James Newton Howard
James Newton Howard is an American composer and music producer. He has scored over 100 films and is the recipient of a Grammy Award, Emmy Award, eight Academy Award nominations, his film scores include Pretty Woman, Grand Canyon, The Fugitive, The Devil's Advocate, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Treasure Planet, King Kong, Batman Begins, Blood Diamond, The Dark Knight, The Bourne Legacy, The Hunger Games series and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. He has collaborated with directors M. Night Shyamalan, having scored nine of his films since The Sixth Sense, Francis Lawrence, having scored all of his films since I Am Legend. Howard was born in Los Angeles, he is from a musical family. Howard began taking classical piano lessons at the age of four, he went on to attend the Thacher School in Ojai and the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara, California with Reginald Stewart and Leon Fleischer. He attended the University of Southern California, studying at the School of Music as a piano performance major, but dropped out after 6 weeks because "He wanted to do other things than practicing the piano."After Howard left college, he joined a short-lived rock band called Mama Lion.
The band was led by Neil Merryweather and featured vocalist Lynn Carey, Coffi Hall on bass, Rick Gaxiola on guitar. Mama Lion recorded two full-length albums. Members of Mama Lion formed the band Heavy Cruiser with Merryweather singing lead, recording two albums in the Heavy Prog Psyche genre, he worked for a couple of years as a session musician with artists including Diana Ross, Ringo Starr, Harry Nilsson. In the early 70s, he described himself as being "dirt poor", until his big break in 1975 when his manager got him an audition with Elton John, he toured with them as keyboardist during the late 70s and early 80s. He was part of the band that played Central Park, New York, on September 13, 1980. Howard arranged strings for several of John's songs during this period including the hits "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" and "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word", played additional keyboards and synthesizers on studio albums including Rock of the Westies, Blue Moves, 21 at 33, The Fox. In 1982, Howard was featured on Toto IV as the strings conductor and orchestrator for "I Won't Hold You Back", "Afraid of Love", "Lovers in the Night".
A year he released the live album James Newton Howard and Friends, which featured Toto's David Paich, Steve Porcaro, Jeff Porcaro, Joe Porcaro. In 1983, Howard was co-producer and orchestrator of Riccardo Cocciante's album Sincerità. After touring with Crosby and Nash, he took an opportunity brought to him by his manager to write a film score for a small-time movie; this career move would lead to his becoming a successful film music composer. During this early foray into film music, he did not abandon his previous musical path and returned for a brief collaboration with Elton John on his Tour De Force of Australia in the fall of 1986, he conducted both his own and Paul Buckmaster's arrangements during the second half of the set, which focused on orchestrated performances of selected songs from the Elton John catalog. When delving into his family history, twenty-five years after the death of his father, Howard learned that his father was Jewish. Howard became a practicing Reconstructionist Jew.
Howard scored the surprise blockbuster romantic comedy Pretty Woman and received his first Academy Award nomination for his score for Barbra Streisand's drama The Prince of Tides. Setting the musical mood for numerous films throughout the decade, Howard's skills encompassed a plethora of genres, including four more best original score Oscar nominations, for the Harrison Ford action feature The Fugitive, the Julia Roberts romantic comedy My Best Friend's Wedding, M. Night Shyamalan's The Village, Michael Clayton. In addition, Howard scored the Western epic Wyatt Earp, Kevin Costner's Waterworld, Primal Fear, his collaborations on songs for One Fine Day and Junior garnered Oscar nominations for Best Song. Along with scoring small-scaled, independent films such as Five Corners, Glengarry Glen Ross, American Heart, Howard proved skilled at composing for big-budget Hollywood spectacles, including Space Jam, Dante's Peak, Collateral, he has scored three Disney animated feature films: Dinosaur, Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Treasure Planet.
Although he concentrates on films, Howard has contributed music for TV, earning an Emmy nomination in 1995 for his theme to NBC's ratings smash ER. He has scored all of Shyamalan's suspense thrillers, The Sixth Sense, Signs, The Village, Lady in the Water, The Happening, The Last Airbender, notably dropping the intense, yet subtle, opening credit music for The Sixth Sense from the corresponding soundtrack album. On October 14, 2005 Howard replaced Howard Shore as composer for King Kong, due to "differing creative aspirations for the score" between Shore and director Peter Jackson; the resultant score earned Howard his first Golden Globe nomination for Best
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer
Frank Marshall (producer)
Frank Wilton Marshall is an American film producer and director working in collaboration with his wife, Kathleen Kennedy. With Kennedy and Steven Spielberg, he was one of the founders of Amblin Entertainment. In 1991, he founded, with Kennedy, The Kennedy/Marshall Company, a film production company which has a contract with DreamWorks. Since May 2012, with Kennedy taking on the role of President of Lucasfilm, Marshall has been Kennedy/Marshall's sole principal. Marshall has collaborated with directors Steven Spielberg, Paul Greengrass and Peter Bogdanovich. In addition, he received the Irving G. Thalberg award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 2018. Born in Glendale, Marshall is the son of guitarist and composer Jack Marshall, his early years were spent in California. In 1961, his family moved to Newport Beach, where he attended Newport Harbor High School, was active in music, cross country, track, he entered UCLA in 1964 as an engineering major, graduated in 1968 with a degree in Political science.
While at UCLA, he was initiated into Alpha Tau Omega fraternity and he helped create its first NCAA soccer team, played collegiate soccer there in 1966, 1967 and 1968. In 1966, he met film director Peter Bogdanovich at a birthday party for the daughter of director John Ford, a friend of his father. Marshall volunteered to work on Bogdanovich's first film, which became his apprenticeship in film production, as he assumed various productions roles appearing in a bit part. Following graduation from UCLA, Marshall spent the next two years working in Aspen and Marina del Rey, as a waiter/guitar player at "The Randy Tar," a steak and lobster restaurant. While traveling through Europe in March 1970, he received another call from Bogdanovich, offering him a position on The Last Picture Show. Three days he arrived in Archer City, doubling as location manager and actor in this seminal film. Under Bogdanovich's guidance, Marshall would work his way up from producer's assistant to associate producer on five more films.
He branched out to work with Martin Scorsese as a line producer on the music documentary The Last Waltz and as an associate producer on director Walter Hill's gritty crime thriller, The Driver. The following year, Marshall earned his first executive producer credit on Hill's cult classic street gang movie, The Warriors, he continues to collaborate with Bogdanovich, working to complete their tenth film together, Orson Welles' unfinished The Other Side of the Wind in 2018. In 1981, together with his future wife Kathleen Kennedy and Steven Spielberg, he co-founded Amblin Entertainment, one of the industry's most productive and profitable production companies; as a producer, Marshall has received five Oscar nominations for Best Picture for The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, The Sixth Sense, The Color Purple, Raiders of the Lost Ark. His feature film directing debut was the thriller Arachnophobia. In 1991, he and Kennedy began producing their own films. Marshall directed the company's first film, about a rugby team struggling to survive in the snow after their plane crashes in the Andes.
Next, he directed Congo, based on Michael Crichton's novel, followed by Eight Below, an adventure about loyalty and the bonds of friendship set in the extreme wilderness of Antarctica. In 1998, he directed the episode "Mare Tranquilitatis", from the Emmy Award-winning HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon; as part of ESPN's 30 for 30 series, Marshall directed a documentary about Olympian Johann Olav Koss entitled Right to Play.. Marshall stated that the documentary, broadcast in 2012, sought to capture not only Koss' sporting career and the ideals behind his nonprofit organization, but his "drive and how it has changed the world."From 1991 to 2012, The Kennedy/Marshall Company produced many films, including The Sixth Sense, Seabiscuit, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, War Horse, the Bourne series and the feature documentary The Armstrong Lie. Since taking over as sole principal of the company, Marshall has broadened its slate beyond feature films to include television and Broadway musicals.
