A half-pipe is a structure used in gravity extreme sports such as snowboarding, skiing, freestyle BMX, skating and scooter riding. The structure resembles a cross-section of a swimming pool two concave ramps, topped by copings and decks, facing each other across a flat transition known as a tranny. Half-pipes were half sections of a large diameter pipe. Since the 1980s, half-pipes contain an extended flat bottom between the quarter-pipes. Flat ground provides time to regain balance after landing and more time to prepare for the next trick. Half-pipe applications include leisure recreation, skills development, competitive training and professional competition, as an adjunct to other types of skills training. A skilled athlete can perform in a half-pipe for an extended period of time by pumping to attain extreme speeds with little effort. Large half-pipes make possible many of the aerial tricks in skating and skateboarding. For winter sports such as freestyle skiing and snowboarding, a half-pipe can be dug out of the ground or snow combined with snow buildup.
The plane of the transition is oriented downhill at a slight grade to allow riders to use gravity to develop speed and facilitate drainage of melt. In the absence of snow, dug out half-pipes can be used by dirtboarders and mountain bikers. Performance in a half-pipe has been increasing over recent years; the current limit performed by a top-level athlete for a rotational trick in a half-pipe is 1440 degrees. In top level competitions, rotation is limited to emphasize style and flow. In the early 1970s, swimming pools were used by skateboarders in a manner similar to surfing ocean waves. In 1975, some teenagers from Encinitas and other northern San Diego County communities began using 7.3-metre-diameter water pipes in the central Arizona desert associated with the Central Arizona Project, a federal public works project to divert water from the Colorado River to the city of Phoenix. Tom Stewart, one of these young California skateboarders, looked for a more convenient location to have a similar skateboarding experience.
Stewart consulted with his brother Mike, an architect, on how to build a ramp that resembled the Arizona pipes. With his brother's plans in hand, Tom built a wood frame half-pipe in the front yard of his house in Encinitas. In a few days, the press had contacted him directly. Tom went on to create Rampage, Inc. and began selling blueprints for his half-pipe design. About five months Skateboarder magazine featured both Tom Stewart and Rampage. Little did Tom know that his design would go on to inspire countless others to follow in his foot steps; the character of a half-pipe depends on the relationship between four attributes: most the transition radius and the height, less so, the degree of flat bottom and width. Extra width grinds; the flat bottom, while valued for recovery time, serves no purpose if it is longer than it needs to be. Thus, it is the ratio between height and transition radius that determines the personality of a given ramp, because the ratio determines the angle of the lip. On half-pipes which are less than vertical, the height between 50% and 75% of the radius, profoundly affects the ride up to and from the lip, the speed at which tricks must be executed.
Ramps near or below 0.91 m of height sometimes fall below 50% of the height of their radius. Technical skaters spin maneuvers. Smaller transitions that maintain the steepness of their larger counterparts are found in pools made for skating and in custom mini ramps; the difficulty of technical tricks is increased with the steepness, but the feeling of dropping in from the coping is preserved. Common mistake in the construction of ramps is constant radius in transitions: Most of the ramps are built with a quarter circle of constant radius for easy construction, but the best ramps are not constant radius but a parabola with little final vert; the parabola allows for easy big air with return still on the curve and not on the flat. A cycloid profile will theoretically give the fastest half-pipe, it is called a brachistochrone curve. Such a curve in its pure form is π times as wide as it is high. Frame and support for skateboard, BMX, inline skating half-pipes consist of a 2x6x8 lumber framework sheathed in plywood finished with sheets of masonite or Skatelite.
A metal frame finished in wood or metal is sometimes used. Most commercial and contest ramps are surfaced by attaching sheets of some form of masonite to a frame. Many private ramps are surfaced in the same manner but may use plywood instead of masonite as surface material; some ramps are constructed by spot-welding sheet metal to the frame, resulting in a fastener-free surface. Recent developments in technology have produced various versions of improved masonite substances such as Skatelite, RampArmor, HARD-Nox; these ramp surfaces are far more expensive than traditional materials. Channels and roll-ins are the basic ways to customize a ramp. Sometimes a section of the platform is cut away to form a roll-in and a channel to allow skaters to commence a ride without dropping in and perform tricks over the gap. Extensions are permanent or temporary additions to the height of one section of the ramp that can make riding more challenging. Creating a spine ramp is another variation of the half-pipe.
