Neal Adams is an American comic book and commercial artist known for helping to create some of the definitive modern imagery of the DC Comics characters Batman and Green Arrow. Adams was inducted into the Eisner Award's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1998, the Harvey Awards' Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1999. Neal Adams was born June 1941 on Governors Island, New York City, he is Jewish. Adams attended the School of Industrial Art high school in Manhattan, graduating in 1959. After graduation in 1959, he unsuccessfully attempted to find freelance work at DC Comics, turned to Archie Comics, where he wanted to work on the publisher's fledgling superhero line, edited by Joe Simon. At the suggestion of staffers, Adams drew "three or four pages of the Fly", but did not receive encouragement from Simon. Sympathetic staffers nonetheless asked Adams to draw samples for the Archie teen-humor comics themselves. While he did so, Adams said in a 2000s interview, he unknowingly broke into comics: I started to do samples for Archie and I left my Fly samples there.
A couple weeks when I came in to show my Archie samples, I noticed that the pages were still there, but the bottom panel was cut off of one of my pages. I said,'What happened', they said,'One of the artists did this transition where Tommy Troy turns into the Fly and it's not good. You did this real nice piece so we'll use that, if it's OK.' I said,'That's great. That's terrific.' That panel ran in Adventures of the Fly #4. Afterward, Adams began writing, penciling and lettering humorous full-page and half-page gag fillers for Archie's Joke Book Magazine. In a 1976 interview, he recalled earning "$32.00 for a full page. That may not seem like a great deal of money, but at the time it meant a great deal to myself as well as my mothers... as we were not in a wealthy state. It was manna from heaven, so to speak." A recommendation led him to artist Howard Nostrand, beginning the Bat Masterson syndicated newspaper comic strip, he worked as Nostrand's assistant for three months drawing backgrounds at what Adams recalled as $9 a week and "a great experience".
Having "not left Archie Comics under the best of circumstances", Adams turned to commercial art for the advertising industry. After a rocky start freelancing, he began landing regular work at the Johnstone and Cushing agency, which specialized in comic-book styled advertising. Helped by artist Elmer Wexler, who critiqued the young Adams' samples, Adams brought his portfolio to the agency, which "didn't believe I had done those particular samples since they looked so much like Elmer Wexler's work, but they gave me a chance and... I stayed there for about a year". In 1962, Adams began his comics career in earnest at the Newspaper Enterprise Association syndicate. From a recommendation, writer Jerry Caplin, a.k.a. Jerry Capp, brother of Li'l Abner creator Al Capp, invited Adams to draw samples for Capp's proposed Ben Casey comic strip, based on the popular television medical-drama series. On the strength of his samples and of his "Chip Martin, College Reporter" AT&T advertising comic-strip pages in Boys' Life magazine, of his similar Goodyear Tire ads, Adams landed the assignment.
The first daily strip, which carried Adams' signature, appeared November 26, 1962. Adams continued to do Johnston & Cushing assignments during Ben Casey's 3 1/2-year run. Comics historian Maurice Horn said the strip "did not shrink from tackling controversial problems, such as heroin addiction, illegitimate pregnancy, attempted suicide; these were treated in soap opera fashion... but there was a touch of toughness to the proceedings, well rendered by Adams in a forceful, direct style that exuded realism and tension and accorded well with the overall tone of the strip". In addition to Capp, Jerry Brondfield wrote for the strip, with Adams stepping in occasionally; the ABC series, which ran five seasons, ended March 21, 1966, with the final comic strip appearing Sunday, July 31, 1966. Despite the end of the series, Adams has said the strip, which he claimed at different points to have appeared in 365 newspapers, 265 newspapers, 165 newspapers, ended "for no other reason that it was an unhappy situation": We ended the strip under mutual agreement.
I wasn't happy working on the strip nor was I happy giving up a third of the money to Bing Crosby Productions. The strip I should have been making twelve hundred a week from was making me three hundred to three-fifty a week. On top of that, I was not able to express myself artistically, but we left under fine conditions. I was offered a deal in which I would be paid so much a month if I would agree not to do any syndicated strip for anyone else, in order that I might save myself for anything they have for me to do. Adams' goal at this point was to be a commercial illustrator. While drawing Ben Casey, he had continued to do storyboards and other work for ad agencies, said in 1976 that after leaving the strip he had shopped around a portfolio for agencies and for men's magazines, "but my material was a little too realistic and not right for most. I left my portfolio in an advertising agency promising. In the meantime I needed to make some money... and I thought,'Why don't I do some comics?'" In a 2000s interview, he remembered the events differently, saying "I took to various advertising people.