He produced the Emmy Award-nominated documentary Sinatra: All or Nothing at All, which premiered on HBO in April 2015, the summer blockbuster Jurassic World, which has become the third highest-grossing film of all time. During the 1980s and 1990s Marshall served on the advisory board of the National Student Film Institute. Marshall is a former VP, member of the board of directors and member of the Executive Committee of the United States Olympic Committee, he was awarded the Olympic Shield in 2005, inducted into the U. S. Olympic Hall of Fame class of 2008 for his years of service to the USOC, he serves on the board of Athletes for Hope, Governor's Council on Physical Fitness, as Board Chair of the US Center for SafeSport. In addition to his service to sports organizations, Marshall is involved in the educational arena, serving as a board member of LA’s Promise Fund, as a trustee of The Archer School for Girls, on the UCLA Foundation Board of Governor's, he is a recipient of the American Academy of Achievement Award, the UCLA Alumni Professional Achievement Award and the California Mentor Initiative's Leadership Award.
In June 2004, Marshall gave the Commencement Address at the UCLA College of Letters and Science graduation ceremony in Pauley Pavilion. Marshall has long enjoyed magic and music and has been known to perform under th
Reeve Jefferson Carney is an American singer-songwriter and actor most known for originating the role of Peter Parker/Spider-Man in Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark on Broadway. He played Dorian Gray in the Showtime series Penny Dreadful and Riff Raff in the Fox musical television film The Rocky Horror Picture Show: Let's Do the Time Warp Again. Reeve was born and raised in the West Village area of Manhattan with his brother Zane and sister Cait, he grew up in a family of musicians and actors: his father, was a songwriter for commercials, his mother, was a singer, actress and a jewelry designer and his great uncle was Academy Award-winning actor Art Carney. He began singing for radio and television commercials. At the age of 8, he was chosen to sing in a live performance and video at Lincoln Center's Avery Fisher Hall with Peter and Mary. Two years he recorded a song with a children's choir on Michael Jackson's album, HIStory. In order to get a music education, Reeve attended the Academy of Music at Alexander Hamilton High School in Los Angeles with his brother and future bandmates Aiden Moore and Jon Epcar.
He went on to study at the University of Southern California Thornton School of Music, majoring in studio jazz guitar. Reeve started to play guitar at age 12 and three years he was playing guitar professionally at B. B King's night club in Los Angeles; when living in California, Reeve released his first EP "Looking Glass" in 2004 and promote it by performing with other musicians, including Jonny Lang. At age 22 he signed with Interscope and formed his jazz-infused rock namesake band, consisted of Reeve, his brother Zane, Aiden Moore and Jon Epcar; the band's vision and talent led the manager David Sonenberg to work with them. Carney released their first EP "Nothing Without You" in 2008 and their debut album, "Mr. Green Vol. 1", in May 2010. In 2009 the band went on tour with The Veronicas in their Revenge Is Sweeter world tour and in 2011 they opened for Arcade Fire and U2 in Moncton, Canada on July 30 on the final date of the U2 360° Tour; when acting on Broadway, Reeve was invited to be part of the album "Broadway's Carols for a Cure" in 2011 and 2013.
Reeve recorded the single "Rise Above 1" with Bono and The Edge in 2011, an adapted song from the musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. Apart from making his own music, Reeve writes songs for soundtracks for films such as The Tempest and The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn, Part 2. In October 2016 Reeve released his debut solo album, "Youth Is Wasted" written and produced by himself. Since Reeve was on tour two times. Three songs of his album as well as the album itself, were nominated in six categories on the 16th annual Independent Music Awards. "Think of You" won "Best Song - Acoustic", "Resurrection" won "Best Song - Rock or Hard Rock" and the album won "Best Album - Adult Contemporary". Reeve made his first appearance on the big screen in the film The Saint of Fort Washington with a small role. In 1999, Reeve got the role of the young Ishmael Chambers in the film Snow Falling on Cedars, his performance received amazing reviews and subsequently earned him the "Best Performance in a Feature Film" on 2000 Young Artists Awards.
Reeve was part of the cast of a few films as a child actor before he decided to focus on music. In 2010, he was hand-picked by the director Julie Taymor to play Ferdinand in William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. Taymor cast Reeve for the lead role of Spider-Man in Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark on Broadway. During the auditions and The Edge, the show's musical composers, were surprised by Reeve's vocals and he ended up being chosen for the role, he starred for 3 years as Spider-Man which began previews in November 2010. The rest of his bandmates performed as part of the pit orchestra for Turn Off the Dark, he played his final performance on Sunday, September 15, 2013. Meanwhile, in 2012, Reeve played Taylor Swift's love interest in her I Knew You Were Trouble music video. Taylor was a fan of Reeve's band and came up with the idea. In 2014, Reeve was cast as Dorian Gray in the Showtime series Penny Dreadful; the show had three seasons. During the filming of the last season of Penny Dreadful, Reeve was in Kenny Ortega's radar to play Riff Raff, the Handyman, on Fox's remake of The Rocky Horror Picture Show.
He recorded three of the film soundtracks. The film premiered on the Fox network on October 20, 2016. Studio albumsLooking Glass EP Nothing without You EP Mr. Green Vol. 1 Youth Is Wasted Live albumsLive at Molly Malone's Official website Reeve Carney on IMDb "Web Slinger Is Poised to Cast Net", The New York Times, September 8, 2010
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II, fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, in China; the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island and the Philippines; the Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945.
The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. In Allied countries during the war, the "Pacific War" was not distinguished from World War II in general, or was known as the War against Japan. In the United States, the term Pacific Theater was used, although this was a misnomer in relation to the Allied campaign in Burma, the war in China and other activities within the Southeast Asian Theater. However, the US Armed Forces considered the China-Burma-India Theater to be distinct from the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during the conflict. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a cabinet decision on 10 December 1941, to refer to both the war with the Western Allies and the ongoing war in China.
This name was released to the public on 12 December, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving their independence from the Western powers through armed forces of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War. During the Allied military occupation of Japan, these Japanese terms were prohibited in official documents, although their informal usage continued, the war became known as the Pacific War. In Japan, the Fifteen Years' War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945; the Axis states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which formed a cautious alliance with the Japanese in 1941, when Japanese forces issued the government with an ultimatum following the Japanese invasion of Thailand. The leader of Thailand, Plaek Phibunsongkhram, became enthusiastic about the alliance after decisive Japanese victories in the Malayan Campaign and in 1942 sent the Phayap Army to assist the invasion of Burma, were former Thai territory, annexed by Britain were reoccupied.
The allies supported and organized an underground anti-Japanese resistance group, known as the Free Thai Movement, after the Thai ambassador to the United States had refused to hand over the declaration of war. Because of this, after the surrender in 1945, the stance of the United States was that Thailand should be treated as a puppet of Japan and be considered an occupied nation rather than as an ally; this was done in contrast to the British stance towards Thailand, who had faced them in combat as they invaded British territory, the United States had to block British efforts to impose a punitive peace. Involved were members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included the armies of the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo, the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime. In the Burma Campaign, other members, such as the anti-Britsh Indian National Army of Free India and Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies. Moreover, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Taiwan.
Collaborationist security units were formed in Hong Kong, the Philippines, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, British Borneo, former French Indochina as well as Timorese militia. These units the assisted Japanese war effort in their respective territories. Germany and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War; the German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, both navies had access to Japanese naval facilities; the major Allied participants were the United States and their colonies, the Republic of China, engaged in bloody war against Japan since 1937, the United Kingdom (mos
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U. S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, part of the Salish Sea. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the open Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca—Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and Deception Pass and Swinomish Channel being the minor. Water flow through Deception Pass is equal to 2% of the total tidal exchange between Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Puget Sound extends 100 miles from Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south, its average depth is 450 feet and its maximum depth, off Jefferson Point between Indianola and Kingston, is 930 feet. The depth of the main basin, between the southern tip of Whidbey Island and Tacoma, Washington, is 600 feet. In 2009, the term Salish Sea was established by the United States Board on Geographic Names as the collective waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Strait of Georgia.
Sometimes the terms "Puget Sound" and "Puget Sound and adjacent waters" are used for not only Puget Sound proper but for waters to the north, such as Bellingham Bay and the San Juan Islands region. The term "Puget Sound" is used not just for the body of water but the Puget Sound region centered on the sound. Major cities on the sound include Seattle, Tacoma and Everett, Washington. Puget Sound is the third largest estuary in the United States, after Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia, San Francisco Bay in northern California. In 1792 George Vancouver gave the name "Puget's Sound" to the waters south of the Tacoma Narrows, in honor of Peter Puget, a Huguenot lieutenant accompanying him on the Vancouver Expedition; this name came to be used for the waters north of Tacoma Narrows as well. A different term for Puget Sound, used by a number of Native Americans and environmental groups, is Whulge, an anglicization of the Lushootseed name x̌ʷə́lč, which means "sea, salt water, ocean, or sound".
The USGS defines Puget Sound as all the waters south of three entrances from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The main entrance at Admiralty Inlet is defined as a line between Point Wilson on the Olympic Peninsula, Point Partridge on Whidbey Island; the second entrance is at Deception Pass along a line from West Point on Whidbey Island, to Deception Island to Rosario Head on Fidalgo Island. The third entrance is at the south end of the Swinomish Channel, which connects Skagit Bay and Padilla Bay. Under this definition, Puget Sound includes the waters of Hood Canal, Admiralty Inlet, Possession Sound, Saratoga Passage, others, it does not include Bellingham Bay, Padilla Bay, the waters of the San Juan Islands or anything farther north. Another definition, given by NOAA, subdivides Puget Sound into regions. Four of these correspond to areas within the USGS definition, but the fifth one, called "Northern Puget Sound" includes a large additional region, it is defined as bounded to the north by the international boundary with Canada, to the west by a line running north from the mouth of the Sekiu River on the Olympic Peninsula.
Under this definition significant parts of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia are included in Puget Sound, with the international boundary marking an abrupt and hydrologically arbitrary limit. According to Arthur Kruckeberg, the term "Puget Sound" is sometimes used for waters north of Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass for areas along the north coast of Washington and the San Juan Islands equivalent to NOAA's "Northern Puget Sound" subdivision described above. Kruckeberg uses the term "Puget Sound and adjacent waters". Continental ice sheets have advanced and retreated from the Puget Sound region; the most recent glacial period, called the Fraser Glaciation, stades. During the third, or Vashon Glaciation, a lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, called the Puget Lobe, spread south about 15,000 years ago, covering the Puget Sound region with an ice sheet about 3,000 feet thick near Seattle, nearly 6,000 feet at the present Canada-U. S. border. Since each new advance and retreat of ice erodes away much of the evidence of previous ice ages, the most recent Vashon phase has left the clearest imprint on the land.
At its maximum extent the Vashon ice sheet extended south of Olympia to near Tenino, covered the lowlands between the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges. About 14,000 years ago the ice began to retreat. By 11,000 years ago it survived only north of the Canada–US border; the melting retreat of the Vashon Glaciation eroded the land, creating a drumlin field of hundreds of aligned drumlin hills. Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish, Hood Canal, the main Puget Sound basin were altered by glacial forces; these glacial forces are not "carving", as in cutting into the landscape via the mechanics of ice/glaciers, but rather eroding the landscape from melt water of the Vashon Glacier creating the drumlin field. As the ice retreated, vast amounts of glacial till were deposited throughout the Puget Sound region; the soils of the region, less than ten thousand years old, are still characterized as immature. As the Vashon glacier receded a series of proglacial lakes formed, filling the main trough of Puget Sound and inundating the southern lowlands.
Glacial Lake Russell was the first such large recessional lake. From the vicinity of Seattle in the north the lake extended south to the Black Hills, where it drained south into the Chehalis River. Sediments from Lake Russell form the blue-gray clay identified as the Lawton Clay; the second