Yale romanization of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still used in books and dictionaries for foreign learners of Cantonese, it shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization. Only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. Modern Cantonese has up to seven phonemic tones. Cantonese Yale represents these tones using a combination of diacritics and the letter h. Traditional Chinese linguistics treats the tones in syllables ending with a stop consonant as separate "entering tones".
Cantonese Yale follows modern linguistic conventions in treating these the same as the high-flat, mid-flat and low-flat tones, respectively. Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems by Meng Haoran: Cantonese phonology Jyutping Guangdong Romanization Cantonese Pinyin Sidney Lau romanisation S. L. Wong Barnett–Chao Romanisation Yale romanization of Mandarin Yale romanization of Korean Gwaan, Choi-wa 關彩華. English-Cantonese Dictionary - 英粤字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-970-6. Matthews, Stephen & Yip, Virginia. Cantonese. A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08945-X. Ng Lam, Sim-yuk & Chik, Hon-man. Chinese-English Dictionary 漢英小字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization, Mandarin in Pinyin. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-922-6. Comparison chart of Romanization for Cantonese with Yale, S. Lau, Toho and LSHK MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary Online Chinese Character to Yale Romanization of Cantonese lookup Conversion tool
Aberdeen, Hong Kong
Aberdeen is an area and town on southwest Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. Administratively, it is part of the Southern District. While the name "Aberdeen" could be taken in a broad sense to encompass the areas of Aberdeen, Wong Chuk Hang, Ap Lei Chau, Tin Wan, Wah Kwai Estate and Wah Fu Estate, it is more used to refer to the town only. According to the population census conducted in 2011, the total population of the Aberdeen area is 80,000. Aberdeen is famous not only to tourists but to Hong Kong locals for its floating village and floating seafood restaurants located in the Aberdeen Harbour; the Tanka people, who used to live on boats in the Aberdeen Harbour, are associated with the fishing industry, there are still several dozens of them living on boats in the harbour. This town is named Aberdeen in memory of George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and former Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. By extension, it is named after Aberdeen in Scotland.
"Aberdeen" is the name of a harbour and a housing estate: Aberdeen Harbour is the harbour between Aberdeen and Ap Lei Chau, is one of the nine harbours in Hong Kong. It is a popular tourist spot. During the fishing moratorium and typhoon weather, the Aberdeen Typhoon Shelters have provided a parking spot for fishing vessels owned by local fishermen. Aberdeen Centre is a private housing estate located in Aberdeen town, owned by Hutchison Whampoa Limited company; the twenty buildings, providing 2,788 private apartments, have provided a home for Hong Kong middle-class families for more than thirty years. Starting from the Ming Dynasty, "Hong Kong" became the original name for the presently-named Aberdeen village. In the early 19th century, foreigners who landed near Aberdeen Village mistook the name of the village "Hong Kong" for the whole island; when the foreigners realized their mistake, the name "Hong Kong" was commonly used to refer to the entire island. In Cantonese, Aberdeen is known indigenously as Hong Kong Tsai which means "Hong Kong Minor", "Son of Hong Kong" or "Little Hong Kong".
It is believed. Heung Kong Tsuen on Ap Lei Chau was mentioned on Ming-era maps. Another walled village called Heung Kong Wai in Wong Chuk Hang was founded during the Qianlong era of the Qing Dynasty. Hong Kong means "fragrant harbour", it was Aberdeen where incense trees from the New Territories used to be brought for export to other cities in China. One alternative Chinese name was Shek Pai Wan. In the Second World War, during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, the Chinese name of Aberdeen, Hong Kong Tsai, was transformed into Japanese as Moto Hong Kong, meaning "The Origin of Hong Kong"; the Aberdeen Kai-Fong Association, located at 180B Aberdeen Main Road, provides outreach and elderly services throughout the Southern District. It provides teenager services through the Harmony Life Enrichment Centre, it aims to bridge the divide between teenagers and the elderly in the district through the Linkages Centre, located in Carpark Block, Shek Pai Wan Estate. The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals organisation has a total of four social enterprises in Aberdeen.
Aberdeen is one of the 19 constituencies of the Southern District Council. Each constituency has one elected council member in the Southern District Council; as of 2018, the council member representing the area of Aberdeen is Pauline Yam. Moored in the harbour between Wong Chuk Hang and Ap Lei Chau, the Jumbo Floating Restaurant is a popular tourist spot. Designed to resemble a floating palace of imperial China, it has attracted over 30 million visitors since opening in 1976; the family-run Shan Loon Tse Kee Fish Balls Restaurant served Chiuchow-style fish ball with soup noodles for 65 years until it closed on 31 March 2012 due to rising fish prices and staffing problems. The Tse Kee Restaurant served famous guests such as Christopher Patten, former Governor of Hong Kong. Tse Kee Restaurant helped make "Aberdeen Fish Balls Noodles Culture" well-known. Six Jau Laus such as The Tao Heung and The Foo Lum are located in the neighborhood of Aberdeen. A traditional Cantonese restaurant called; the noodles restaurants group Nam Kee started in Aberdeen in the early 1980s, promoting the "Aberdeen Fish Balls Noodles Culture".
The Nam Kee has two restaurants in Aberdeen, along with thirteen others in Hong Kong. There are several other Chinese noodles restaurants located in Aberdeen Centre as well. Fast food restaurants such as McDonald's, KFC, Fairwood, Café de Coral and Maxim's MX are located in Aberdeen Centre, along with Cha Chaan Teng such as Tai Hing Restaurant and Tsui Wah Restaurant. Japanese restaurants such as Genki and Sushi Express; the Pacific Bar is located in Aberdeen Centre as well, serving foreign
Jardine's Lookout is a mountain and a residential area on the Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. It is located Southeast of the Wan Chai district and South of the Tai Hang area, at an altitude of about 433 metres. Nearby hills include Violet Hill and Mount Butler etc.. It is named after founder of Jardine Matheson, it was from here, in the days of the sailing ships, that a watch was kept for the first glimpse of the sails of the firm's clippers coming from India and London. As soon as a vessel was signalled, a fast whaleboat was sent out to collect Jardines' mails; the correspondence was rushed back to the office so that the directors could have the first possible information on the world's markets. Jardine's Lookout was the sight of fierce conflict in the Battle of Hong Kong and the Battle of Wong Nai Chung Gap; the Hong Kong Volunteer Defense Corps and Middlesex Machine gunners manned two pillboxes and other areas defending the pass around Jardine's Catchwater, as well as Canadian Winnipeg Grenadiers defending the adjacent Mount Butler.
Japanese forces, after landing on the North Shore of Hong Kong Island. The fighting was the preliminary conflict in the Battle of Wong Nai Chung Gap. Due to its scenic view and low population density, it has been considered an upper-class neighbourhood in Hong Kong. In addition, it is home to numerous Hong Kong socialites, such as Joey Yung, it is known as the Mid-Levels East. The area is a localised gated community with large detached houses in private lots and more moderate townhouses. Low-rise and high-rise apartments make up the rest of the community. In 2011, the area had a population of 15,533; this community is conveniently well-equipped with facilities. Jardine's Lookout is only a 10-minute drive to Central and 5 to Causeway Bay, where the Cross Harbor Tunnel is located, making travel to the Kowloon side easy. Jardine's Lookout has its own supermarket, florists, post office and many small provisions stores. French and Japanese International Schools are nearby; the German Swiss International School and Chinese International School are not far away.