I left it at one place
Richard Joseph "Dick" Giordano was an American comics artist and editor whose career included introducing Charlton Comics' "Action Heroes" stable of superheroes and serving as executive editor of DC Comics. Dick Giordano, an only child, was born in New York City on July 20, 1932, in the borough of Manhattan to Josephine and Graziano "Jack" Giordano, he attended the School of Industrial Art. Beginning as a freelance artist at Charlton Comics in 1952, Giordano contributed artwork to dozens of the company's comics, including such Western titles as Annie Oakley, Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp, the war comic Fightin' Army, scores of covers. Giordano's artwork from Charlton's Strange Suspense Stories was used as inspiration for artist Roy Lichtenstein's 1965/1966 Brushstroke series, including Brushstroke, Big Painting No. 6, Little Big Painting and Yellow and Green Brushstrokes. By the mid-1960s a Charlton veteran, Giordano rose to executive editor, succeeding Pat Masulli, by 1965; as an editor, he made his first mark in the industry, overseeing Charlton's revamping of its few existing superheroes and having his artists and writers create new such characters for what he called the company's "Action Hero" line.
Many of these artists included new talent Giordano brought on board, including Jim Aparo, Dennis O'Neil, Steve Skeates. DC Comics vice president Irwin Donenfeld hired Giordano as an editor in April 1968, at the suggestion of Steve Ditko, with Giordano bringing over to DC some of the creators he had nurtured at Charlton. Giordano was given several titles such as Teen Titans and Young Love, but none of DC's major series, he launched the horror comics series The Witching Hour in March 1969. and the Western series All-Star Western vol. 2 in September 1970. He continued to freelance for DC as a inker; as an artist, Giordano was best known as an inker. His inking was associated with the pencils of Neal Adams, for their run in the early 1970s on the titles Batman and Green Lantern/Green Arrow. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "The influential Adams style moved comics closer to illustration than cartooning, he brought a menacing mood to Batman's adventures, augmented by Dick Giordano's dark, brooding inks."
By 1971, frustrated by what he felt was a lack of editorial opportunities, Giordano had left DC to partner with fellow artist Neal Adams for their Continuity Associates studios, which served as an art packager for comic book publishers, including such companies as Giordano's former employer Charlton Comics, Marvel Comics, the one-shot Big Apple Comix. Several comics artists began their careers at Continuity and many were mentored by Giordano during their time there, he had a brief run as penciler of the Wonder Woman series which included a two-issue story in issues #202–203 written by science-fiction author Samuel R. Delany. Giordano drew several backup stories in Action Comics featuring the Human Target character as well as the martial arts feature "Sons of the Tiger" in Marvel's black-and-white comics magazine The Deadly Hands of Kung Fu, he was a frequent artist on Batman and Detective Comics and he and writer Denny O'Neil created the Batman supporting character Leslie Thompkins in the story "There Is No Hope in Crime Alley" in Detective Comics #457.
Giordano inked the large-format, first DC/Marvel intercompany crossover, Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man, over the pencils of Ross Andru. Giordano inked Adams on the one-shot Superman vs. Muhammad Ali in 1978. Throughout the late 1970s and the early 1980s, Ross Andru and Giordano were DC's primary cover artists, providing cover artwork for the Superman titles as well as covers for many of the other comics in the DC line at that time. In 1980, DC publisher Jenette Kahn brought Giordano back to DC; the editor of the Batman titles, Giordano was named the company's new managing editor in 1981, promoted to vice president/executive editor in 1983, a position he held until 1993. DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz observed in 2010 that "Giordano held the respect of talent as one of their own, kept their affection with his reassuring calm and warmth."Giordano provided art for several anniversary issues of key DC titles. He and television writer Alan Brennert crafted the story "To Kill a Legend" in Detective Comics #500.
Giordano was one of the artists on the double-sized Justice League of America #200 as well as Wonder Woman #300 He was promoted to Vice-President/Executive Editor in 1984, with Kahn and Levitz, oversaw the relaunch of all of DC's major characters with the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series in 1985. This was followed by Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1986. Giordano inked several major projects during this time such as George Pérez's pencils on Crisis on Infinite Earths and John Byrne's pencils on The Man of Steel and Action Comics, though during this period he always employed assistants for inking backgrounds, filling in large black areas, making final erasures. From 1983 to 1987, Giordano wrote a monthly column published in DC titles called "Meanwhile..." which much like Marvel's "Bullpen Bulletins" featured news and information about the company and its creators. Unlike "Bullpen Bulletins,", characterized by an ironic, over-hyped tone, Giordano's columns "... were written in a sober friendly voice, like a friend of your father's you liked and didn't mind sitting down to listen to."
Giordano closed each "Meanwhile..." column with the characteristic words, "Thank you and good afternoon." The Vertigo imprint was launched in early 1993 built upon the success several titles edited by Karen Berger including Sw
Julius "Julie" Schwartz was a comic book editor, a science fiction agent and prominent fan. He was born in The New York, he is best known as a longtime editor at DC Comics, where at various times he was primary editor over the company's flagship superheroes and Batman. He was inducted into the comics industry's Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1996 and the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1997. Born on June 19, 1915 to Romanian Jewish parents Joseph and Bertha who emigrated from a small town outside Bucharest, Romania. Julius and his parents resided at 817 Caldwell Avenue in The Bronx, he graduated at age seventeen from Theodore Roosevelt High School in The Bronx. In 1932, Schwartz co-published Time Traveller, one of the first science fiction fanzines. Schwartz and Weisinger founded the Solar Sales Service literary agency where Schwartz represented such writers as Alfred Bester, Stanley G. Weinbaum, Robert Bloch, Ray Bradbury, H. P. Lovecraft, including some of Bradbury's first published work and Lovecraft's last.
Schwartz helped organize the first World Science Fiction Convention in 1939. In 1944, while looking for work, he was encouraged by his client, Alfred Bester, writing "Green Lantern" at the time, to apply as an editor at All-American Publications, a subsidiary of DC Comics. In 1956, Schwartz worked along with writer Robert Kanigher and artists Carmine Infantino and Joe Kubert on the company's first attempt at reviving superheroes: an updated version of the Flash that would appear in Showcase #4; the eventual success of the new, science-fiction oriented Flash heralded the wholesale return of superheroes, the beginning of what fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books. Schwartz worked with writers John Broome and Gardner Fox and revived other superheroes such as Green Lantern in Showcase #22. A character Schwartz created himself, Adam Strange, debuted in Showcase #17, was unusual in that he used his wits and scientific knowledge, rather than superpowers, to solve problems. Schwartz first thought the concept of the Justice League of America as an updating of the Justice Society and the idea was developed by Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky.
The new team debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28, received its own title in October 1960. It became one of the most successful series of the Silver Age. Schwartz oversaw the introduction of the Elongated Man in The Flash #112 by writer John Broome and artist Carmine Infantino. In 1964, Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. Under his editorial instructions and Infantino jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the series such as Ace the Bathound and Bat-Mite and gave the character a "New Look" that premiered in Detective Comics #327. During the rise in popularity of the Batman comics thanks to the Batman TV Series, William Dozier, pitched an initial concept for a female hero and Schwartz, Gardner Fox, Carmine Infantino introduced Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in a story titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" in Detective Comics #359. He helped artist Neal Adams come to prominence at DC Comics; the duo, under the direction of Schwartz, would revitalize the Batman with a series of stories reestablishing the character's dark, brooding nature.
Schwartz edited Detective Comics until issue #481 and Batman until issue #309. From 1971 to 1986 Schwartz was the editor of the Superman titles, helping to modernize the settings of the books and move them away from "gimmick" stories to stories with more of a character-driven nature; this included an attempt to scale back Superman's powers while removing kryptonite as an overused plot device. This proved short-lived, with Schwartz bowing to pressure to restore both elements in the titles. Schwartz edited it throughout its 97 issue run; as an editor, Schwartz was involved in the writing of the stories published in his magazines. He worked out the plot with the writer in story conferences; the writer would break down the plot into a panel-by-panel continuity, write the dialogue and captions. Schwartz would in turn polish the script. Schwartz retired from DC in 1986 after 42 years at the company, but continued to be active in comics and science fiction fandom until shortly before his death; as a coda to his career as a comic book editor, Schwartz edited seven releases in the DC Graphic Novel line adapted from classic science fiction works by Harlan Ellison, Robert Silverberg and others.
In 2000 he published his autobiography, Man of Two Worlds: My Life in Science Fiction and Comics, co-authored with Brian Thomsen. He was a popular guest at comics and science fiction conventions attending 10–12 conventions a year. In 1952, Schwartz married Jean Ordwein, his secretary, she died in 1986 from emphysema. Schwartz's relationship with Jean had been close, he never remarried or dated following her death. Not many years Schwartz's stepdaughter Jeanne died from the same illness under similar circumstances. Schwartz died after being hospitalized for pneumonia, he was survived by his son-in-law and great-grandchildren. He remained a "goodwill ambassador" for an Editor Emeritus up until his death. Following his death, a number of women came forward allegin
Roy Harper (comics)
Roy Harper is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Roy is one of DC's most longstanding characters, originating in 1940s comics as Speedy, the teen sidekick of the superhero Green Arrow. Like his mentor Green Arrow, Roy is a world-class archer and athlete who uses his exceptional marksmanship to fight crime. Along with other prominent DC Comics superhero sidekicks, he goes on to become a core member of the superhero group the Teen Titans; as an adult, Roy casts off his Speedy identity to establish himself as the superhero Arsenal, for a time adopts the name Red Arrow to symbolise his having become an equal of Green Arrow. In addition to continuing to serve on occasion as one of the Titans, Roy has had leading roles in the superhero groups the Seven Soldiers of Victory, the Outsiders, the Justice League, the Outlaws. Roy's profile as a hero has varied over the years, he was the subject of the award-winning 1971 comic book story "Snowbirds Don't Fly", celebrated for its gritty depiction of Roy's battle with drug addiction.
In 2013, ComicsAlliance ranked Harper as #50 on their list of the "50 Sexiest Male Characters in Comics". The character has been adapted for video games and animation several times, is portrayed in live action by actor Colton Haynes on the television series Arrow; the character first appeared as Green Arrow's teenage sidekick Speedy, a name by which he was known for over fifty years, in More Fun Comics #73 and was created by Mort Weisinger and George Papp. The character's modern-day version was an early member of the Teen Titans who assumed the identity Arsenal in The New Titans #99, became a member of the Justice League of America under the guise Red Arrow in Kingdom Come #2 or Justice League of America #7. Roy Harper was raised by Brave Bow, a Navajo medicine chief, after his father, a forest ranger, died in a forest fire. Under Brave Bow's tutelage, Roy became a remarkable archer. After Brave Bow's death, Roy became his sidekick: Speedy. Speedy joined Robin, Kid Flash and Wonder Girl in the newly formed Teen Titans, a group formed from the various "teen sidekicks" active in DC comics at that time.
Speedy was a successful member and began dating Donna Troy. Some time however, Roy's fortunes took a turn for the worse; the Titans disbanded and Donna broke up, Green Arrow both lost his fortune and began neglecting Roy. While Green Arrow was away on a cross-country adventure with Green Lantern and Black Canary, Roy became addicted to heroin. 2, #85–86 in September and November 1971. Once Roy's secret was discovered, Green Arrow angrily punched him and threw Roy out on the street. Green Lantern found him and left him in the care of Black Canary, who stayed by his side while he went through withdrawal. Soon after, he had a confrontation with Green Arrow that caused the two of them to stop working together. In addition to some brief adventures with incarnations of the Titans in the 1980s, Roy served as a government agent for a fictional federal agency, as a private investigator, went on a single mission with the Suicide Squad. While still helping the Teen Titans on occasional missions, Roy worked as a counselor for various anti-drug programs.
During this time, Roy established government contacts, was soon hired by the Central Bureau of Investigations as a drug enforcement agent. Roy was given an assignment to gain the trust of the villain Cheshire; the intention was to turn Cheshire over to the authorities, but the two fell in love and had an affair. Roy could not bring himself to turn her in, but he was concerned that his presence endangered Cheshire's life, so he left her, unaware that Cheshire was pregnant with his child, Lian Harper. Roy learned that he was the father of her daughter Lian, he went on a mission with Nightwing to track down Cheshire and prevent her from assassinating a group of diplomats. Roy was captured by Cheshire and freed by Nightwing, who brought Roy's daughter. Cheshire had left Lian in Roy's care. Roy Harper returned to the Titans, was appointed leader by Sarge Steel. At this time, he adopted the new identity "Arsenal" now equipped with a vast array of high-tech weaponry; when the original members of this latest incarnation of Titans left the team, he gathered new members and led them until the team disbanded.
Soon, another team of Teen Titans emerged. This group consisted of a teenaged version of Atom and new heroes Argent, Risk and Prysm; the team was funded by Loren Jupiter, who had funded a group of Titans during Roy's time on the team. Jupiter gathered together the original Titans to combat the threat of his bitter, super-powered son Jarrod Jupiter. New and old Titans joined forces to defeat Haze – but at a price. Arsenal remained with this new group of Titans for a time, but left the group before it disbanded. Arsenal came into conflict with Vandal Savage. Savage had discovered that his daughter Lian were his descendants. Thus, their organs were suitable for him to harvest to prolong his life. Roy was able to save his daughter from Savage. After this ordeal, Roy adopted a new look to reflect his Navajo heritage. Shortly after, the original five Titans decide
Hal Jordan known as Green Lantern, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created in 1959 by writer John Broome and artist Gil Kane, first appeared in Showcase #22. Hal Jordan is a reinvention of the previous Green Lantern who appeared in 1940s comic books as the character Alan Scott. Hal Jordan is a fighter pilot, a member and leader of an intergalactic police force called the Green Lantern Corps, as well as a founding member of the Justice League, DC's flagship superhero team, alongside well-known heroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman, he fights evil across the universe with a ring that grants him a variety of superpowers, but is portrayed as one of the protectors of Sector 2814, the sector where Earth resides. His powers derive from his power ring and Green Lantern battery, which in the hands of someone capable of overcoming great fear allows the user to channel their will power into creating all manner of fantastic constructs.
