1994 issue of UK magazine Mixmag, music journalist Andy Pemberton used the term trip hop to describe the hip hop instru
Marina and the Diamonds
Marina Lambrini Diamandis, known mononymously as Marina and by the stage name Marina and the Diamonds, is a Welsh singer and record producer. Born in Brynmawr and raised in Abergavenny, she moved to London as a teenager to become a professional singer, despite having little formal musical experience. In 2009, Diamandis came to prominence upon placing second in the BBC's Sound of 2010, her debut studio album, The Family Jewels, incorporates new wave musical styles. It entered the UK Albums Chart at number five and was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry; the album's second single, "Hollywood", peaked at number 12 on the UK Singles Chart. Her follow-up record Electra Heart is a concept album about a character of the same name, it integrates elements of electropop, its producers include StarGate, Dr. Luke, Diplo, it became her first number-one project in the UK, where it was certified gold, its lead single "Primadonna" is her highest-charting track in the UK Singles Chart, reaching number 11.
Diamandis describes Electra Heart as "tongue-in-cheek" and considers it to have been better received in the United States, while some British fans disliked the change in musical direction. Diamandis's synthpop-inspired third studio album Froot became her third top-ten album in the UK, her first top-ten entry on the US Billboard 200, where it charted at number 8. Produced by Diamandis and David Kosten, it was praised for its cohesive sound and introspective lyrical content; the album spawned five singles: "Froot", "Happy", "I'm a Ruin", "Forget" and "Blue". Diamandis's fourth studio album Love + Fear is scheduled for release on 26 April 2019, preceded by the singles "Handmade Heaven", "Orange Trees" and "To Be Human". However, on 4 April, Marina released disc one of "Love + Fear", "Love", containing the tracks: "Handmade Heaven", "Superstar", "Orange Trees", "Baby", "Enjoy Your Life", "True", "To be Human", "End Of The Earth". Marina Lambrini Diamandis was born on 10 October 1985 in Brynmawr, grew up near Abergavenny in the village of Pandy.
She has one older sister. Her Welsh mother and Greek father met at Newcastle University and separated when Marina was four years old. Following the separation, her father returned to Greece but would visit, while Diamandis remained in a bungalow in Wales with her mother. In her childhood, Diamandis attended Haberdashers' Monmouth School for Girls, reflecting, "I sort of found my talent there... I was the one who always skived off choir, but I had an incredible music teacher who managed to convince me I could do anything." However, she felt that she "stuck out" by being from a lower-income family than the other girls at the school. At the age of 16, she moved to Greece with her father "to connect with my heritage and learn to speak the language", sang Greek folk songs with her grandmother. Having earned an International Baccalaureate at St. Catherine's British Embassy School in Athens, she returned to Wales two years later, she and her mother moved to Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire. Obsessed with becoming a singer, "almost as if it was a disease", she worked at a petrol station for two months in order to earn money to move to London.
Despite not having a musical background, Diamandis had a childhood love of writing. She first began writing music, she studied music at the University of East London and transferred to a classic composition course in Middlesex University the following year, but after two months she dropped out. Knowing that the Spice Girls were formed by an advertisement in The Stage, Diamandis applied for auditions listed in that newspaper, she travelled for several unsuccessful auditions, including opportunities with the musical for The Lion King and a boy band organised by Virgin Records, during which she managed to leave her CV with an A&R Representative, but was unable to audition at the time of the appointment as she felt sick. In 2005, she created the stage name "Marina and the Diamonds". Inspired by the example of Daniel Johnston, Diamandis decided to compose her own music and stop going to auditions, she self-composed and produced her earlier demos with GarageBand, independently released her debut extended play Mermaid vs. Sailor through Myspace in 2007.
She held discussions with fourteen music labels, rejecting all but one as she believed it was the only one which would not dictate her image. She came to the attention of Neon Gold Records' Derek Davies in 2008, which managed her for six months, was hired as the supporting act for Australian recording artist Gotye. Davies reflected "She just had something that resonated with me. With the quite limited production of her early bedroom demos, she had this powerful yet vulnerable vocal and writing style that didn't sound like anyone else at the time". In October, Diamandis finalised a recording contract with 679 Recordings, a subdivision of Warner Music Group. Diamandis' debut single "Obsessions" was released on 14 February 2009 through Neon Gold Records, while her first extended play The Crown Jewels EP followed on 1 June; that summer, she performed at BBC Radio 1's Big Weekend, the Glastonbury Festival, the Reading and Leeds Festivals. She performed at iTunes Live, releasing a second EP in July 2009 of performances from that festival.
