Triangular tiling
In geometry, the triangular tiling or triangular tessellation is one of the three regular tilings of the Euclidean plane. Because the internal angle of the equilateral triangle is 60 degrees, six triangles at a point occupy a full 360 degrees; the triangular tiling has Schläfli symbol of. Conway calls it a deltille, named from the triangular shape of the Greek letter delta; the triangular tiling can be called a kishextille by a kis operation that adds a center point and triangles to replace the faces of a hextille. It is one of three regular tilings of the plane; the other two are the hexagonal tiling. There are 9 distinct uniform colorings of a triangular tiling. Three of them can be derived from others by repeating colors: 111212 and 111112 from 121213 by combining 1 and 3, while 111213 is reduced from 121314. There is one class of Archimedean colorings, 111112, not 1-uniform, containing alternate rows of triangles where every third is colored; the example shown is 2-uniform, but there are infinitely many such Archimedean colorings that can be created by arbitrary horizontal shifts of the rows.
The vertex arrangement of the triangular tiling is called an A2 lattice. It is the 2-dimensional case of a simplectic honeycomb; the A*2 lattice can be constructed by the union of all three A2 lattices, equivalent to the A2 lattice. + + = dual of = The vertices of the triangular tiling are the centers of the densest possible circle packing. Every circle is in contact with 6 other circles in the packing; the packing density is π⁄√12 or 90.69%. The voronoi cell of a triangular tiling is a hexagon, so the voronoi tessellation, the hexagonal tiling, has a direct correspondence to the circle packings. Triangular tilings can be made with the equivalent topology as the regular tiling. With identical faces and vertex-transitivity, there are 5 variations. Symmetry given assumes all faces are the same color; the planar tilings are related to polyhedra. Putting fewer triangles on a vertex leaves a gap and allows it to be folded into a pyramid; these can be expanded to Platonic solids: five and three triangles on a vertex define an icosahedron and tetrahedron respectively.
This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular polyhedra with Schläfli symbols, continuing into the hyperbolic plane. It is topologically related as a part of sequence of Catalan solids with face configuration Vn.6.6, continuing into the hyperbolic plane. Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling. Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. There are 4 regular complex apeirogons. Regular complex apeirogons have edges, where edges can contain 2 or more vertices. Regular apeirogons pr are constrained by: 1/p + 2/q + 1/r = 1. Edges have p vertices, vertex figures are r-gonal; the first is made of 2-edges, next two are triangular edges, the last has overlapping hexagonal edges. There are three Laves tilings made of single type of triangles: Triangular tiling honeycomb Simplectic honeycomb Tilings of regular polygons List of uniform tilings Isogrid Coxeter, H.
S. M. Regular Polytopes, Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8 p. 296, Table II: Regular honeycombs Grünbaum, Branko. C.. Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1193-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Williams, Robert; the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. P35 John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 Weisstein, Eric W. "Triangular Grid". MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Regular tessellation". MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Uniform tessellation". MathWorld. Klitzing, Richard. "2D Euclidean tilings x3o6o - trat - O2"
Truncated hexagonal tiling
In geometry, the truncated hexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are one triangle on each vertex; as the name implies this tiling is constructed by a truncation operation applies to a hexagonal tiling, leaving dodecagons in place of the original hexagons, new triangles at the original vertex locations. It is given an extended Schläfli symbol of t. Conway calls it a truncated hextille, constructed as a truncation operation applied to a hexagonal tiling. There are 3 regular and 8 semiregular tilings in the plane. There is only one uniform coloring of a truncated hexagonal tiling; the dodecagonal faces can be distorted into different geometries, like: Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling. Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct; this tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of uniform truncated polyhedra with vertex configurations, Coxeter group symmetry.
Two 2-uniform tilings are related by dissected the dodecagons into a central hexagonal and 6 surrounding triangles and squares. The truncated hexagonal tiling can be used as a circle packing, placing equal diameter circles at the center of every point; every circle is in contact with 3 other circles in the packing. This is the lowest density packing; the triakis triangular tiling is a tiling of the Euclidean plane. It is an equilateral triangular tiling with each triangle divided into three obtuse triangles from the center point, it is labeled by face configuration V3.12.12 because each isosceles triangle face has two types of vertices: one with 3 triangles, two with 12 triangles. Conway calls it a kisdeltille, constructed as a kis operation applied to a triangular tiling. In Japan the pattern is called asanoha for hemp leaf, although the name applies to other triakis shapes like the triakis icosahedron and triakis octahedron, it is the dual tessellation of the truncated hexagonal tiling which has one triangle and two dodecagons at each vertex.
It is one including the regular duals. Tilings of regular polygons List of uniform tilings John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 Grünbaum, Branko. C.. Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1193-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Williams, Robert; the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. p. 39. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. Keith Critchlow, Order in Space: A design source book, 1970, p. 69-61, Pattern E, Dual p. 77-76, pattern 1 Dale Seymour and Jill Britton, Introduction to Tessellations, 1989, ISBN 978-0866514613, pp. 50–56, dual p. 117 Weisstein, Eric W. "Semiregular tessellation". MathWorld. Klitzing, Richard. "2D Euclidean tilings o3x6x - toxat - O7"
Wythoff symbol
In geometry, the Wythoff symbol represents a Wythoff construction of a uniform polyhedron or plane tiling, from a Schwarz triangle. It was first used by Coxeter, Longuet-Higgins and Miller in their enumeration of the uniform polyhedra. A Wythoff symbol consists of a vertical bar, it represents one uniform polyhedron or tiling, although the same tiling/polyhedron can have different Wythoff symbols from different symmetry generators. For example, the regular cube can be represented by 3 | 4 2 with Oh symmetry, 2 4 | 2 as a square prism with 2 colors and D4h symmetry, as well as 2 2 2 | with 3 colors and D 2 h symmetry. With a slight extension, Wythoff's symbol can be applied to all uniform polyhedra. However, the construction methods do not lead to all uniform tilings in Euclidean or hyperbolic space. In three dimensions, Wythoff's construction begins by choosing a generator point on the triangle. If the distance of this point from each of the sides is non-zero, the point must be chosen to be an equal distance from each edge.
A perpendicular line is dropped between the generator point and every face that it does not lie on. The three numbers in Wythoff's symbol, p, q and r, represent the corners of the Schwarz triangle used in the construction, which are π / p, π / q and π / r radians respectively; the triangle is represented with the same numbers, written. The vertical bar in the symbol specifies a categorical position of the generator point within the fundamental triangle according to the following: p | q r indicates that the generator lies on the corner p, p q | r indicates that the generator lies on the edge between p and q, p q r | indicates that the generator lies in the interior of the triangle. In this notation the mirrors are labeled by the reflection-order of the opposite vertex; the p, q, r values are listed before the bar. The one impossible symbol | p q r implies the generator point is on all mirrors, only possible if the triangle is degenerate, reduced to a point; this unused symbol is therefore arbitrarily reassigned to represent the case where all mirrors are active, but odd-numbered reflected images are ignored.
The resulting figure has rotational symmetry only. The generator point can either be off each mirror, activated or not; this distinction creates 8 possible forms, neglecting one where the generator point is on all the mirrors. The Wythoff symbol is functionally similar to the more general Coxeter-Dynkin diagram, in which each node represents a mirror and the arcs between them – marked with numbers – the angles between the mirrors. A node is circled. There are seven generator points with each set of p, q, r: There are three special cases: p q | – This is a mixture of p q r | and p q s |, containing only the faces shared by both. | p q r – Snub forms are given by this otherwise unused symbol. | p q r s – A unique snub form for U75 that isn't Wythoff-constructible. There are 4 symmetry classes of reflection on the sphere, three in the Euclidean plane. A few of the infinitely many such patterns in the hyperbolic plane are listed. Point groups: dihedral symmetry, p = 2, 3, 4 … tetrahedral symmetry octahedral symmetry icosahedral symmetry Euclidean groups: *442 symmetry: 45°-45°-90° triangle *632 symmetry: 30°-60°-90° triangle *333 symmetry: 60°-60°-60° triangleHyperbolic groups: *732 symmetry *832 symmetry *433 symmetry *443 symmetry *444 symmetry *542 symmetry *642 symmetry...
The above symmetry groups only include the integer solutions on the sphere. The list of Schwarz triangles includes rational numbers, determine the full set of solutions of nonconvex uniform polyhedra. In the tilings above, each triangle is a fundamental domain, colored by and odd reflections. Selected tilings created by the Wythoff con
John Horton Conway
John Horton Conway is an English mathematician active in the theory of finite groups, knot theory, number theory, combinatorial game theory and coding theory. He has contributed to many branches of recreational mathematics, notably the invention of the cellular automaton called the Game of Life. Conway spent the first half of his long career at the University of Cambridge, in England, the second half at Princeton University in New Jersey, where he now holds the title Professor Emeritus. Conway was born in the son of Cyril Horton Conway and Agnes Boyce, he became interested in mathematics at a early age. By the age of eleven his ambition was to become a mathematician. After leaving sixth form, Conway entered Caius College, Cambridge to study mathematics. Conway, a "terribly introverted adolescent" in school, interpreted his admission to Cambridge as an opportunity to transform himself into a new person: an "extrovert", he was awarded his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1959 and began to undertake research in number theory supervised by Harold Davenport.
Having solved the open problem posed by Davenport on writing numbers as the sums of fifth powers, Conway began to become interested in infinite ordinals. It appears that his interest in games began during his years studying the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos, where he became an avid backgammon player, spending hours playing the game in the common room, he was awarded his doctorate in 1964 and was appointed as College Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. After leaving Cambridge in 1986, he took up the appointment to the John von Neumann Chair of Mathematics at Princeton University. Conway is known for the invention of the Game of Life, one of the early examples of a cellular automaton, his initial experiments in that field were done with pen and paper, long before personal computers existed. Since the game was introduced by Martin Gardner in Scientific American in 1970, it has spawned hundreds of computer programs, web sites, articles, it is a staple of recreational mathematics.
There is an extensive wiki devoted to cataloging the various aspects of the game. From the earliest days it has been a favorite in computer labs, both for its theoretical interest and as a practical exercise in programming and data display. At times Conway has said he hates the Game of Life–largely because it has come to overshadow some of the other deeper and more important things he has done; the game did help launch a new branch of mathematics, the field of cellular automata. The Game of Life is now known to be Turing complete. Conway's career is intertwined with mathematics popularizer and Scientific American columnist Martin Gardner; when Gardner featured Conway's Game of Life in his Mathematical Games column in October 1970, it became the most read of all his columns and made Conway an instant celebrity. Gardner and Conway had first corresponded in the late 1950s, over the years Gardner had written about recreational aspects of Conway's work. For instance, he discussed Conway's game of Sprouts and his angel and devil problem.
In the September 1976 column he reviewed Conway's book On Numbers and Games and introduced the public to Conway's surreal numbers. Conferences called Gathering 4 Gardner are held every two years to celebrate the legacy of Martin Gardner, Conway himself has been a featured speaker at these events, discussing various aspects of recreational mathematics. Conway is known for his contributions to combinatorial game theory, a theory of partisan games; this he developed with Elwyn Berlekamp and Richard Guy, with them co-authored the book Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays. He wrote the book On Numbers and Games which lays out the mathematical foundations of CGT, he is one of the inventors of sprouts, as well as philosopher's football. He developed detailed analyses of many other games and puzzles, such as the Soma cube, peg solitaire, Conway's soldiers, he came up with the angel problem, solved in 2006. He invented a new system of numbers, the surreal numbers, which are related to certain games and have been the subject of a mathematical novel by Donald Knuth.
He invented a nomenclature for exceedingly large numbers, the Conway chained arrow notation. Much of this is discussed in the 0th part of ONAG. In the mid-1960s with Michael Guy, son of Richard Guy, Conway established that there are sixty-four convex uniform polychora excluding two infinite sets of prismatic forms, they discovered the grand antiprism in the only non-Wythoffian uniform polychoron. Conway has suggested a system of notation dedicated to describing polyhedra called Conway polyhedron notation. In the theory of tessellations, he devised the Conway criterion which describes rules for deciding if a prototile will tile the plane, he investigated lattices in higher dimensions, was the first to determine the symmetry group of the Leech lattice. In knot theory, Conway formulated a new variation of the Alexander polynomial and produced a new invariant now called the Conway polynomial. After lying dormant for more than a decade, this concept became central to work in the 1980s on the novel knot polynomials.
Conway further developed tangle theory and invented a system of notation for tabulating knots, nowadays known as Conway notation, while correcting a number of errors in the 19th century knot tables and extending them to include all but four of the non-alternating primes with 11 crossings. See Topology Proceedings 7 118, he was the primary author of the ATLAS of Finite Groups giving prope
Hexagonal tiling
In geometry, the hexagonal tiling or hexagonal tessellation is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane, in which three hexagons meet at each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of or t. English mathematician John Conway calls it a hextille; the internal angle of the hexagon is 120 degrees so three hexagons at a point make a full 360 degrees. It is one of three regular tilings of the plane; the other two are the square tiling. The hexagonal tiling is the densest way to arrange circles in two dimensions; the Honeycomb conjecture states that the hexagonal tiling is the best way to divide a surface into regions of equal area with the least total perimeter. The optimal three-dimensional structure for making honeycomb was investigated by Lord Kelvin, who believed that the Kelvin structure is optimal. However, the less regular Weaire–Phelan structure is better; this structure exists in the form of graphite, where each sheet of graphene resembles chicken wire, with strong covalent carbon bonds. Tubular graphene sheets have been synthesised.
They have many potential applications, due to electrical properties. Silicene is similar. Chicken wire consists of a hexagonal lattice of wires; the hexagonal tiling appears in many crystals. In three dimensions, the face-centered cubic and hexagonal close packing are common crystal structures, they are the densest known sphere packings in three dimensions, are believed to be optimal. Structurally, they comprise parallel layers of hexagonal tilings, similar to the structure of graphite, they differ in the way that the layers are staggered from each other, with the face-centered cubic being the more regular of the two. Pure copper, amongst other materials, forms a face-centered cubic lattice. There are three distinct uniform colorings of a hexagonal tiling, all generated from reflective symmetry of Wythoff constructions; the represent the periodic repeat of one colored tile, counting hexagonal distances as h first, k second. The same counting is used in the Goldberg polyhedra, with a notation h,k, can be applied to hyperbolic tilings for p>6.
The 3-color tiling is a tessellation generated by the order-3 permutohedrons. A chamferred hexagonal tiling replacing edges with new hexagons and transforms into another hexagonal tiling. In the limit, the original faces disappear, the new hexagons degenerate into rhombi, it becomes a rhombic tiling; the hexagons can be dissected into sets of 6 triangles. This process leads to two 2-uniform tilings, the triangular tiling: The hexagonal tiling can be considered an elongated rhombic tiling, where each vertex of the rhombic tiling is stretched into a new edge; this is similar to the relation of the rhombic dodecahedron and the rhombo-hexagonal dodecahedron tessellations in 3 dimensions. It is possible to subdivide the prototiles of certain hexagonal tilings by two, four or nine equal pentagons: This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular tilings with hexagonal faces, starting with the hexagonal tiling, with Schläfli symbol, Coxeter diagram, progressing to infinity; this tiling is topologically related to regular polyhedra with vertex figure n3, as a part of sequence that continues into the hyperbolic plane.
It is related to the uniform truncated polyhedra with vertex figure n.6.6. This tiling is a part of a sequence of truncated rhombic polyhedra and tilings with Coxeter group symmetry; the cube can be seen as a rhombic hexahedron. The truncated forms have regular n-gons at the truncated vertices, nonregular hexagonal faces. Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling. Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. There are 3 types of monohedral convex hexagonal tilings, they are all isohedral. Each has parametric variations within a fixed symmetry. Type 2 contains glide reflections, is 2-isohedral keeping chiral pairs distinct. Hexagonal tilings can be made with the identical topology as the regular tiling. With isohedral faces, there are 13 variations. Symmetry given assumes all faces are the same color. Colors here represent the lattice positions.
Single-color lattices are parallelogon hexagons. Other isohedrally-tiled topological hexagonal tilings are seen as quadrilaterals and pentagons that are not edge-to-edge, but interpreted as colinear adjacent edges: The 2-uniform and 3-uniform tessellations have a rotational degree of freedom which distorts 2/3 of the hexagons, including a colinear case that can be seen as a non-edge-to-edge tiling of hexagons and larger triangles, it can be distorted into a chiral 4-colored tri-directional weaved pattern, distorting some hexagons into parallelograms. The weaved pattern with 2 colored faces have rotational 632 symmetry. A chevron pattern has pmg symmetry, lowered to p1 with 3 or 4 colored tiles; the hexagonal tiling can be used as a circle packing, placing equal diameter circles at the center of every point. Every circle is in contact with 3 other circles in the packing; the gap inside each hexagon allows for one circle, creating the densest packing from the triangular tiling, with each circle contact with the maximum of 6 circles.
There are 2 regular complex apeirogons, sharing the vertices of the
Wallpaper group
A wallpaper group is a mathematical classification of a two-dimensional repetitive pattern, based on the symmetries in the pattern. Such patterns occur in architecture and decorative art in textiles and tiles as well as wallpaper. A proof that there were only 17 distinct groups of possible patterns was first carried out by Evgraf Fedorov in 1891 and derived independently by George Pólya in 1924; the proof that the list of wallpaper groups was complete only came after the much harder case of space groups had been done. The seventeen possible wallpaper groups are listed below in § The seventeen groups. Wallpaper groups are two-dimensional symmetry groups, intermediate in complexity between the simpler frieze groups and the three-dimensional space groups. Wallpaper groups categorize patterns by their symmetries. Subtle differences may place similar patterns in different groups, while patterns that are different in style, scale or orientation may belong to the same group. Consider the following examples: Examples A and B have the same wallpaper group.
Example C has a different wallpaper group, called p4g or 4*2. The fact that A and B have the same wallpaper group means that they have the same symmetries, regardless of details of the designs, whereas C has a different set of symmetries despite any superficial similarities. A symmetry of a pattern is, loosely speaking, a way of transforming the pattern so that it looks the same after the transformation. For example, translational symmetry is present when the pattern can be translated some finite distance and appear unchanged. Think of shifting a set of vertical stripes horizontally by one stripe; the pattern is unchanged. Speaking, a true symmetry only exists in patterns that repeat and continue indefinitely. A set of only, five stripes does not have translational symmetry—when shifted, the stripe on one end "disappears" and a new stripe is "added" at the other end. In practice, classification is applied to finite patterns, small imperfections may be ignored. Sometimes two categorizations are meaningful, one based on shapes alone and one including colors.
When colors are ignored there may be more symmetry. In black and white there are 17 wallpaper groups; the types of transformations that are relevant here are called Euclidean plane isometries. For example: If we shift example B one unit to the right, so that each square covers the square, adjacent to it the resulting pattern is the same as the pattern we started with; this type of symmetry is called a translation. Examples A and C are similar. If we turn example B clockwise by 90°, around the centre of one of the squares, again we obtain the same pattern; this is called a rotation. Examples A and C have 90° rotations, although it requires a little more ingenuity to find the correct centre of rotation for C. We can flip example B across a horizontal axis that runs across the middle of the image; this is called a reflection. Example B has reflections across a vertical axis, across two diagonal axes; the same can be said for A. However, example C is different, it only has reflections in vertical directions, not across diagonal axes.
If we flip across a diagonal line, we do not get the same pattern back. This is part of the reason that the wallpaper group of A and B is different from the wallpaper group of C. Another transformation is "Glide", a combination of reflection and translation parallel to the line of reflection. Mathematically, a wallpaper group or plane crystallographic group is a type of topologically discrete group of isometries of the Euclidean plane that contains two linearly independent translations. Two such isometry groups are of the same type if they are the same up to an affine transformation of the plane, thus e.g. a translation of the plane does not affect the wallpaper group. The same applies for a change of angle between translation vectors, provided that it does not add or remove any symmetry. Unlike in the three-dimensional case, we can equivalently restrict the affine transformations to those that preserve orientation, it follows from the Bieberbach theorem that all wallpaper groups are different as abstract groups.
2D patterns with double translational symmetry can be categorized according to their symmetry group type. Isometries of the Euclidean plane fall into four categories. Translations, denoted by Tv, where v is a vector in R2; this has the effect of shifting the plane applying displacement vector v. Rotations, denoted by Rc,θ, where c is a point in the plane, θ is the angle of rotation. Reflections, or mirror isometries, denoted by FL, where L is a line in R2.. This has the effect of reflecting the plane in the line L, called the reflection axis or the associated mirror. Glide reflections, denoted by GL,d, where L is a line in R2 and d is a distance; this is a combination of a reflection in the line L and a translation along L by a distance d. The condition
Rhombitrihexagonal tiling
In geometry, the rhombitrihexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are one triangle, two squares, one hexagon on each vertex, it has Schläfli symbol of rr. John Conway calls it a rhombihexadeltille, it can be considered a cantellated by Norman Johnson's terminology or an expanded hexagonal tiling by Alicia Boole Stott's operational language. There are 3 regular and 8 semiregular tilings in the plane. There is only one uniform coloring in a rhombitrihexagonal tiling. With edge-colorings there is a half symmetry form orbifold notation; the hexagons can be considered as t with two types of edges. It has Coxeter diagram, Schläfli symbol s2; the bicolored square can be distorted into isosceles trapezoids. In the limit, where the rectangles degenerate into edges, a triangular tiling results, constructed as a snub triangular tiling. There is one related 2-uniform tiling; the rhombitrihexagonal tiling is related to the truncated trihexagonal tiling by replacing some of the hexagons and surrounding squares and triangles with dodecagons: The tiling can be replaced by circular edges, centered on the hexagons as a overlapping circles grid.
In quilting it is call Jacks chain. The rhombitrihexagonal tiling can be used as a circle packing, placing equal diameter circles at the center of every point; every circle is in contact with 4 other circles in the packing. The translational lattice domain contains 6 distinct circles. There are eight uniform tilings. Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct; this tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of cantellated polyhedra with vertex figure, continues as tilings of the hyperbolic plane. These vertex-transitive figures have reflectional symmetry; the deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a dual of the semiregular tiling known as the rhombitrihexagonal tiling. Conway calls it a tetrille; the edges of this tiling can be formed by the intersection overlay of the regular triangular tiling and a hexagonal tiling. Each kite face of this tiling has angles 120°, 90°, 60° and 90°.
It is one of only eight tilings of the plane in which every edge lies on a line of symmetry of the tiling. The deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a dual of the semiregular tiling rhombitrihexagonal tiling, its faces are kites. It is one including the regular duals; this tiling has face transitive variations, that can distort the kites into bilateral trapezoids or more general quadrillaterals. Ignoring the face colors below, the symmetry is p6m, the lower symmetry is p31m with 3 mirrors meeting at a point, 3-fold rotation points; this tiling is related to the trihexagonal tiling by dividing the triangles and hexagons into central triangles and merging neighboring triangles into kites. The deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a part of a set of uniform dual tilings, corresponding to the dual of the rhombitrihexagonal tiling; this tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of tilings with face configurations V3.4.n.4, continues as tilings of the hyperbolic plane. These face-transitive figures have reflectional symmetry.
Other deltoidal tilings are possible. Point symmetry allows the plane to be filled by growing kites, with the topology as a square tiling, V4.4.4.4, can be created by crossing string of a dream catcher. Below is an example with dihedral hexagonal symmetry. Another face transitive tiling with kite faces a topological variation of a square tiling and with face configuration V4.4.4.4. It is vertex transitive, with every vertex containing all orientations of the kite face. Tilings of regular polygons List of uniform tilings Branko. C.. Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1193-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Williams, Robert; the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. P40 John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 21, Naming Archimedean and Catalan polyhedra and tilings. Weisstein, Eric W. "Uniform tessellation". MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Semiregular tessellation".
MathWorld. Klitzing, Richard. "2D Euclidean tilings x3o6x - rothat - O8". Keith Critchlow, Order in Space: A design source book, 1970, p. 69-61, Pattern N, Dual p. 77-76, pattern 2 Dale Seymour and Jill Britton, Introduction to Tessellations, 1989, ISBN 978-0866514613, pp. 50–56, dual p. 116