A spine ramp is two quarter pipes adjoined at the vertical ed
Park City Mountain Resort
Park City Mountain Resort is a ski resort in the western United States in Park City, located 32 miles east of Salt Lake City. Park City, as the ski resort and area is known, contains several training courses for the U. S. Ski Team, including slalom and giant slalom runs. During the 2002 Winter Olympics the resort hosted the snowboarding events and the men's and women's alpine giant slalom events. Opened in 1963, the resort has been a major tourist attraction for skiers from all over the United States, as well as a main employer for many of Park City's citizens; the resort was purchased by Vail Resorts in 2014 and combined the resort with neighboring Canyons Resort via an interconnect gondola to create the largest ski area in the United States at the time. It has since been surpassed by Powder Mountain in 2016. During the ski season, most slopes and lifts are open from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. The resort was opened on December 1963 as Treasure Mountain by United Park City Mines; this company was the last surviving mining corporation in Park City, the resort was opened with funds from a federal government program meant to revive the economically depressed town.
When it opened, it boasted the longest gondola in the United States, as well as a double chairlift, a J-bar lift and summit lodges, a nine-hole golf course. The gondola was a four-passenger Polig-Heckel-Bleichert, its sister lift was built at Sugarloaf/USA in Carrabassett Valley, after top members of Sugarloaf's management visited Park City's lift. When the slopes first opened to the public, a special Skier's Subway was used to transport skiers nearly 2.5 miles into the mountain through the pitch-black Spiro Tunnel on a mine train, where skiers boarded a mining elevator that lifted them 1,750 feet to the surface, from there they had access to the entire mountain. Aerial trams once used for hauling ore were converted into chairlifts. To this day, there are still more than 1,000 miles of old silver-mine workings and tunnels beneath the slopes at Park City Mountain Resort and its neighboring resort, Deer Valley. Treasure Mountain's name was changed to the Park City Ski Area for its fourth season of 1966-67, in 1996, became known as the Park City Mountain Resort.
The resort had grown to include eight peaks and nine bowls, with 3,300 acres of skiing and 16 chairlifts. The resort has developed summer activities including an alpine slide, alpine coaster, zip-lines, several hiking and biking trails. A sister ski area known as Park City West and as Canyons Resort, opened in 1968. Deer Valley Resort opened at the site of the former Snow Park. During the 2002 games, the resort hosted the men's and women's giant slalom, men's and women's snowboarding parallel giant slalom, both men's and women's snowboarding halfpipe events; the resort's Eagle Race Arena and Eagle Superpipe were used. Temporary stadiums were erected at the end of each run with spectator standing areas on each side, creating a combined capacity of 16,500 persons. All available tickets for events at the resort were sold — 99.8 percent — to a total of 95,991 spectators. During the games, 96 percent of the resort was open for normal seasonal operations, making it the only venue to allow spectators to leave and reenter.
In March 2012, Powdr Corporation announced that it had filed a lawsuit against Talisker Land Holdings, LLC, the owner of Canyons Resort, as well as United Park City Mines Company, both partial land owners of the resort. The lawsuit filed by Powdr Corp. was in response to an eviction notice issue by Talisker, the entity that owns most of the land the ski runs are on, leasing it to Powdr Corp.. Powdr Corp. claimed that they had initiated talks with Talisker to extend their lease to 2051, that Talisker had refused to agree to the terms and threatened to close the resort. In response, Talisker claimed that Powdr Corp. had failed to agree to the new terms set down by Talisker, that they have never threatened to close the resort. Powdr Corp. sued Talisker for $7,000,000 for compensatory and punitive damages for the threat of the closure of the resort. Park City Mountain Resort had leased the land on which its ski runs are located for $155,000 per year, with an option to renew the lease for 20 years.
In 2011, when this option came due, Powdr Corp. failed to renew the lease in a timely manner and sent a letter two days after the lease had expired. Eight months Powdr Corp. received a letter from Talisker that their lease had expired and they were to turn over the land and its improvements to Talisker. In 2013, Talisker leased Canyons Resort to Vail Resorts who took over the legal action. Near the end of May 2013, an eviction notice was served on PCMR to vacate the leased land of the ski area.. On September 11, 2014, Vail Resorts announced that it had purchased Park City Mountain Resort for $182.5 million, that it would combine the resort with neighboring Canyons Resort over the summer of 2015 for the 2015-16 season. When the purchase was finalized, Vail added Park City Mountain Resort to its EPIC season pass program for the 2014-15 season. In 2015, the merger of PCMR with Canyons was undertaken by Doppelmayr USA as part of a project that built two new lifts and relocated a third. A new gondola called Quicksilver was built between the bottom of the Silverlode Express lift at PCMR and a point below the top of Iron Mountain at Canyons.
The King Con Ex
Giant slalom is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline. It involves skiing between sets of poles spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but less than in Super-G. Giant slalom and slalom make up the technical events in alpine ski racing; this category separates them from the speed events of downhill. The technical events are composed of two runs, held on different courses on the same ski run; the vertical drop for a GS course must be 250–450 m for men, 250–400 m for women. The number of gates in this event is 46 -- 58 for women; the number of direction changes in a GS course equals 11–15% of the vertical drop of the course in metres, 13–18% for children. As an example, a course with a vertical drop of 300 m would have 33–45 direction changes for an adult race. Although giant slalom is not the fastest event in skiing, on average a well-trained racer may reach average speeds of 40 km/h. Giant slalom skis are shorter than super-G and downhill skis, longer than slalom skis.
In an attempt to increase safety for the 2003–04 season, the International Ski Federation increased the minimum sidecut radius for giant slalom skis to 21 m and for the first time imposed minimum ski lengths for GS: 185 cm for men and 180 cm for women. A maximum stand height of 55 mm was established for all disciplines. In May 2006, the FIS announced further changes to the rules governing equipment. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, the minimum radius for GS skis was increased to 27 m for men and 23 m for women. Additionally, the minimum ski width at the waist was increased from 60 to 65 mm, the maximum stand height for all disciplines was reduced to 50 mm; the best skiers tended to use a bigger sidecut radius, like Ted Ligety at 29 m, Lindsey Vonn at 27 m. For the 2012–13 season, the FIS increased the sidecut radius to 35 m and the minimal length to 195 cm. Many athletes criticized this decision. David Dodge was cited. Dodge argues, he states that it is well known that if one tips the ski 7° more the 35 m ski will have the same turning radius as the 28 m ski.
He states as well that knee injuries are decreasing since the 1990s, when carving skis started to be used. The first giant slalom was set in 1935 on the Mottarone in Italy, over the Lake Maggiore, near Stresa, on January 20. After one month, the second giant slalom was set on the Marmolada in Italy's Dolomite mountains, by Guenther Langes; the giant slalom was added to the world championships in 1950 at Aspen and debuted at the Winter Olympics in 1952 at Oslo, run at Norefjell. The GS has been run in every world Olympics since. A one-run event, a second run was added for men at the world championships in 1966, run on consecutive days, at the Olympics in 1968; the second run for women was added at the world championships in 1978, made its Olympic debut in 1980. The world championships changed to a one-day format for the giant slalom in 1974, but the Olympics continued the GS as a two-day event through 1980. Scheduled for two days in 1984, both giant slaloms became one-day events after repeated postponements of the downhills.
Following the extra races added to the program in 1988, the GS has been scheduled as a one-day event at the Olympics. Upon its introduction, giant slalom displaced the combined event at the world championships; the combined returned in 1954 in Åre, but as a "paper race," using the results of the three events, a format used through 1980. The combined returned as a stand-alone event at the world championships in 1982 at Schladming, at the 1988 Calgary Olympics, it was changed to the super-combined format at the world championships in 2007 and the Olympics in 2010. In the following table men's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967. Skiers having most podium in FIS Alpine Ski World Cup. Updated to 15 February 2019. List of Olympic medalists in men's giant slalom List of Olympic medalists in women's giant slalom List of Paralympic medalists in men's giant slalom List of Paralympic medalists in women's giant slalom List of World Champions in giant slalom Media related to Giant slalom skiing at Wikimedia Commons
Kelly Clark is an American snowboarder who won halfpipe gold at the 2002 Winter Olympics. Clark was born in Rhode Island, she started snowboarding when she was 7 years old, began competing in 1999, became a member of the US Snowboard team in 2000. On January 25,2019 at the Winter Xgames in Aspen, she announced her retirement from the sport. Kelly Clark trained for competitive snowboarding at Mount Snow Academy in Vermont and graduated in spring 2001, she won a gold medal for women's halfpipe at the 2002 Winter Olympics and competed in the halfpipe event again in the 2006 Winter Olympics. She ended up placing fourth behind fellow Americans Hannah Teter and Gretchen Bleiler, as well as Norwegian Kjersti Buaas. In the 2010 Vancouver Olympics Kelly won a bronze medal in the halfpipe after placing third behind American silver medalist Teter and Australian Torah Bright. In the TTR World Tour 2007/2008 season, she recorded eight podium finishes out of 12 contest entries, with five of those as TTR Titles including the 6Star Burton European Open, the 5Star Chevrolet Grand Prix and the 6Star season-ending Roxy Chicken Jam US.
In the 2008/2009 World Tour she finished the season as Swatch TTR World Snowboard Tour Champion. Clark is based in California. Clark is a Christian, she now rides with a sticker on her snowboard proclaiming, "Jesus, I cannot hide my love." In 2015 Clark received the Best Female Action Sports Athlete ESPY Award. Highlights of Swatch TTR 2009/2010 Season 1st – Halfpipe – 5Star Burton New Zealand Open 1st – Halfpipe – 6Star Burton US Open 1st – Halfpipe – 6Star Roxy Chicken Jam US Highlights of Swatch TTR 2008/2009 Season Swatch TTR World Snowboard Tour Champion 2008/09 3rd – Halfpipe – 5Star Burton New Zealand Open 1st – Halfpipe – 6Star Burton European Open 1st – Halfpipe – 5Star Nissan X-Trail Asian Open 2nd – Halfpipe – 6Star Burton US Open 1st – Halfpipe – 6Star Roxy Chicken Jam Victories on the Swatch TTR World Snowboard Tour Career Highlights 2010 Winter X Games – Superpipe – 1st Place 2009 Winter Dew Tour – Dew Cup – 1st Place 2008 Chevy Grand Prix – Tamarack – Halfpipe – 1st Place 2008 Winter X Games – Halfpipe – 2nd Place 2007 New Zealand Open – Quarterpipe – 1st Place 2007 New Zealand Open – Halfpipe – 2nd Place 2007 Burton Abominable Snow Jam – Overall – 2nd Place 2007 Burton Abominable Snow Jam – Halfpipe – 2nd Place 2006 US Grand Prix – Halfpipe – 1st Place 2006 Burton New Zealand Open – Quarterpipe – 1st Place 2006 Burton New Zealand Open – Superpipe – 1st Place 2006 Chevrolet Grand Prix – Halfpipe – 2nd Place 2005 FIS World Cup – Halfpipe – 1st Place 2005 Grand Prix #3- Halfpipe – 2nd Place Mount Snow Kellys Official Swatch TTR Profilehttps://www.teamusa.org/us-ski-and-snowboard/athletes/Kelly-Clark Kelly Clark at the International Ski Federation Kelly Clark on Go211.com Kelly's blog and videos.
NBC Sports Profile Kelly's U. S. Olympic Team bio Onboard magazine interview with Kelly Clark Shred Betties Magazine interview with Kelly Clark EXPN Athlete Bio Mount Snow Athlete Bio
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Winter Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding and skiing, it was developed in the United States in the 1960s, became a Winter Olympic Sport at Nagano in 1998 and first featured in the Winter Paralympics at Sochi in 2014. Its popularity in the United States has been in a decline since. Modern snowboarding began in 1965 when Sherman Poppen, an engineer in Muskegon, invented a toy for his daughters by fastening two skis together and attaching a rope to one end so he would have some control as they stood on the board and glided downhill. Dubbed the "snurfer" by his wife Nancy, the toy proved so popular among his daughters' friends that Poppen licensed the idea to a manufacturer, Brunswick Corporation, that sold about a million snurfers over the next decade. And, in 1966 alone over half a million snurfers were sold.
In February 1968, Poppen organized the first snurfing competition at a Michigan ski resort that attracted enthusiasts from all over the country. One of those early pioneers was a devotee of skateboarding; as an eighth grader in Haddonfield, New Jersey, in the 1960s, Sims crafted a snowboard in his school shop class by gluing carpet to the top of a piece of wood and attaching aluminum sheeting to the bottom. He produced commercial snowboards in the mid-70s. Articles about his invention in such mainstream magazines as Newsweek helped publicize the young sport; the pioneers were not all from the United States. During this same period, in 1977, Jake Burton Carpenter, a Vermont native who had enjoyed snurfing since the age of 14, impressed the crowd at a Michigan snurfing competition with bindings he had designed to secure his feet to the board; that same year, he founded Burton Snowboards in Vermont. The "snowboards" were made of wooden planks that had water ski foot traps. Few people picked up snowboarding because the price of the board was considered too high at $38, but Burton would become the biggest snowboarding company in the business.
In the early 1980s, Aleksey Ostatnigrosh and Alexei Melnikov, two Snurfers from the Soviet Union, patented design changes to the Snurfer to allow jumping by attaching a bungee cord, a single footed binding to the Snurfer tail, a two-foot binding design for improved control. The first competitions to offer prize money were the National Snurfing Championship, held at Muskegon State Park in Muskegon Michigan. In 1979, Jake Burton Carpenter, came from Vermont to compete with a snowboard of his own design. There were protests about Jake entering with a non-snurfer board. Paul Graves, others, advocated that Jake be allowed to race. A "modified" "Open" division was won by Jake as the sole entrant; that race was considered the first competition for snowboards and is the start of what has now become competitive snowboarding. Ken Kampenga, John Asmussen and Jim Trim placed 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the Standard competition with best 2 combined times of 24.71, 25.02 and 25.41 and Jake Carpenter won prize money as the sole entrant in the "open" division with a time of 26.35.
In 1980 the event moved to Pando Winter Sports Park near Grand Rapids, Michigan because of a lack of snow that year at the original venue. As snowboarding became more popular in the 1970s and 1980s, pioneers such as Dimitrije Milovich, Jake Burton Carpenter, Tom Sims, Mike Olson came up with new designs for boards and mechanisms that developed into the snowboards and other related equipment that we know today. In April 1981 the "King of the Mountain" Snowboard competition was held at Ski Cooper ski area in Colorado. Tom Sims along with an assortment of other snowboarders of the time were present. One entrant showed up on a homemade snowboard with a formica bottom that turned out to not slide so well on the snow. In 1982, the first USA National Snowboard race was held near Vermont, at Suicide Six; the race, organized by Graves, was won by Burton's first team rider Doug Bouton. In 1983, the first World Championship halfpipe competition was held at California. Tom Sims, founder of Sims Snowboards, organized the event with the help of Mike Chantry, a snowboard instructor at Soda Springs.
In 1985, the first World Cup was held in Zürs, further cementing snowboarding's recognition as an official international competitive sport. In 1990, the International Snowboard Federation was founded to provide universal contest regulations. In addition, the United States of America Snowboard Association provides instructing guidelines and runs snowboard competitions in the U. S. today, high-profile snowboarding events like the Winter X Games, Air & Style, US Open, Olympic Games and other events are broadcast worldwide. Many alpine resorts have terrain parks. At the 1998 Winter Olympic Games in Nagano, Snowboarding became an official Olympic event. France's Karine Ruby was the first to win an Olympic gold medal for Woman's Snowboarding at the 1998 Olympics, while Canadian Ross Rebagliati was the first to win an Olympic gold medal for Men's Snowboarding. Ski areas adopted the sport at a much slower pace than the winter s
Park City, Utah
Park City is a city in Summit County, United States. It is considered to be part of the Wasatch Back; the city is 32 miles southeast of downtown Salt Lake City and 20 miles from Salt Lake City's east edge of Sugar House along Interstate 80. The population was 7,558 at the 2010 census. On average, the tourist population exceeds the number of permanent residents. After a population decline following the shutdown of the area's mining industry, the city rebounded during the 1980s and 1990s through an expansion of its tourism business; the city brings in a yearly average of $529,800,000 to the Utah Economy as a tourist hot spot, $80,000,000 of, attributed to the Sundance Film Festival. The city has two major ski resorts: Park City Mountain Resort. Both ski resorts were the major locations for ski and snowboarding events at the 2002 Winter Olympics. Although they receive less snow and have a shorter ski season than do their counterparts in Salt Lake County, such as Snowbird resort, they are much easier to access.
In 2015, Park City Ski Resort and Canyons resorts merged creating the largest ski area in the U. S. In all, the resort boasts 14 bowls, 300 trails and 22 miles of lifts. Additionally the city is the main location of the United States' largest independent film festival, the Sundance Film Festival, home of the United States Ski Team, training center for members of the Australian Freestyle Ski Team, the largest collection of factory outlet stores in northern Utah, the 2002 Olympic bobsled/skeleton/luge track at the Utah Olympic Park, golf courses; some scenes from the 1994 film Dumb and Dumber were shot in the city. Outdoor-oriented businesses such as backcountry.com, Rossignol USA, Skullcandy have their headquarters in Park City. The city has many retailers, clubs and restaurants, has nearby reservoirs, hot springs and hiking and biking trails. In the summertime many valley residents of the Wasatch Front visit the town to escape high temperatures. Park City is 20 °F cooler than Salt Lake City, as it lies higher than 7,000 feet above sea level, while Salt Lake City is situated at an elevation of about 4,300 feet.
In 2008, Park City was named by Forbes Traveler Magazine among one of the 20'prettiest towns' in the United States. In 2011, the town was awarded a Gold-level Ride Center designation from the International Mountain Bicycling Association for its mountain bike trails and community; the area was traveled by the early Mormon pioneers on their journey to where they settled and built Salt Lake City. One of their leaders, Parley P. Pratt, explored the canyon in 1848, he was given a charter the following year to build a toll road through it, finished in 1849. The basin at the top of the canyon was good for grazing, a few families settled there. Early on, the area was deeded to Samuel Snyder, Heber C. Kimball and Jedediah Grant; the settlers named it "Parley's Park City", shortened to "Park City" in the early 1900s. The first known discovery of ore in this area was by Colonel Patrick E. Connor, who instigated his men to search the area in bringing non-Mormons to the Utah region; the finding of silver and lead sparked the first silver mines in Park City in the 1860s.
Park City's large mining boom brought large crowds of prospectors setting up camps around the mountain terrain, marking the first mining settlements. Although it was not the first find, the Ontario mine, discovered by Herman Buden in 1872 and purchased by George Hearst, was the first major producer. By 1892 the Silver King Mine and its owners Thomas Kearns and David Keith took the spotlight as one of the most famous silver mines in the world. While silver was thriving in Utah, other mines around the world were depleted, drawing many of these miners to Park City; the town flourished with crowds of miners and wealth. However, the city nearly became a ghost town by the end of the 1950s because of a drop in the price of silver; the transformation of the town into a ski resort is attributed to the silver need during and after World War I economy. The war and Great Depression were crippling the economy. Once the site of the largest silver-mining camp in the country, the town was destroyed by fire in 1898.
Tragedy struck again in 1902. The mining community never recovered and the miners resorted to desperate measures; these desperate measures were based on the need to revive the economy, in doing so the miners gave up their mining heritage, turning to the rising interest in the West and skiing. The silver industry was suffering and the town was hanging by a thread when'Parkite' miners presented to Utahns Inc. a proposal for a ski resort called Treasure Mountain which ended up saving the town. This ski resort opened in 1963 on 10,000 acres of land the miners owned with mineral rights; this is said to be when tourists first began to visit Park City. This marks the beginning of the ski industry promoted by the Utah State Legislation as a destination resort. Since the rise of the skiing and tourist economy, Park City houses more tourists than residents, it has become a place of fame through the 2002 Winter Olympic Games and provides more attractions than before. In the 1950s, Utah began to feed on Park City as a mountain getaway, not until D. James Canon promoted winter sports in Utah, with the promotional scheme of "Ski Utah" and "The Greatest Snow on Earth" did many drive to see the city.
Utah drew in over 648,000 tourists in 1970 and now a yearly average of 4 million tourists. In a small town with a population of 8,000, the average number of tourists in Park City is 600,000 per year; this significant