Stanley Ho Joseph Lau Luen-hung, property tycoon Michelle Reis, actress Shu Qi, actress Michael Hui, actor Jacky Cheung, singer Leon Lai, ex-singer, businessman Sammi Cheng, singer Eason Chan, singer Denise Ho, singer Gigi Lai, actress Joey Yung will be moving in two combined flats of The Legend, on which she spent more than HKD $40 million, in a few years time. In June 2016 the Government of Canada sold the official residence of the Consul General located at 6 Goldsmith Road. There are buses that can bring residents to main districts in Hong Kong. French International School of Hong Kong houses primary school classes at its Jardine's Lookout campus. Names related to Jardine: Jardine's Bazaar Jardine House Yee Wo Street List of mountains and hills in Hong Kong
Happy Valley Racecourse
The Happy Valley Racecourse is one of the two racecourses for horse racing and is a tourist attraction in Hong Kong. It is located in Happy Valley on Hong Kong Island, surrounded by Wong Nai Chung Road and Morrison Hill Road; the capacity of the venue is 55,000. It was first built in 1845 to provide horse racing for the British people in Hong Kong; the area was swampland, but the only flat ground suitable for horse racing on Hong Kong Island. To make way for the racecourse, Hong Kong Government prohibited rice growing by villages in the surrounding area; the first race ran in December 1846. Over the years, horse racing became more popular among the Chinese residents. On 26 February 1918, a temporary grandstand collapsed, knocking over hot food stalls that set bamboo matting ablaze. In the fire that ensued at least 590 people died. Over the years, facilities have been added and extended, including extensively in 1995; the Happy Valley Racecourse is one of two racecourses in Hong Kong used by the Hong Kong Jockey Club for horse racing meets, the other being the Sha Tin Racecourse.
Races in Happy Valley take place on Wednesday nights and are open to the public as well as members of the Club. The Happy Valley Racecourse and its seven-storey stands are capable of accommodating 55,000 spectators; the inner field of the course contains sports and leisure facilities such as football and rugby fields, managed by the Leisure and Cultural Services Department. The Hong Kong Jockey Club Archive and Museum was set up in 1995 and opened on 18 October 1996, it is now located on the second floor of the Happy Valley Stand of the racecourse. There are four galleries in the museum: The Origin of Our Horses: Shows the migration route horses travelled in the early days from the northern part of China to Hong Kong. Shaping Sha Tin: Exhibits the history of construction of Sha Tin Racecourse. Understanding Horses: Exhibits the skeleton of the three-time Hong Kong Champion Silver Lining. Thematic Exhibitions: The history of the Jockey Club is exhibited. Selected charitable organisations and community projects supported by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust are displayed in this gallery.
There is a cinema and a souvenir shop in the museum. Hong Kong Tourism Board Hong Kong Jockey Club Hong Kong Racing Museum
The Race Course Fire Memorial
The Race Course Fire Memorial is a Hong Kong monument erected in memory to those who were killed in the Happy Valley Racecourse fire on 26 February 1918. The memorial was completed in 1922, is managed by the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, it is located next to Hong Kong Stadium. The site was added to the list of declared monuments by the Antiquities and Monuments Office in 2015. In September 2018, the only road to the memorial was damaged by fallen trees during the Typhoon Mangkhut; as of 8 October 2018, the Memorial remains inaccessible
Hong Kong Stadium
Hong Kong Stadium is the main sports venue of Hong Kong. Redeveloped from the old Government Stadium, it reopened as Hong Kong Stadium in March 1994, it has a maximum seating capacity of 40,000, including 18,260 at the main level, 3,173 at executive level, 18,510 upper level seats and 57 seats for wheelchair users. The stadium is located in Hong Kong Island, in valley Causeway Bay. Most international football matches held, it is the location for the Hong Kong Sevens rugby sevens tournament. Hong Kong Stadium hosted the Rugby World Cup Sevens twice, in 1997 and 2005. So Kon Po was the burial ground for the 1918 fire at Happy Valley Racecourse; the Hong Kong Government moved all the tombs to Aberdeen. The old Government Stadium was a U-shaped constructed by 1953 and had a capacity of 28,000 with covered seating, it witnessed the best times of Hong Kong football in the 70s. At the time, the stadium would be packed full of spectators when a top of the league clash happened and a red flag would be hoisted.