In December 2009, Diamandis
Robots in Disguise
Robots in Disguise were an English electropunk band composed of Dee Plume, Sue Denim and a changing line-up of backing musicians. The group, formed in 2000, released four studio albums, they are no longer together. Plume and Denim formed the band when they were both students at the University of Liverpool, they recorded and released their first EP entitled Mix Up Words and Sounds through Splinter, produced by Chris Corner. The band's eponymous début studio album was released through Recall in 2001, produced by Chris Corner. Robots in Disguise featured the single "Boys"; the cover for "Boys" featured a mimic of Roxy Music's Country Life. Robots in Disguise's second studio album, Get RID! was released in 2005 through Recall and Ben Prime. It featured the singles "Turn It Up" and "The DJ's Got a Gun"; the band's third studio album, We're in the Music Biz, was released through President in 2008, was again produced by Chris Corner. It featured the single "The Sex Has Made Me Stupid", as well as new single "The Tears".
We're in the Music Biz has a deceivingly innocent looking album cover, with the girls appearing to wear shirts and ties when in fact they are topless and the "clothes" are body paint. The band recorded their fourth studio album in London in late 2009, but ran out of money before its completion; the band relied on fan pledges to financially support the project, released the single "Wake Up" on 3 May 2010, which included a remix by Electrosexual & Scream Club. "Wake Up!" was inspired by Barry M cosmetics, who financed a music video-cum-ad featuring "Robot Blue" lipstick and costuming. With 138% of their pledge goal met by fans, the studio album was released on 11 July 2011. Dee and Sue appeared several times in the British Television series The Mighty Boosh as electro band members and goth girls. Dee Plume was dating Boosh co-creator Noel Fielding at that time. Robots In Disguise toured with The Mighty Boosh Live for their 2008–09 tour, performing in the after-shows, they appeared at The Mighty Boosh festival on Saturday 5 July 2008 at the Hop Farm in Kent.
Robots in Disguise Get RID! We're in the Music Biz Happiness V Sadness Robotsindisguise.co.uk, official site Sue And The Unicorn at MySpace, Sue Denim's solo project
Sneakers are shoes designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now widely used for everyday wear. The term describes a type of footwear with a flexible sole made of rubber or synthetic material and an upper part made of leather, synthetic substitutes or cloth; the shoes have gone by a variety of names, depending on geography, changing over the decades. The term "sneakers" is most used in the Northeastern United States, South Florida, North Carolina, parts of Canada and New Zealand; the British English equivalent of "sneaker" in its modern form is "trainer". In some urban areas in the United States, the slang for sneakers is kicks. Other terms include training shoes or trainers, gym boots or joggers, running shoes, runners or gutties, daps in Wales, runners in Hiberno-English, tennis shoes, gym shoes, sports shoes, takkies, rubber shoes or canvas shoes. Plimsolls are "low tech" athletic shoes, are called'sneakers' in American English; the word "sneaker" is attributed to American Henry Nelson McKinney, an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Son.
In 1917, he used the term. The word was in use at least as early as 1887, as The Boston Journal made reference to "sneakers" as "the name boys give to tennis shoes." The name "sneakers" referred to how quiet the rubber soles were on the ground, in contrast to noisy standard hard leather sole dress shoes. Someone wearing sneakers could "sneak up" on someone. Earlier, the name "sneaks" had been used by prison inmates to refer to warders because of the rubber-soled shoes they wore; these shoes acquired the nickname'plimsoll' in the 1870s, derived according to Nicholette Jones' book The Plimsoll Sensation, from the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole, which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship's hull. Alternatively, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet. Plimsolls were worn by vacationers and began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort. Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed, these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army.
Athletic shoes were used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century - plimsolls were found with the ill-fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911. Plimsolls were worn by pupils in schools' physical education lessons in the UK from the 1950s until the early 1970s. British company J. W. Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895; the company sold its high-quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for the British team in the 1924 Summer Olympics. Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100-m and 400-m events, kitted out with Foster's running gear; this style of footwear became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century, where they were called'sneakers'. In 1892, the U. S. Rubber Company introduced the first rubber-soled shoes in the country, sparking a surge in demand and production; the first basketball shoes were designed by Spalding as early as 1907.
The market for sneakers grew after World War I, when sports and athletics became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U. S. market for sneakers grew as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor. During the interwar period, athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports, differentiated designs were made available for men and women. Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics, helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public. In 1936, a French brand, Spring Court, marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole. Adolf "Adi" Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, after his return from World War I, went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers, Adidas, he successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics, which helped cement his good reputation.
Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II. During the 1950s, leisure opportunities expanded, children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales rose so high, they began to adversely affect the sales of conventional leather shoes, leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late'50s. In the 1970s, jogging for exercise became popular, trainers designed for comfort while jogging sold well. Companies started to target some of their products at the casual fashion market. Soon, shoes were available for football, basketball, etc. Many sports had their relevant shoe, made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology. During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their marketing skills. Sports endorsements with famous athletes grew larger, marketing budgets went t