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Hugs

Hugs Hugs 98, is a bytecode interpreter for the functional programming language Haskell. Hugs is the successor to Gofer, was derived from Gofer version 2.30b. Hugs and Gofer were developed by Mark P. Jones, now a professor at Portland State University. Hugs comes with a simple graphics library; as a complete Haskell implementation, portable and simple to install, Hugs is sometimes recommended for new Haskell users. Hugs deviates from the Haskell 98 specification in several minor ways. For example, Hugs does not support mutually recursive modules. A list of differences exists; the Hugs prompt accepts expressions for evaluation, but not type or function definitions. Hugs can load Haskell modules at start-up. An example of "Typed records with extensibility", a non standard feature unique to Hugs. Running with H98 compatibility turned off to activate language extensions: runhugs -98 test.hs Official website

Rail electrification in Queensland

In the late 1970s and 1980s, a significant rail electrification program was completed in the Australian state of Queensland. The electrified Queensland network is the largest in Australia with over 2,000 kilometres electrified, the next biggest is New South Wales with 640 kilometres, served as passenger operations. Today all suburban passenger services in South East Queensland are operated by Queensland Rail electric multiple units, as well as electric tilt train services as far as Rockhampton. An extensive network of freight lines are operated to service the Central Queensland coal networks is operated by Aurizon; the two networks are joined by the electrified North Coast line from Brisbane to Rockhampton, the entire system is energised at 25 kV AC. In the 1980s, three significant programs were completed: Brisbane suburban network, opened between 1979 and 1988 Blackwater and Goonyella coal networks opened in 1986/87 Caboolture to Gladstone section of the North Coast line opened in 1988/89Since there have been a number of new lines opened that have been electrified.

As at 2014, 2,033 km of the 7,739 km Queensland network was electrified. The first electrification proposal was in 1897 when the Chief Engineer of the Queensland Railways was sent to study electrified railways in Europe and America. At the time the technology was in its infancy, the costs outweighed the benefits, with Brisbane having a population of just 120,000. Further studies were carried out in 1915, three decades more investigations were carried out. After World War II the Brisbane suburban network had become run down, coal shortages were affecting the ability to run regular services. A committee was appointed to investigate, delivering their report in November 1947, it recommended the electrification of the suburban network by 1959 with the 1.5 kV DC system. 290 km of single track including sidings would be involved, covering the lines to Shorncliffe, Yeerongpilly via Sherwood, Ferny Grove, Petrie and Kingston. The report was adopted in February 1950 and preliminary works started. However, the General Manager of QR's South Eastern Division decided track amplification was more important, with quadruplication of the line from Corinda to Zillmere given priority.

A cutback in loan funds in 1952-53 slowed the works further, a change of state government in 1957 saw the scheme abandoned in 1959. The main legacies of the project were the quadruplication of the Roma Street to Corinda section and the 112 stainless steel locomotive-hauled SX carriages, that were intended to be converted to electric multiple units at a date. Built by Commonwealth Engineering between 1961 and 1963, they replaced older wooden stock and were the first stainless steel carriages in suburban traffic, improved passenger comfort. In 1965, a transport study recommended the closure of the entire suburban railway network except for an electrified corridor between Darra and Zillmere. In 1970, another study recommended the electrification of the entire network with the 1.5 kV DC system, the construction of a link between South Brisbane and Roma Street. In 1973, the Federal Government under Gough Whitlam offered the states a two-third subsidy on approved public passenger transport projects.

The Queensland Government announced that it intended to electrify and modernize the Brisbane suburban network, but the Federal funding did not materialise and the state ended up funding the project itself. In 1974, Elrail Consultants and Transmark were engaged to advise of the design of the system, changed from 1.5 kV DC to the more efficient 25 kV AC system enabling the substation spacing to be increased. Tenders were called in 1975 for the electrification of 150 route kilometres of lines. Work to improve overhead clearances for the catenary, track amplification was carried out. A new four-track capable tunnel was built between Brunswick Street and Bowen Hills stations, the tunnel floors were lowered between Central and Fortitude Valley, Central and Roma Street. A new operations centre was opened at Mayne and the city sections of the network were resignalled. A flyover was built at Mayne for the Ferny Grove line to eliminate junction conflicts, to serve the new electric car sidings. Work was started on the Merivale Bridge to link the two halves of the network, separated by the Brisbane River.

The Petrie to Caboolture section was rebuilt with five deviations to permit 100 km/h running speeds over the entire line, with similar deviation works carried out on the Beenleigh line. Work began on erecting catenary on 16 May 1977, with a ceremony for the digging of the first post hole held at Ferny Grove station; the Ferny Grove to Darra section of line was chosen to be first due to the steep gradients and frequent stops. The contract for the trains themselves was awarded in 1977 to a consortium of Walkers Limited of Maryborough and ASEA of Sweden; the EMUs featured acceleration of 0.75 m/s² and braking of 1.0 m/s² enabling an all-stops train to operate a Ferny Grove service in 25 minutes, an eight-minute saving over diesel-hauled services. On 8 May 1979, the first section of the new system was energized, from Roma Street to Corinda to permit testing and driver training. On November 17 the same year, the Darra to Ferny Grove and Mayne Depot sections were opened. Although only four three-car sets were available for traffic at the time, services commenced between Darra to Ferny Grove on 19 November 1979.

All off-peak services were able to be provided by the four units, but most peak hour services remained diesel hauled, with additional EMU units introduced as they were delivered. Furth

Cadwallon ap Gruffydd

Cadwallon ap Gruffydd was the eldest son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd. Cadwallon was born in the village of Walesey in the county of Caernarvonshire in Wales, his mother was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin. Cadwallon's siblings were Hywel ap Gruffydd, Rhanullt verch Gruffydd, Tudwal ap Gruffydd, Gwenllian verch Gruffydd, Elen verch Gruffydd, Merinedd verch Gruffydd, Susanna verch Gruffydd, Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, Gwenllian II ap Rhys, Owain Gwynedd, Idwal ap Gruffydd, Duling ap Gruffydd, Membyr "Ddu" ap Gruffydd, Rhael verch Gruffudd, Annes verch Gruffydd, Margred ap Gruffydd, Gwladys Rhanullt verch Gruffydd. Cadwallon sisters Gwenllian married Susanna married Madog ap Maredudd. Cadwallon was half brother of Margred verch Gruffydd. Cadwallon appears first in history records as conspiring with his older brother Owain Gwynedd to take the district of Meirionydd within the medieval kingdom of Powys in 1123. In 1125 he killed the three rulers of the district Dyffryn Clwyd, being Meilyr ab Owain, Rhiryd ab Owain, Gronw ab Owain—his maternal uncles, i.e. his mother's brothers.

The district cantref of Dyffryn Clwyd was annexed into the kingdom of Gwynedd. Cadwallon is notoriously remembered by historians for murdering his uncles, as this ended the reign of the house of Edwin of Tegeingl as a regime. Cadwallon is found a few years in the valley of Dee at Mold, Wales. With his older brother Owain Gwynedd they worked together to restore the power of Gwynedd for their ageing father, they were military leaders and directed their father's armies which added the land regions of Meirionydd, Rhos and Dyffryn Clwyd to the kingdom of Gwynedd. In 1132 Cadwallon forged eastward to conquer more land for the kingdom of Gwynedd but was stopped in the area of Nanheudwy in 1133, near the town of Llangollen. An army from the kingdom of Powys defeated and killed him, his uncle Einion ab Owain ab Edwin was one of the instigators. Cadwallon's cousin Cadwgan ap Grown ab Owain played a part in his slaying. Other cousins were involved in Cadwallon's murder. Cadwallon married Gwenllian from an unknown family line.

They had a son named Cunedda ap Cadwallon ap Gruffydd ap Cynan. Genealogy records indicate he had another wife by the name of Alice of an unknown family line and had two sons, he is not to be confused with the other four "Cadwallon"s who are significant in Welsh history. Beeler, John. Warfare in England, 1066–1189. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Davies, John. A History of Wales. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-192633-9. Jones, Arthur; the History of Grufydd Ap Cynan. HardPress. ISBN 978-1-290-06490-3. Jones, Arthur; the History of Gruffydd Ap Cynan. The Welsh Text with Translation and Notes by Arthur Jones.. Charleston, South Carolina: Nabu Press. ISBN 117177804X. ISBN 978-1171778042. Llwyd, Humphrey. Cronica Walliae. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1638-2. Lloyd, John Edward. A History of Wales: From the Norman Invasion to the Edwardian Conquest. New York: Banes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-5241-8. Williams, Rob. A biographical dictionary of eminent Welshmen. From the earliest times to the present.

Llandovery, London: William Rees/Longman, Co. Cadwallon ap Gruffydd ancestor line

Proctor House (Victoria, Texas)

The Proctor House at 507 N. Glass in Victoria, Texas was built in 1900, it was designed by Jules Leffland and was built in 1900. The listing included two contributing buildings, it is an "understated Neoclassical Revival styled dwelling" designed by architect Jules Leffland for the Venable Bland Proctor family. Venable Proctor was a lawyer in the law firm of Proctor, Vandenberge and Mitchell for many years. A two-story frame carriage house with a cupola is a second contributing building on the property, it was listed on the NRHP as part of a study which listed numerous historic resources in the Victoria area. National Register of Historic Places listings in Victoria County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Victoria County

Cornish Place

Cornish Place is a listed building situated in the Neepsend area of the City of Sheffield. The building was the factory of James Dixon & Sons, a Britannia metal, Sheffield plate and Cutlery manufacturer. In the late 1990s the disused building was cleaned and converted into apartments, it is regarded as the most impressive cutlery works that still stands in Sheffield and rivals the cotton mills of Lancashire and the West Riding in terms of architectural quality and heritage; the most impressive parts of the building are the east and west ranges which have Grade II* listed status while the rest of the works have the lower Grade II rating. The "Cornish" in the buildings name is thought to derive from the manufacture of Britannia metal, made up of 93% tin which came from Cornwall; the firm was founded as Dixon & Smith in 1805 and was based on Silver Street in the centre of Sheffield. James Dixon’s association with the Cornish Place site began in 1819 when a rolling mill on the spot came into the possession of Dixon & Smith.

In 1822 Dixon set up business on his own and the rolling mill was converted into a workshop for the manufacture of silver and plated goods. During the 1830s the firm acquired land to the south of the original buildings and new workshops were constructed; the first phase of the works were a U shaped series of buildings which fronted onto Cornish Street and the River Don and consisted of workshops, casting shops and offices. The works were extended as the firm became more successful with the more notable part of the building, the east range, being built between 1851 and 1854 when the works were being converted to steam power; this range which completed the enclosure of the inner courtyard, consisted of an L shaped construction with the long side facing onto Ball Street and the short side fronting onto the River Don and joining up with older workshops. Further building took place between 1857-59 when warehouses and a showroom were added at the southern end of Ball Street; the west range was constructed around 1860 and because of its prominent position on Green Lane was given more decorative architecture with the works name carved on the parapet.

By the 1860s the works covered an area of over 700 people were employed there. The firm reached its peak in 1914 as Dixon’s sons and grandsons expanded the business, selling goods throughout America and the Empire. At that time between 900 and 1000 people were employed at the works. Up until World War I Cornish Place was powered by steam power with a steam engine situated in the engine house which had a 135 feet high chimney on top. Electrification of the works began during World War I although it was some time before steam power was not needed. Another effect of World War I was a reduction in demand for luxury products which hit the firm badly and from which they would never recover. Competition from Japan in the production of cutlery was a blow to Dixons, by the 1970s the firm was making regular annual losses and by 1982 had collapsed with debts of over £1,000,000. At that time there were only 57 employees and parts of Cornish Place were let out to other businesses. A re-launch of the firm was attempted in 1984 with 30 employees but this was short-lived and Dixons was absorbed into the Sheffield-based firm British Silverware.

Production continued at Cornish Place until 1992. In 1998 the disused Cornish Place was converted into apartments by the Sheffield-based architects Axis Architecture with construction work done by Gleesons; the east range which fronts onto Ball Street and the River Don is constructed from ashlar and brick with ashlar dressings and a Gablet roof made from slate and asbestos cement. There are four floors with the ground and first floor having attractive arched windows; the ground floor was made to be fireproof with extensive use of cast iron. The west range on Green Lane is brick built with decorative arched windows; the adjoining plating shop has distinctive large windows with clerestories above