Eager spectators without tickets would climb the hill behind the stadium to see the game. The old Government Stadium was only covered, without sufficient seats or lighting systems. In the 90s, the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club proposed a reconstruction plan so that Hong Kong can have a world class sports stadium. Before the reconstruction, the Government Stadium was Hong Kong's most important sports venue, with a clay running track around the football field; as the focus on the design was for football only, the track went 50m longer than standard. Numerous schools held their athletic meetings here. In 2008, 39,000 people attended the first Bledisloe Cup rugby union match between Australia and New Zealand. In 2010, 26,210 people attended the second Bledisloe Cup rugby union game at the Hong Kong Stadium. In the early 1990s, the Government Stadium was reconstructed into a 40,000-seat rectangular stadium. No running track was built due to the restricted land size; this forced the schools to look for alternative venues.
The stadium's management contract was won by Wembley International, a foreign subsidiary of Wembley Stadium, against strong competition, in March 1994. From the first day there have been serious problems with the pitch; the owners of the stadium, the Urban Council, were disappointed. It came under fire from local football officials, sports promoters and Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson, who said, before the exhibition match between Manchester United and South China AA on 20 July 1997, "The pitch is cutting up; the surface is just sand-based and the turf doesn't hold well. Injuries can occur."The government had hoped that the stadium could be used as a music concert venue in order to bring in more rental income. But nearby citizens complained endlessly about'noise levels', leading to restrictions on noise levels that rendered the stadium unsuitable for concerts; this reduced the income levels of the stadium and the management company, ran into financial troubles. Wembley's management tenure at the stadium was abruptly terminated by the Provisional Urban Council on 26 May 1998.
PUC asked Urban Services Department to assume temporary management of the Hong Kong Stadium and has agreed to USD's proposals to returf the entire pitch of the Hong Kong Stadium. The fundamental issue between the parties was the care and maintenance of the stadium pitch, but a complaint about an unauthorized bungy jump by Canadian Paul G. Boyle. In the end, the Hong Kong government was judged to have wrongfully terminated the management agreement and had to pay over HK$20million in damages to Wembley Plc. Hong Kong Stadium is now managed by the Leisure and Cultural Services Department of Hong Kong, after the Urban Council was disbanded. South China and Kitchee had used the sports ground as the home stadium in 2009–10 season. Starting from 2010/11 football season, only South China use the Hong Kong Stadium as the home stadium; the ground has hosted matches of the Lunar New Year Cup The first full house official football match at the Hong Kong Stadium was the 2009 AFC Cup semi-final second leg between South China AA and Kuwait SC.
This was added to in the same year by the 2009 East Asian Games football final between Hong Kong U23 and Japan U23. Although there were empty seats in the stadium, all tickets were distributed. On 1 November 2008, the ground became the first stadium outside of Australia or New Zealand to host a match of the Bledisloe Cup, a rugby competition between Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand won the match, 19-14. On 1 June 2013, the British and Irish Lions and Barbarian F. C. played a rugby union match at the Hong Kong Stadium. The ground has hosted matches of the Hong Kong International Cricket Sixes since 1996 to 1997; the stadium was used as the final venue for both the Rugby 7s and Football tournaments of the 2009 East Asian Games. Hong Kong's rugby 7s team and football team both made the final against Japan; the rugby 7s team finished second to Japan but the football team defeated them in front of over 31,000 spectators, including Donald Tsang. In 2013, during the Barclays Asia Trophy, Sunderland manager Paolo Di Canio described the pitch as "a killer", while Manchester City centre-back Matija Nastasić is injured on the mudheap pitch, although Nastasić's injury was caused by a kick to the ankle according to City manager Manuel Pellegrini, who refused to blame the muddy pitch.
Tottenham Hotspur manager André Villas-Boas was critical of the pitch after Jan Vertonghen, a first-choice Spurs defender, incurred an ankle injury playing on the surface. "If I can be sincere, I would prefer not to play, but this is the reality that we have to face," said the Portuguese on th
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim