Tetragonal trapezohedron

The tetragonal trapezohedron, or deltohedron, is the second in an infinite series of face-uniform polyhedra, which are dual to the antiprisms. It has eight faces, which are congruent kites, is dual to the square antiprism; this shape has been used as a test case for hexahedral mesh generation, simplifying an earlier test case of Rob Schneider in the form of a square pyramid with its boundary subdivided into 16 quadrilaterals. In this context the tetragonal trapezohedron has been called the cubical octahedron, quadrilateral octahedron, or octagonal spindle, because it has eight quadrilateral faces and is uniquely defined as a combinatorial polyhedron by that property. Adding four cuboids to a mesh for the cubical octahedron would give a mesh for Schneider's pyramid; as a simply-connected polyhedron with an number of quadrilateral faces, the cubical octahedron can be decomposed into topological cuboids with curved faces that meet face-to-face without subdividing the boundary quadrilaterals, an explicit mesh of this type has been constructed.

However, it is unclear whether a decomposition of this type can be obtained in which all the cuboids are convex polyhedra with flat faces. The tetragonal trapezohedron is first in a series of dual snub polyhedra and tilings with face configuration V3.3.4.3.n. Paper model tetragonal trapezohedron Weisstein, Eric W. "Trapezohedron". MathWorld

Pentagonal icositetrahedron

In geometry, a pentagonal icositetrahedron or pentagonal icosikaitetrahedron is a Catalan solid, the dual of the snub cube. In crystallography it is called a gyroid, it has two distinct forms. The pentagonal icositetrahedron can be constructed from a snub cube without taking the dual; the 6 square faces of the snub cube are kised to a height that the new triangles are coplanar with the triangles, tetrahedra are added to the 8 triangular faces that do not share an edge with a square to a height that the new triangles of the raised tetrahedra become coplanar to the triangles which do share an edge with a square. The result is the pentagonal icositetrahedron. Denote the tribonacci constant by t 1.8393. The pentagonal faces have four angles of cos−1 ≈ 114.8° and one angle of cos−1 ≈ 80.75°. The pentagon has three short edges of unit length each, two long edges of length t + 1/2 ≈ 1.42. The acute angle is between the two long edges. If its dual snub cube has unit edge length, its surface area and volume are: A = 3 22 4 t − 3 ≈ 19.299 94 V = 11 2 ≈ 7.4474 The pentagonal icositetrahedron has three symmetry positions, two centered on vertices, one on midedge.

Isohedral variations with the same chiral octahedral symmetry can be constructed with pentagonal faces having 3 edge lengths. This variation shown can be constructed by adding pyramids to 6 square faces and 8 triangular faces of a snub cube such that the new triangular faces with 3 coplanar triangles merged into identical pentagon faces; this polyhedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of polyhedra and tilings of pentagons with face configurations. These face-transitive figures have rotational symmetry; the pentagonal icositetrahedron is second in a series of dual snub polyhedra and tilings with face configuration V3.3.4.3.n. The pentagonal icositetrahedron is one of a family of duals to the uniform polyhedra related to the cube and regular octahedron. Williams, Robert; the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. Wenninger, Dual Models, Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511569371, ISBN 978-0-521-54325-5, MR 0730208 The Symmetries of Things 2008, John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strauss, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 Pentagonal Icositetrahedron – Interactive Polyhedron Model

Geometry

Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, relative position of figures, the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclid's Elements, set a standard for many centuries to follow. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC. Islamic scientists expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. Since and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, describing spaces that lie beyond the normal range of human experience.

While geometry has evolved throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, planes, surfaces and curves, as well as the more advanced notions of manifolds and topology or metric. Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. Contemporary geometry has many subfields: Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense; the mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, planes, triangles, similarity, solid figures and analytic geometry. Euclidean geometry has applications in computer science and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of linear algebra to study problems in geometry, it has applications in physics, including in general relativity. Topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, such as connectedness and compactness.

Convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis and functional analysis and important applications in number theory. Algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques, it has applications including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned with questions of relative position of simple geometric objects, such as points and circles, it shares many principles with combinatorics. Computational geometry deals with algorithms and their implementations for manipulating geometrical objects. Although being a young area of geometry, it has many applications in computer vision, image processing, computer-aided design, medical imaging, etc; the earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt in the 2nd millennium BC. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction and various crafts.

The earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, or frustum. Clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiter's position and motion within time-velocity space; these geometric procedures anticipated the Oxford Calculators, including the mean speed theorem, by 14 centuries. South of Egypt the ancient Nubians established a system of geometry including early versions of sun clocks. In the 7th century BC, the Greek mathematician Thales of Miletus used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. Pythagoras established the Pythagorean School, credited with the first proof of the Pythagorean theorem, though the statement of the theorem has a long history.

Eudoxus developed the method of exhaustion, which allowed the calculation of areas and volumes of curvilinear figures, as well as a theory of ratios that avoided the problem of incommensurable magnitudes, which enabled subsequent geometers to make significant advances. Around 300 BC, geometry was revolutionized by Euclid, whose Elements considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time, introduced mathematical rigor through the axiomatic method and is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today, that of definition, axiom and proof. Although most of the contents of the Elements were known, Euclid arranged them into a single, coherent logical framework; the Elements was known to all educated people in the West until the middle of the 20th century and its contents are still taught in geometry classes today. Archimedes of Syracuse used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, gave remarkably accurate approximations of Pi.

He studied the sp

Wythoff symbol

In geometry, the Wythoff symbol represents a Wythoff construction of a uniform polyhedron or plane tiling, from a Schwarz triangle. It was first used by Coxeter, Longuet-Higgins and Miller in their enumeration of the uniform polyhedra. A Wythoff symbol consists of a vertical bar, it represents one uniform polyhedron or tiling, although the same tiling/polyhedron can have different Wythoff symbols from different symmetry generators. For example, the regular cube can be represented by 3 | 4 2 with Oh symmetry, 2 4 | 2 as a square prism with 2 colors and D4h symmetry, as well as 2 2 2 | with 3 colors and D 2 h symmetry. With a slight extension, Wythoff's symbol can be applied to all uniform polyhedra. However, the construction methods do not lead to all uniform tilings in Euclidean or hyperbolic space. In three dimensions, Wythoff's construction begins by choosing a generator point on the triangle. If the distance of this point from each of the sides is non-zero, the point must be chosen to be an equal distance from each edge.

A perpendicular line is dropped between the generator point and every face that it does not lie on. The three numbers in Wythoff's symbol, p, q and r, represent the corners of the Schwarz triangle used in the construction, which are π / p, π / q and π / r radians respectively; the triangle is represented with the same numbers, written. The vertical bar in the symbol specifies a categorical position of the generator point within the fundamental triangle according to the following: p | q r indicates that the generator lies on the corner p, p q | r indicates that the generator lies on the edge between p and q, p q r | indicates that the generator lies in the interior of the triangle. In this notation the mirrors are labeled by the reflection-order of the opposite vertex; the p, q, r values are listed before the bar. The one impossible symbol | p q r implies the generator point is on all mirrors, only possible if the triangle is degenerate, reduced to a point; this unused symbol is therefore arbitrarily reassigned to represent the case where all mirrors are active, but odd-numbered reflected images are ignored.

The resulting figure has rotational symmetry only. The generator point can either be off each mirror, activated or not; this distinction creates 8 possible forms, neglecting one where the generator point is on all the mirrors. The Wythoff symbol is functionally similar to the more general Coxeter-Dynkin diagram, in which each node represents a mirror and the arcs between them – marked with numbers – the angles between the mirrors. A node is circled. There are seven generator points with each set of p, q, r: There are three special cases: p q | – This is a mixture of p q r | and p q s |, containing only the faces shared by both. | p q r – Snub forms are given by this otherwise unused symbol. | p q r s – A unique snub form for U75 that isn't Wythoff-constructible. There are 4 symmetry classes of reflection on the sphere, three in the Euclidean plane. A few of the infinitely many such patterns in the hyperbolic plane are listed. Point groups: dihedral symmetry, p = 2, 3, 4 … tetrahedral symmetry octahedral symmetry icosahedral symmetry Euclidean groups: *442 symmetry: 45°-45°-90° triangle *632 symmetry: 30°-60°-90° triangle *333 symmetry: 60°-60°-60° triangleHyperbolic groups: *732 symmetry *832 symmetry *433 symmetry *443 symmetry *444 symmetry *542 symmetry *642 symmetry...

The above symmetry groups only include the integer solutions on the sphere. The list of Schwarz triangles includes rational numbers, determine the full set of solutions of nonconvex uniform polyhedra. In the tilings above, each triangle is a fundamental domain, colored by and odd reflections. Selected tilings created by the Wythoff con

Cairo pentagonal tiling

In geometry, the Cairo pentagonal tiling is a dual semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. It is given its name, it is one of 15 known monohedral pentagon tilings. It is called MacMahon's net after Percy Alexander MacMahon and his 1921 publication New Mathematical Pastimes. Conway calls it a 4-fold pentille; as a 2-dimensional crystal net, it shares a special feature with the honeycomb net. Both nets are examples of standard realization, the notion introduced by M. Kotani and T. Sunada for general crystal nets; these are not regular pentagons: their sides are not equal, their angles in sequence are 120°, 120°, 90°, 120°, 90°. It is represented by with face configuration V3.3.4.3.4. It is similar to the prismatic pentagonal tiling with face configuration V3.3.3.4.4, which has its right angles adjacent to each other. The Cairo pentagonal tiling has two lower symmetry forms given as monohedral pentagonal tilings types 4 and 8: It is the dual of the snub square tiling, made of two squares and three equilateral triangles around each vertex.

This tiling can be seen as the union of two perpendicular hexagonal tilings, flattened by a ratio of 3. Each hexagon is divided into four pentagons; the two hexagons can be distorted to be concave, leading to concave pentagons. Alternately one of the hexagonal tilings can remain regular, the second one stretched and flattened by 3 in each direction, intersecting into 2 forms of pentagons; as a dual to the snub square tiling the geometric proportions are fixed for this tiling. However it can be adjusted to other geometric forms with the same topological connectivity and different symmetry. For example, this rectangular tiling is topologically identical. Truncating the 4-valence nodes creates a form related to the Goldberg polyhedra, can be given the symbol 2,1; the pentagons are truncated into heptagons. The dual 2,1 has all triangle, related to the geodesic polyhedra, it can be seen as a snub square tiling with its squares replaced by 4 triangles. The Cairo pentagonal tiling is similar to the prismatic pentagonal tiling with face configuration V3.3.3.4.4, two 2-uniform dual tilings and 2 3-uniform duals which mix the two types of pentagons.

They are drawn here with k-isohedral pentagons. The Cairo pentagonal tiling is in a sequence of dual snub polyhedra and tilings with face configuration V3.3.4.3.n. It is in a sequence of dual snub polyhedra and tilings with face configuration V3.3.n.3.n. Tilings of regular polygons List of uniform tilings Grünbaum, Branko. C.. Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1193-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Williams, Robert; the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. p. 38. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. Wells, The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Geometry. London: Penguin, p. 23, 1991. Keith Critchlow, Order in Space: A design source book, 1970, p. 77-76, pattern 3 Weisstein, Eric W. "Cairo Tessellation". MathWorld

Hyperbolic geometry

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry is a non-Euclidean geometry. The parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced with: For any given line R and point P not on R, in the plane containing both line R and point P there are at least two distinct lines through P that do not intersect R. Hyperbolic plane geometry is the geometry of saddle surfaces and pseudospherical surfaces, surfaces with a constant negative Gaussian curvature. A modern use of hyperbolic geometry is in the theory of special relativity Minkowski spacetime and gyrovector space; when geometers first realised they were working with something other than the standard Euclidean geometry they described their geometry under many different names. In the former Soviet Union, it is called Lobachevskian geometry, named after one of its discoverers, the Russian geometer Nikolai Lobachevsky; this page is about the 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry and the differences and similarities between Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry. Hyperbolic geometry can be extended to three and more dimensions.

Hyperbolic geometry is more related to Euclidean geometry than it seems: the only axiomatic difference is the parallel postulate. When the parallel postulate is removed from Euclidean geometry the resulting geometry is absolute geometry. There are two kinds of absolute geometry and hyperbolic. All theorems of absolute geometry, including the first 28 propositions of book one of Euclid's Elements, are valid in Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry. Propositions 27 and 28 of Book One of Euclid's Elements prove the existence of parallel/non-intersecting lines; this difference has many consequences: concepts that are equivalent in Euclidean geometry are not equivalent in hyperbolic geometry. Further, because of the angle of parallelism, hyperbolic geometry has an absolute scale, a relation between distance and angle measurements. Single lines in hyperbolic geometry have the same properties as single straight lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, two points uniquely define a line, lines can be infinitely extended.

Two intersecting lines have the same properties as two intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, two lines can intersect in no more than one point, intersecting lines have equal opposite angles, adjacent angles of intersecting lines are supplementary; when we add a third line there are properties of intersecting lines that differ from intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, given 2 intersecting lines there are infinitely many lines that do not intersect either of the given lines; these properties all are independent of the model used if the lines may look radically different. Non-intersecting lines in hyperbolic geometry have properties that differ from non-intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry: For any line R and any point P which does not lie on R, in the plane containing line R and point P there are at least two distinct lines through P that do not intersect R; this implies that there are through P an infinite number of coplanar lines that do not intersect R.

These non-intersecting lines are divided into two classes: Two of the lines are limiting parallels: there is one in the direction of each of the ideal points at the "ends" of R, asymptotically approaching R, always getting closer to R, but never meeting it. All other non-intersecting lines have a point of minimum distance and diverge from both sides of that point, are called ultraparallel, diverging parallel or sometimes non-intersecting; some geometers use parallel lines instead of limiting parallel lines, with ultraparallel lines being just non-intersecting. These limiting parallels make an angle θ with PB. For ultraparallel lines, the ultraparallel theorem states that there is a unique line in the hyperbolic plane, perpendicular to each pair of ultraparallel lines. In hyperbolic geometry, the circumference of a circle of radius r is greater than 2 π r. Let R = 1 − K, where K is the Gaussian curvature of the plane. In hyperbolic geometry, K is negative, so the square root is of a positive number.

The circumference of a circle of radius r is equal to: 2 π R sinh r R. And the area of the enclosed disk is: 4 π R 2 sinh 2 r 2 R = 2 π R 2. Therefore, in hyperbolic geometry the ratio of a circle's circumference to its radius is always greater than 2 π, though