The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to
Snettisham is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. It is located near the west coast of Norfolk, some 5 miles south of the seaside resort of Hunstanton, 9 miles north of the town of King's Lynn and 45 miles north-west of the city of Norwich; the civil parish has an area of 28.03 km2 and in the 2001 census had a population of 2374 in 1097 households. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of King's Lynn and West Norfolk; the Civil Parish population had increased to 2,570 at the 2011 Census. Snettisham RSPB reserve, on the coast of the Wash some 2 miles to the west of Snettisham village, is a nature reserve in the care of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, it consists including a rotary hide. The Snettisham coast around the reserve is said to be "where Norfolk stares at Lincolnshire"; this is because, unlike much of Norfolk's coast where the sea stretches to the horizon, Snettisham looks across the square-mouthed estuary of the Wash at the county of Lincolnshire, only 15 miles away.
The River Ingol runs to the south of the village upon which stands the now unused Snettisham watermill. This is now in the process of being renovated. Though traces of the railway station and railway line can still be seen the service, opened in 1862 was terminated in 1969. St. Mary's Church in the village has a 172-foot high spire. Nikolaus Pevsner called it "perhaps the most exciting decorated church in Norfolk"; the Snettisham Hoard is a series of discoveries of Iron Age precious metal, including nearly 180 gold torques, 75 complete and the rest fragmentary, found in the area between 1948 and 1973. In 1985 there was a find of Romano-British jewellery and raw materials buried in a clay pot in AD 155, the Snettisham Jeweller's Hoard. Although this latter find has no direct connection with the nearby Iron Age finds, it may be evidence of a long tradition of gold- and silver-working in the area. Snettisham has a complex entry in the Domesday Book where it is divided in ownership between William de Warenne and the Bishop of Bayeux.
Related berewicks are West Newton and Castle Rising, moreover Weston Longville is said to be in Snettisham's valuation. The name of the manor is spelt in four different ways, two similar to the present pronunciation, one of Snesham and one of Nestesham. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward had a population of 4,032 at the 2011 Census. Information from Genuki Norfolk on Snettisham. Current events link to Lynn News
Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print. Copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, the incisions are created by etching, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint. Collagraphs may be printed as intaglio plates. In intaglio printing, the lines to be printed are cut into a metal plate by means either of a cutting tool called a burin, held in the hand – in which case the process is called engraving. In etching, for example, the plate is covered in an acid-resistant wax material. Using an etching needle, or a similar tool, the image is engraved into the ground, revealing the plate underneath; the plate is dipped into acid. The acid bites into the surface of the plate. Biting is a printmaking term to describe incising, of the image. After the plate is sufficiently bitten, the plate is removed from the acid bath, the ground is removed to prepare for the next step in printing.
To print an intaglio plate, ink is applied to the surface by wiping and/or dabbing the plate to push the ink into the recessed lines, or grooves. The plate is rubbed with tarlatan cloth to remove most of the excess ink; the final smooth wipe is done with newspaper or old public phone book pages, leaving ink only in the incisions. A damp piece of paper is placed on top of the plate, so that when going through the press the damp paper will be able to be squeezed into the plate's ink-filled grooves; the paper and plate are covered by a thick blanket to ensure pressure when going through the rolling press. The rolling press applies high pressure through the blanket to push the paper into the grooves on the plate; the blanket is lifted, revealing the paper and printed image. Intaglio printmaking emerged in Europe well after the woodcut print, with the earliest known surviving examples being undated designs for playing cards made in Germany, using drypoint technique in the late 1430s. Engraving had been used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork, including armor, musical instruments and religious objects since ancient times, the niello technique, which involved rubbing an alloy into the lines to give a contrasting color goes back to late antiquity.
Scholars and practitioners of printmaking have suggested that the idea of making prints from engraved plates may well have originated with goldsmiths' practices of taking an impression on paper of a design engraved on an object, in order to keep a record of their work, or to check the quality. Martin Schongauer was one of the earliest known artists to exploit the copper-engraving technique, Albrecht Dürer is one of the most famous intaglio artists. Italian and Dutch engraving began after the Germans, but were well developed by 1500. Drypoint and etching were German inventions of the fifteenth century by the Housebook Master and Daniel Hopfer respectively. In the nineteenth century, Viennese printer Karel Klíč introduced a combined intaglio and photographic process. Photogravure retained the smooth continuous tones of photography but was printed using a chemically-etched copper plate; this permitted a photographic image to be printed on regular paper, for inclusion in books or albums. In the 1940s and 1950s the Italian security printer Gualtiero Giori brought intaglio printing into the era of high-technology by developing the first six-colour intaglio printing press, designed to print banknotes which combined more artistic possibilities with greater security.
At one time intaglio printing was used for all mass-printed materials including banknotes, stock certificates, books and magazines, fabrics and sheet music. Today intaglio engraving is used for paper or plastic currency, banknotes and for high-value postage stamps; the appearance of engraving is sometimes mimicked for items such as wedding invitations by producing an embossment around lettering printed by another process to suggest the edges of an engraving plate. Photogravure, an intaglio photo-printmaking process Rotogravure Line engraving Viscosity printing History of printing
Burnishing is the plastic deformation of a surface due to sliding contact with another object. Visually, burnishing makes it shinier. Burnishing may occur on any sliding surface if the contact stress locally exceeds the yield strength of the material; the phenomenon can occur both unintentionally as a failure mode, intentionally as part of a manufacturing process. The action of a hardened ball against a softer, flat plate illustrates the process of burnishing. If the ball is pressed directly into the plate, stresses develop in both objects around the area where they contact; as this normal force increases, both the ball and the plate's surfaces deform. The deformation caused by the hardened ball increases with the magnitude of the force pressing against it. If the force on it is small, when the force is released both the ball and plate's surface will return to their original, undeformed shape. In this case, the stresses in the plate are always less than the yield strength of the material, so the deformation is purely elastic.
Since it was given that the flat plate is softer than the ball, the plate's surface will always deform more. If a larger force is used, there will be plastic deformation and the plate's surface will be permanently altered. A bowl-shaped indentation will be left behind, surrounded by a ring of raised material, displaced by the ball; the stresses between the ball and the plate are described in more detail by Hertzian stress theory. Dragging the ball across the plate will have a different effect than pressing. In this case, the force on the ball can be decomposed into two component forces: one normal to the plate's surface, pressing it in, the other tangential, dragging it along; as the tangential component is increased, the ball will start to slide along the plate. At the same time, the normal force will deform both objects, just as with the static situation. If the normal force is low, the ball will rub against the plate but not permanently alter its surface; the rubbing action will create friction and heat.
However, as the normal force increases the stresses in the plate's surface will exceed its yield strength. When this happens the ball will create a trough behind it; the plowing action of the ball is burnishing. Burnishing occurs when the ball can rotate, as would happen in the above scenario if another flat plate was brought down from above to induce downwards loading, at the same time to cause rotation and translation of the ball, or in the case of a ball bearing. Burnishing occurs on surfaces that conform to each other, such as between two flat plates, but it happens on a microscopic scale; the smoothest of surfaces will have imperfections if viewed at a high enough magnification. The imperfections that extend above the general form of a surface are called asperities, they can plow material on another surface just like the ball dragging along the plate; the combined effect of many of these asperities produce the smeared texture, associated with burnishing. Burnishing is undesirable in mechanical components for a variety of reasons, sometimes because its effects are unpredictable.
Light burnishing will alter the surface finish of a part. The finish will be smoother, but with repetitive sliding action, grooves will develop on the surface along the sliding direction; the plastic deformation associated with burnishing will harden the surface and generate compressive residual stresses. Although these properties are advantageous, excessive burnishing leads to sub-surface cracks which cause spalling, a phenomenon where the upper layer of a surface flakes off of the bulk material. Burnishing may affect the performance of a machine; the plastic deformation associated with burnishing creates greater heat and friction than from rubbing alone. This limits its speed. Furthermore, plastic deformation alters the geometry of the part; this reduces the accuracy of the machine. The combination of higher friction and degraded form leads to a runaway situation that continually worsens until the component fails. To prevent destructive burnishing, sliding must be avoided, in rolling situations, loads must be beneath the spalling threshold.
In the areas of a machine that slide with respect to each other, roller bearings can be inserted so that the components are in rolling contact instead of sliding. If sliding cannot be avoided a lubricant should be added between the components; the purpose of the lubricant in this case is to separate the components with a lubricant film so they cannot contact. The lubricant distributes the load over a larger area, so that the local contact forces are not as high. If there was a lubricant, its film thickness must be increased. Burnishing is not always bad. If it occurs in a controlled manner, it can have desirable effects. Burnishing processes are used in manufacturing to improve the size, surface finish, or surface hardness of a workpiece, it is a forming operation that occurs on a small scale. The benefits of burnishing include combatting fatigue failure, preventing corrosion and stress corrosion, texturing surfaces to eliminate visual defects, closing porosity, creating surface compressive residual stress.
There are several forms of burnishing processes, the most common are roller burnishing and ball burnishing. In both cases, a burnishing tool plastically deforms its surface. In some instances of the latter case (and always in balliz
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
The Snettisham Hoard or Snettisham Treasure is a series of discoveries of Iron Age precious metal, found in the Snettisham area of the English county of Norfolk between 1948 and 1973. The hoard consists of metal and over 150 gold/silver/coper alloy torc fragments, over 70 of which form complete torcs, dating from BC 70; the most famous item from the hoard is the Great Torc from Snettisham, now held by the British Museum. Though the origins are unknown, it is of a high enough quality to have been royal treasure of the Iceni. Recent electron microscopy research by the British Museum reveal the wear patterns in the torcs, the chemical composition of the metal, the cut marks which reduced many of the torcs into fragments. One hypothesis suggests; the finds are deposited in the British Museum. The hoard was ranked as number 4 in the list of British archaeological finds selected by experts at the British Museum for the 2003 BBC Television documentary, Our Top Ten Treasures, presented by Adam Hart-Davis.
Similar specimens are the Sedgeford Torc, found in 1965, the Newark Torc, found in 2005, as well as the six torcs from the Ipswich Hoard found in 1968-9. In 1985 there was a find of Romano-British jewellery and raw materials buried in a clay pot in AD 155, the Snettisham Jeweller's Hoard. Though it has no direct connection with the nearby Iron Age finds, it may be evidence of a long tradition of gold- and silver-working in the area. List of hoards in Britain Iceni Celtic Britain Norfolk Museums Service
Basic copper carbonate
Basic copper carbonate is a chemical compound, more properly called copper carbonate hydroxide. It is an ionic compound consisting of the ions copper Cu2+, carbonate CO2−3, hydroxide HO−; the name most refers to the compound with formula Cu2CO32. It is a green crystalline solid, it has been used since antiquity as a pigment, it is still used as such in artist paints, sometimes called verditer, green bice, or mountain green. Sometimes the name is used for Cu322, a blue crystalline solid known as the mineral azurite, it too has been used as pigment, sometimes under blue verditer. Both malachite and azurite can be found in the verdigris patina, found on weathered brass and copper; the composition of the patina can vary, in a maritime environment depending on the environment a basic chloride may be present, in an urban environment basic sulfates may be present. This compound is improperly called copper carbonate, cupric carbonate, similar names; the true copper carbonate CuCO3 is not known to occur naturally.
It is decomposed by water or moisture from the air, was synthesized only in 1973 by high temperature and high pressures. Basic copper carbonate is prepared by combining aqueous solutions of copper sulfate and sodium carbonate at ambient temperature and pressure. Basic copper carbonate precipitates from the solution, with release of carbon dioxide CO2: 2 CuSO4 + 2 Na2CO3 + H2O → Cu22CO3 + 2 Na2SO4 + CO2Basic copper carbonate can be prepared by reacting aqueous solutions of copper sulfate and sodium bicarbonate at ambient conditions. Basic copper carbonate precipitates from the solution, again with release of carbon dioxide: 2 CuSO4 + 4 NaHCO3 → Cu22CO3 + 2 Na2SO4 + 3 CO2 + H2O Basic copper carbonate is decomposed by acids, such as solutions of hydrochloric acid HCl, into the copper salt and carbon dioxide. In 1794 the French chemist Joseph Louis Proust thermally decomposed copper carbonate to CO2 and CuO, cupric oxide; the basic copper carbonates and azurite, both decompose forming CO2 and CuO, cupric oxide.
Both malachite and azurite, as well as basic copper carbonate have been used as pigments. One example of the use of both azurite and its artificial form blue verditer is the portrait of the family of Balthasar Gerbier by Peter Paul Rubens; the green skirt of Deborah Kip is painted in azurite, blue verditer, yellow ochre, lead-tin-yellow and yellow lake. The green color is achieved by mixing blue and yellow pigments, it has been used in some types of make-up, like lipstick, although it can be toxic to humans. It has been used for many years as an effective algaecide in farm ponds and in aquaculture operations. National Pollutant Inventory – copper and compounds fact sheet Azurite at ColourLex Blue verditer at ColourLex