Jordan uses this power to fly through the vacuum of space. Jordan and all other Green Lanterns are monitored and empowered by the mysterious Guardians of the Universe, who were developed from an idea editor Julius Schwartz and Broome had conceived years prior in a story featuring Captain Comet in Strange Adventures #22 entitled "Guardians of the Clockwork Universe". During the 1990s, Jordan appeared as a villain; the story line Emerald Twilight saw a Jordan traumatized by the supervillain Mongul's destruction of Jordan's hometown Coast City, adopt the name "Parallax", threaten to destroy the universe. In subsequent years, DC Comics rehabilitated the character, first by having Jordan seek redemption for his actions as Parallax, by revealing that Parallax was in fact an evil cosmic entity that corrupted Jordan and took control of his actions. Between the character's stint as Parallax and his return to DC Comics as a heroic Green Lantern once more, the character briefly served as the Spectre, a supernatural character in DC Comics stories who acts as God's wrathful agent on Earth.
Outside of comics, Hal Jordan has appeared in various animated projects, video games and live-action. Jordan's original design in the comics was based on actor Paul Newman, the character is ranked 7th on IGN's in the Top 100 Comic Book Heroes in 2011. In 2013, Hal Jordan placed 4th on IGN's Top 25 Heroes of DC Comics. After achieving great success in 1956 in reviving the Golden Age character The Flash, DC editor Julius Schwartz looked toward recreating the Green Lantern from the Golden Age of Comic Books. Drawing from his love for science-fiction, Schwartz intended to show the new Green Lantern in a more modern light, enlisting writer John Broome and artist Gil Kane, who in 1959 would reintroduce Green Lantern to the world in Showcase #22 by creating Hal Jordan; the character was a success, it was decided to follow up his three-issue run on Showcase with a self-titled series. Green Lantern #1 began in July–August 1960 and would continue until #84 in April–May 1972. Starting in issue #17, Gardner Fox joined the book to share writing duties with John Broome.
The quartet of Schwartz, Broome and Kane remained the core creative team until 1970. Starting with issue #76, Dennis O'Neil took over scripting and Neal Adams, who had drawn the cover of issue #63, became the series' artist. O'Neil and Adams had begun preparation for the classic run in the form of their re-workings of another DC superhero, the archer Green Arrow. In an introduction to the 1983 reprinting of this O'Neil/Adams run, O'Neil explains that he wondered if he could represent his own political beliefs in comics and take on social issues of the late sixties and early seventies. O'Neil devised the idea of portraying Hal Jordan an intergalactic law enforcement officer, as an establishment gradualist liberal figure against Oliver Queen, who O'Neil had characterized as a lusty outspoken anarchist who would stand in for the counter-culture movement; the first of these motivated Green Lantern/Green Arrow stories was written with Gil Kane slated to be the artist, but Kane dropped out and was replaced by Neal Adams.
The stories tackled questions of power, racism and exploitation, remain viewed in the comics community as the first socially-conscious superhero stories. Despite the work of Adams and O'Neil, Green Lantern sales had been in a major decline at the time Green Arrow was brought on as co-star, their stories failed to revive the sales figures. Green Lantern was canceled with issue #89, the climactic story arc of the Green Lantern/Green Arrow series was published as a back-up feature in The Flash #217 through #219. In sharp contrast to the relevant tales which preceded it, this story centered on emotional themes, with Green Arrow struggling to deal with the guilt of having killed a man. Green Lantern continued to appear in backup stories of Flash from 1972 until the Green Lantern title was resumed in 1976. In Green Lantern #151 through #172, Jordan is exiled into space for a year by the Guardians in order to prove his loyalty to the Green Lantern Corps, having been accused of paying too much attention to Earth when he had an entire "sector" of the cosmos to patrol.
When he returns to Earth, he finds himself embroiled in a dispute with Carol Ferris. Faced with a choice between love and the power ring, Jordan resigns from the Corps; the Guardians call John Stewart, to regular duty as his replacement. In 1985, the "Crisis on Infinite Earths
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha