Brass Eye is a British television comedy series parodying the current affairs news programming. A series of six episodes aired on Channel 4 in 1997, a further episode in 2001; the series was created and presented by Chris Morris, written by Morris, David Quantick, Peter Baynham, Jane Bussmann, Arthur Mathews, Graham Linehan and Charlie Brooker and directed by Michael Cumming. Planned as a spin-off from The Day Today, the pilot was passed on by the BBC. Channel 4 commissioned a new pilot, which would become called Brass Eye; the series satirised media portrayal of social ills, in particular sensationalism, unsubstantiated establishmentarian theory masquerading as fact, creation of moral panics, is a sequel to Morris's earlier spoof news programmes On the Hour and The Day Today. The series stars Morris's The Day Today colleague Doon Mackichan, along with Gina McKee, Mark Heap, Amelia Bullmore, Simon Pegg, Julia Davis, Claire Skinner, John Guerrasio, Hugh Dennis and Kevin Eldon. "Drugs"The second episode, "Drugs", has been described by professor Michael Gossop as illustrative of the ease in which anti-drug hysteria can be evoked in the United Kingdom.
In the opening scene of this episode, a voiceover tells viewers that there are so many drugs on the streets of Britain that "not the dealers know them all". An undercover reporter asks a purportedly real-life drug dealer in London for various fictitious drugs, including "Triple-sod", "Yellow Bentines" and "Clarky Cat", leaving the dealer puzzled and irritated until he tells the reporter to leave, he explains that possession of drugs without physical contact and the exchange of drugs through a mandrill are legal in English law. One drug mentioned was a fictitious drug called "Cake", described as being from Czechoslovakia, despite the country no longer existing when the episode was screened; the drug purportedly affected an area of the brain called "Shatner's Bassoon", while giving them a bloated neck due to "massive water retention", a "Czech neck", was referred to as "a made-up drug" during the show. Other celebrities such as Sir Bernard Ingham, Noel Edmonds, Rolf Harris were shown holding the bright-yellow cake-sized pill as they talked, with Bernard Manning telling viewers a fictitious story about how one girl threw up her own pelvis and describing how "One kiddy on Cake cried all the water out of his body.
Just imagine how his mother felt. It's a fucking disgrace". David Amess, the Conservative Member of Parliament for Basildon, was fooled into filming an elaborate video warning against the dangers of this drug, went as far as to ask a question about "Cake" in the UK Parliament, alongside real substances khat and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. In response, the Home Office minister incorrectly identified the fictitious drug "Cake" as a pseudonym for the hallucinogenic drug methylenedioxybenzylamphetamine. "Sex"Morris posed as a talk show host who took a starkly discriminatory attitude in favour of those with "Good AIDS" over those with "Bad AIDS". A special one-off edition of the show aired. Scheduled to broadcast on 5 July 2001, it was delayed as Channel 4 were unhappy with the timing in connection to the disappearances of 15-year-old Danielle Jones in June and 11-year-old Bunmi Shagaya in early July, it aired on Thursday 26 July 2001, was repeated on Friday 27 July 2001. It tackled paedophilia and the moral panic in parts of the British media following the murder of Sarah Payne, focusing on the name-and-shame campaign conducted by the News of the World in its wake.
This included an incident in 2000 in which a paediatrician in Newport had the word "PAEDO" daubed in yellow paint on her home. News of the World's Editor Rebekah Brooks would years discuss this campaign at the Leveson Inquiry. To illustrate the media's knee-jerk reaction to the subject, various celebrities were duped into presenting fatuous and ridiculous pieces to camera in the name of a campaign against paedophiles. Gary Lineker and Phil Collins endorsed a spoof charity, Nonce Sense, with Collins saying, "I'm talking Nonce Sense!" Tomorrow's World presenter Philippa Forrester and ITN reporter Nicholas Owen were shown explaining the details of fictional "Hidden Online Entrapment Control System", or HOECS computer games, which online paedophiles were using to abuse children via the internet. Capital Radio DJ Neil "Doctor" Fox told viewers that "paedophiles have more genes in common with crabs than they do with you and me", adding "Now, scientific fact—there's no real evidence for it—but it is scientific fact".
At one point, bogus CCTV footage was shown of a paedophile attempting to seduce children by stalking the streets while disguised as a school. Lineker described paedophile text slang, stating that "BALTIMORA" translates to "literally, I'm running at them now with my trousers down". Labour MP Syd Rapson related that paedophiles were using "an area of internet the size of Ireland". Richard Blackwood stated that internet paedophiles could make computer keyboards emit noxious fumes to subdue children, subsequently sniffing a keyboard and claiming that he could smell the fumes, which made him feel "suggestible". Blackwood warned watching parents that exposure to the fumes would make their children "smell like hammers". Other notable figures appearing as themselves were Sebastian Coe, Michael Ham
An executioner known as a public executioner, is a person who inflicts capital punishment ordered by the state or other legal authority, known in feudal terminology as high justice. The executioner was presented with a warrant authorizing or ordering him to execute the sentence; the warrant protects the executioner from the charge of murder. Common terms for executioners derived from forms of capital punishment—though they also performed other physical punishments—include hangman and headsman. In the military, the role of executioner was performed by a soldier, such as the provost. A common stereotype of an executioner is a hooded absolutist executioner. Symbolic or real, executioners were hooded, not robed in all black; as Hilary Mantel has pointed out in her 2018 Reith Lectures, "Why would an executioner wear a mask? Everybody knew who he was". While this task can be occasional in nature, it can be carried out in the line of more general duty by an officer of the court, the police, prison staff, or the military.
A special case is the tradition of the Roman fustuarium, continued in forms of running the gauntlet, where the culprit receives his punishment from the hands of the comrades gravely harmed by his crime, e.g. for failing in vital sentinel duty or stealing from a ship's limited food supply. Many executioners were professional specialists who traveled a circuit or region performing their duty, because executions were very numerous. Within this region, a resident executioner would administer non-lethal physical punishments, or apply torture. In medieval Europe, to the end of the early modern period, executioners were knackers, since pay from the rare executions was not enough to live off. In medieval Europe executioners taxed lepers and prostitutes, controlled gaming houses, they were in charge of the latrines and cesspools, disposing of animal carcasses. The term is extended to administrators of severe physical punishment, not prescribed to kill, but which may result in death. Executions in France persisted until 1977, the French Republic had an official executioner.
In Western Europe and its colonies, executioners were shunned by their neighbours, with their work as knackers disreputable. In Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers and in the film La veuve de Saint-Pierre, minor character executioners are ostracized by the villagers; the profession of executioner sometimes ran through a family in France, where the Sanson family provided six executioners between 1688 and 1847 and the Deibler dynasty provided five between 1879 and its 1981 abolition. The latter's members included Louis Deibler, his son Anatole, Anatole's nephew Jules-Henri Desfourneaux, his other nephew André Obrecht, André's nephew Marcel Chevalier. In Britain, the most notable dynasty was the Pierrepoints, who provided three executioners between 1902 and 1956 – Henry, his brother Thomas, Henry's son Albert. Unlike in France and many other European countries, far from being shunned, British executioners such as William Marwood, James Berry, Albert Pierrepoint, Harry Allen were known and respected by the public.
In Japan, executioners have been held in contempt as part of the burakumin class. In Memories of Silk and Straw, by Junichi Saga, one of the families surveyed in the Japanese village of Tsuchiura is that of an executioner family; this family does suffer social isolation though the family is somewhat well-off financially. In the Ottoman Empire, only Romani could be executioners. Executioners were seen as "damned" people and their graveyards were separate from public graveyards. There were no inscriptions on executioner tombstones, uncarved and unpolished simple rough stones were used. One of the oldest and largest "executioner graveyards" is in the Eyüp district in Istanbul. After the republican revolution in Turkey, executions continued to be performed by Romani executioners; this situation continued until the abolition of capital punishment in Turkey. List of executioners Scharfrichter Breaking wheel Executioner's sword Sword of justice Pierrepoint The Executioner
Anthony Peter Hatch, credited as pen name Tony Hatch, Fred Nightingale and Mark Anthony, is an English composer for musical theatre and television. He is a noted songwriter, pianist and producer. Hatch was born in Middlesex. Encouraged by his musical abilities, his mother – a pianist – enrolled him in the London Choir School in Wansunt Road, Kent when he was 10. Instead of continuing at the Royal Academy of Music, he left school in 1955 and found a job with Robert Mellin Music in London's Tin Pan Alley. Not long after working as a tea boy, he was writing songs and making a name for himself within the recording industry, joining The Rank Organisation's new subsidiary Top Rank Records. While he served his National Service, he became involved with the Band of the Coldstream Guards. On his return in 1959, Hatch began producing Top Rank artists such as Bert Weedon, the unknown Adam Faith, Josh MacRae, Jackie Dennis, Carry On comedy actor Kenneth Connor, The Knightsbridge Strings, started his own recording career with a cover version of Russ Conway's piano instrumental "Side Saddle".
In 1960, Garry Mills's recording of Hatch's composition "Look for a Star", featured in the film Circus of Horrors, became a Top Ten hit in the UK for Top Rank. Four versions of the song charted in the United States, including Mills' original and a version by'Garry Miles'. Top Rank, despite some worldwide success with artists such as Jack Scott and The Fireballs failed because of an unusual distribution arrangement with EMI. A swift succession of events ensued through 1961 that Top Rank was sold to EMI operated as a subsidiary, with hits by John Leyton, shuttered, with its artists transferred to other EMI labels. Hatch moved on to a part-time job with Pye Records, where he assisted his new mentor, Alan A. Freeman, with the recording of "Sailor", a number 1 hit for Petula Clark. Hatch continued to write songs for Pye artists, sometimes under the pseudonym'Mark Anthony', including the popular "Messing About on the River" for Josh MacRae. In 1963, Philadelphia teen idol Bobby Rydell hit the charts with "Forget Him" written and produced by Hatch, who went on to produce and write for other American stars such as Chubby Checker, Connie Francis, Pat Boone, Big Dee Irwin and Keely Smith.
In 1964 he wrote the Searchers' hit "Sugar and Spice". In November 1965, Hatch performed with David Bowie in the band the Lower Third, in an unsuccessful audition for the BBC's Talent Selection Group; the band weren't picked up for broadcast, with one member of the judging panel commenting "I don’t think they’ll get better with more rehearsals."While at Pye, he produced many of their artists: The Searchers, David Bowie, Mark Wynter, The Settlers, the Viscounts, Julie Grant, Gary Miller, Benny Hill, The Overlanders, Roy Budd, The Brook Brothers, Jimmy Justice, The Montanas, Miki & Griff, Emile Ford, Craig Douglas, Bruce Forsyth, Sue Nicholls, The Breakaways, Norman Vaughan, Buddy Greco, Sacha Distel, Anne Shelton, Sweet Sensation, David Parton, Graduate among others. His production of The Searchers' entire Pye catalogue was significant in that nearly every song was issued in true stereo; the only other UK chart acts with so much stereo were George Martin producing The Beatles and Ron Richards producing The Hollies.
Hatch recorded various lounge style albums with his orchestra. After "Valentino", the first of Hatch's compositions to be recorded by Petula Clark, he became her regular producer, they collaborated on a series of French-language recordings for Vogue Records. Hatch became one of her regular songwriting partners, in addition to supplying English lyrics for songs she had composed with French lyricists. In 1964 Hatch made his first trip to New York City in search of new material for Clark; the visit inspired him to write "Downtown" with The Drifters in mind. When Clark heard the still unfinished tune, she told him that if he could write lyrics to match the quality of the music, she would record the song as her next single, its release transformed her into a huge international star, topping charts globally early in 1965, introducing her to the US market. "Downtown" peaked at number two in Britain, stuck behind the Beatles' great hit "I Feel Fine". Clark charted with three consecutive hits written by Hatch: "I Know a Place", "You'd Better Come Home", "Round Every Corner", which all charted higher in the US than in the UK.
She and Hatch co-wrote "You're The One", which peaked at 22 in Britain but which gave The Vogues a major debut hit in the States. Tony Hatch and Petula Clark became established as the British equivalent of Burt Bacharach and Dionne Warwick. In 1965 Hatch's first album under his own name was released; the Downtown Sound of Tony Hatch, features instrumental versions of some of his best known songs, along with new compositions. The song "Call Me", written for and recorded by Petula Clark in 1965, was recorded by Chris Montez in the year. Released in November 1965, Montez's version entered the US Easy Listening Top 40 in Billboard that December, the Billboard Hot 100 in January 1966, peaking that March on the Easy Listening chart at #2 and on the Hot 100 at #22. Petu
The anatomical snuff box or snuffbox is a triangular deepening on the radial, dorsal aspect of the hand—at the level of the carpal bones the scaphoid and trapezium bones forming the floor. The name originates from the use of this surface for placing and sniffing powdered tobacco, or "snuff." It is sometimes referred to by its French name tabatière. The medial border of the snuffbox is the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus; the lateral border is a pair of parallel and intimate tendons, of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus. The proximal border is formed by the styloid process of the radius The distal border is formed by the approximate apex of the schematic snuffbox isosceles triangle; the floor of the snuffbox varies depending on the position of the wrist, but both the trapezium and the scaphoid can be palpated. Deep to the tendons which form the borders of the anatomical snuff box lies the radial artery, which passes through the anatomical snuffbox on its course from the normal radial pulse detecting area, to the proximal space in between the first and second metacarpals to contribute to the superficial and deep palmar arches.
In the anatomical snuffbox, the radial artery is related with the superficial branch of radial nerve near the styloid process of radius in 48%, while in 24% the radial artery is related to the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. The cephalic vein arises within the anatomical snuffbox, while the dorsal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve can be palpated by stroking along the extensor pollicis longus with the dorsal aspect of a fingernail; the radius and scaphoid articulate deep to the snuffbox to form the basis of the wrist joint. In the event of a fall onto an outstretched hand, this is the area through which the brunt of the force will focus; this results in these two bones being the most fractured of the wrist. In a case where there is localized tenderness within the snuffbox, knowledge of wrist anatomy leads to the speedy conclusion that the fracture is to be of the scaphoid; this is understandable as the scaphoid is a small, oddly shaped bone whose purpose is to facilitate mobility rather than confer stability to the wrist joint.
In the event of inordinate application of force over the wrist, this small scaphoid is to be the weak link. Scaphoid fracture is one of the most frequent causes of medico-legal issues. An anatomical anomaly in the vascular supply to the scaphoid is the area to which the blood supply is first delivered. Blood enters the scaphoid distally. In the event of a fracture the proximal segment of the scaphoid will be devoid of a vascular supply, will—if action is not taken—avascularly necrose within a sufferer's snuffbox. Due to the small size of the scaphoid and its shape, it is difficult to determine, early on, whether or not the scaphoid is indeed fractured with an x-ray. Further complications include. "Instant Anatomy"
A decorative box is a form of packaging, more than just functional, but intended to be decorative and artistic. Many such boxes are used for promotional packaging, both privately. Historical objects are called caskets if larger than a few inches in more than one dimension, with only smaller ones called boxes. Traditionally gift boxes used for promotional and seasonal gifts are made from sturdy paperboard or corrugated fiberboard; these boxes consist of a base and detachable lid and are made by using a die cutting process to cut the board. The box is covered with decorative paper. Gift boxes can be dressed with other gift packaging material, such as decorative ribbons and gift tissue paper; the most common type of decorative box is the feminine work box. It is fitted with a tray divided into many small compartments for needles, reels of silk and cotton, other necessaries for stitchery; the date of its origin is unclear, but 17th-century examples exist, covered with silk and adorned with beads and embroidery.
No lady would have been without her work box in the 18th century. In the second half of that century, elaborate pains were taken to make these boxes dainty and elegant. Work boxes are ordinarily portable. A jewelry box known as a casket, is a receptacle for trinkets, not only jewels, it may take a modest form, covered in leather and lined with satin, or it may reach the monumental proportions of the jewel cabinets which were made for Marie Antoinette, one of, at Windsor Castle, another at the Palace of Versailles. Snuff boxes are made in ones for the pocket and communal boxes made for table use. Pocket boxes are made to hold a small amount of snuff for immediate consumption. High-quality boxes have tightly-sealed lids to ensure that air does not penetrate the box, although wholly air-tight boxes are a rarity. Pocket boxes are intended keep two's supply. Table boxes are still to be found in the mess of certain old regiments – in the traditional'ram's head' style – and a communal snuff box is kept in the House of Commons in the UK parliament.
People of all social classes used these boxes when snuff was at its peak of popularity and the wealthy carried a variety of fancy snuff-boxes created by craftsmen in metal-work and enamellers. Some of these were elaborately made and decorated, rich in detail and made from precious or expensive materials such as gold and ivory and were adorned with artwork and precious stones. Boxes made. Alloys that resembled gold or silver were developed in the 18th and 19th centuries such as the ersatz gold Pinchbeck and the silver look-alike, Sheffield Plate. Other popular materials used in making these boxes include: Tortoise-shell, a favorite material owing to its satin lustre; the lids were adorned with a portrait, a classical vignette, portrait miniature, hardstone inlays, or micromosaic panel. Some of the most expensive just used subtly different colours of gold; the most used semi-precious metal was silver and snuffs of all shapes and sizes were made in that metal during snuff's great popularity. After snuff-taking ceased to be a general habit, the practice lingered among diplomats, doctors and other professionals as well as members of professions where smoking was not possible, such as miners and print workers and snuff still has a considerable following amongst ex-smokers.
Monarchs retained the habit of bestowing snuff-boxes upon ambassadors and other intermediaries as a form of honor. As Talleyrand explained, the diplomatic corps found a ceremonious pinch to be a useful aid to reflection in a business interview. At the coronation of George IV of England, Messrs. Rundell and Bridge, the court jewellers, were paid £8,205 for snuff-boxes for gifts to foreign representatives. Today snuffboxes are collected at many levels – the high-end of the market being reserved for gold boxes that have been jewelled or have original art work on them, or boxes with provenance linking them to world figures, such as Napoleon or Lord Nelson; some of the most expensive are French and German 18th century examples, the record auction price for a German box is £789,250, bid in 2003 at Christie's in London. Modern snuff boxes are made from a variety of woods and plastic and are manufactured in surprising numbers due to snuff's resurgence amongst tobacco connoisseurs and ex-smokers. A strong-box is a receptacle for money and securities.
Its place has been taken in modern life by the safe. Some have elaborate locks, such as Sir Thomas Bodley's strong-box in the Bodleian library, which has a locking mechanism in the under-side of the lid. In the Middle Ages people brought their own cutlery with them when eating away from home, the more expensive types came with their own custom-made leather cases and embossed in various designs; as cutlery became provided by the host, decorative cases for the knives, were left on display in the dining-room. Some of the most elegant and ornate were in the styles of
Black comedy known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter, considered taboo subjects that are considered serious or painful to discuss. Comedians use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, thus provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence, disease, sexuality and barbarism. Black comedy differs from blue comedy which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity and bodily fluids. Although the two are interrelated, black comedy is different from straightforward obscenity in that it is more subtle and does not have the explicit intention of offending people. In obscene humor, much of the humorous element comes from shock and revulsion, while black comedy might include an element of irony, or fatalism. For example, an archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy. Tristram, five years old at the time, starts to urinate out of an open window for lack of a chamber pot.
The sash circumcises him. Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes. Whereas the term black comedy is a broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying. Black humor can be related to the grotesque genre; the term black humor was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift. Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism relying on topics such as death. Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor, in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor. In his book, Breton included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim.
In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of Sade. Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West and Vladimir Nabokov, although at the time the genre was not known in the US; the concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman. The paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre. With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J. P. Donleavy, Edward Albee, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth, Vladimir Nabokov, Bruce Jay Friedman himself, Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today Roald Dahl, Kurt Vonnegut, Warren Zevon, Christopher Durang, Philip Roth.
The motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, stories and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner. Comedians, like Lenny Bruce, that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have been labeled with "black comedy". Sigmund Freud in his 1927 essay Humour puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer, it insists. Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else. Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors. According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity.
Its use was widespread from where it was imported to the United States. It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor; the concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune, which has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen. Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses, said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment