The Sivalik Hills known as Churia Hills, are a mountain range of the outer Himalayas that stretches from the Indus River about 2,400 km eastwards close to the Brahmaputra River. It is 10–50 km wide with an average altitude of 1,500–2,000 m. Between the Teesta and Raidāk Rivers in Assam is a gap of about 90 km. In some Sanskrit texts, the region is called Manak Parbat. Sivalik means'tresses of Shiva’. Geologically, the Sivalik Hills belong to the Tertiary deposits of the outer Himalayas, they are chiefly composed of sandstone and conglomerate rock formations, which are the solidified detritus of the Himalayas to their north. The remnant magnetization of siltstones and sandstones indicates that they were deposited 16–5.2 million years ago. In Nepal, the Karnali River exposes the oldest part of the Shivalik Hills, they are the geologically youngest east-west mountain chain of the Himalayas. They have many sub-ranges and extend west from Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan to West Bengal, further westward through Nepal and Uttarakhand, continuing into Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir.
The hills are cut through at wide intervals by numerous large rivers flowing south from the Himalayas. They are bounded on the south by a fault system called the Main Frontal Thrust, with steeper slopes on that side. Below this, the coarse alluvial Bhabar zone makes the transition to the nearly level plains. Rainfall during the summer monsoon, percolates into the Bhabar is forced to the surface by finer alluvial layers below it in a zone of springs and marshes along the northern edge of the Terai or plains. North of the Sivalik Hills the 1,500–3,000 meter Lesser Himalayas known as the Mahabharat Range rise steeply along fault lines. In many places the two ranges are adjacent but in other places structural valleys 10–20 km wide separate them. Sivapithecus is among many fossil finds in the Sivalik region; the Sivalik Hills are among the richest fossil sites for large animals anywhere in Asia. The Hills had revealed, they were early ancestors to the sloth bear, Sivatherium, an ancient giraffe, Colossochelys atlas, a giant tortoise named the Sivaliks giant tortoise Megalochelys atlas amongst other creatures.
The remains of the Lower Paleolithic Soanian culture have been found in the Siwalik region. Contemporary to the Acheulean, the Soanian culture is named after the Soan Valley in the Shivalik Hills of Pakistan; the bearers of this culture were Homo erectus. The obscure ratite Hypselornis was found here, it poses a biogeographical mystery as its closest relatives are australian cassowaries. Low population densities in the Sivalik Hills and along the steep southern slopes of the Lower Himalayan Range, plus virulent malaria in the damp forests on their fringes, create a cultural and political buffer zone between dense populations in the plains to the south and the "hills" beyond the Mahabharat escarpment, isolating the two populations from each other and enabling different evolutionary paths with respect to language and culture. People of the Lepcha tribe inhabit the Darjeeling areas; the Indian Navy's Shivalik class frigate is named after these ranges. Margalla Hills — subrange in Islamabad region.
Shivalik Fossil Park Frederick Walter Champion and wildlife photographer was posted here after World War I until 1947 Dundwa Range – subrange separating Deukhuri—an Inner Terai valley in western Nepal—from the Outer Terai in Balrampur and Shravasti districts, Utter Pradesh
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Soan Sakaser Valley
Soon Sakaser is a valley situated in northern Punjab, Pakistan. Soon Sakaser is situated at the juncture of Mianwali and Chakwal districts. On the north of the valley is the Pakhar area of Tala Gang Tehsil; the valley is 19 kilometres wide. It is located in the Salt Range area. Water does not drain from the area, some salt-water lakes have formed. Two of them are Uchhali Lake; the valley is surrounded by mountains. Soon is a Sanskrit word meaning beautiful. Sakaser is a compound of sar. Saki is related to Buddha. There are plenty of tourist attractions like lakes and waterfalls including Chasma Sultan Mehdi, Daip Shareef, Jahlar Lake, Kanhatti Gardens, Mai Wali Dheri, Neela Wahn, Arkanda Fort. Kanhatti Gardens have a camping site and facility provided by WWF Soan Sakaser has inhabited since ancient times, artifacts of various periods have been found. Relics of Hindu, Moghul and British periods have been found here. Sodhi Park and Kanhati Park are situated nearby.. The major cast here is Awans
A hand axe is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces, the longest-used tool in human history. It is made from flint or chert, it is characteristic of middle Palaeolithic periods. Its technical name comes from the fact that the archetypical model is bifacial Lithic flake and almond-shaped. Hand axes tend to be symmetrical along their longitudinal axis and formed by percussion; the most common hand axes have a pointed end and rounded base, which gives them their characteristic shape, both faces have been knapped to remove the natural cortex, at least partially. Hand axes are a type of the somewhat wider biface group of two-faced weapons. Hand axes were the first prehistoric tools to be recognized as such: the first published representation of a hand axe was drawn by John Frere and appeared in a British publication in 1800; until that time, their origins were thought to be supernatural. They were called thunderstones, because popular tradition held that they had fallen from the sky during storms or were formed inside the earth by a lightning strike and appeared at the surface.
They are used in some rural areas as an amulet to protect against storms. Hand axe tools were used to butcher animals. Four classes of hand axe are: 1: Large, thick hand axes reduced from cores or thick flakes, referred to as blanks 2: Thinned blanks. While form remains rough and uncertain, an effort has been made to reduce the thickness of the flake or core 3: Either a preform or crude formalized tool, such as an adze 4: Finer formalized tool types such as projectile points and fine bifacesWhile Class 4 hand axes are referred to as "formalized tools", bifaces from any stage of a lithic reduction sequence may be used as tools.. French antiquarian André Vayson de Pradenne introduced the word biface in 1920; this term co-exists with the more popular hand axe, coined by Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet much earlier, The continued use of the word biface by François Bordes and Lionel Balout supported its use in France and Spain, where it replaced the term hand axe. Use of the expression hand axe has continued in English as the equivalent of the French biface, while biface applies more for any piece, carved on both sides by the removal of shallow or deep flakes.
The expression faustkeil is used in German. It can be translated as hand axe, although in a stricter sense it means "fist wedge", it is the same in Dutch where the expression used is vuistbijl which means "fist axe". The same locution occurs in other languages. However, the general impression of these tools were based on ideal pieces that were of such perfect shape that they caught the attention of non-experts, their typology broadened the term's meaning. Biface hand axe and bifacial lithic items are distinguished. A hand axe need not be a bifacial item and many bifacial items are not hand axes. Nor were hand axes and bifacial items exclusive to the Lower Palaeolithic period in the Old World, they appear throughout the world and in many different pre-historical epochs, without implying an ancient origin. Lithic typology was abandoned as a dating system. Examples of this include the "quasi-bifaces" that sometimes appear in strata from the Gravettian and Magdalenian periods in France and Spain, the crude bifacial pieces of the Lupemban culture or the pyriform tools found near Sagua La Grande in Cuba.
The word biface refers to something different in English than biface in French or bifaz in Spanish, which could lead to many misunderstandings. Bifacially carved cutting tools, similar to hand axes, were used to clear scrub vegetation throughout the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods; these tools were a cheaper alternative to polished axes. The modern day villages along the Sepik river in New Guinea continue to use tools that are identical to hand axes to clear forest. "The term biface should be reserved for items from before the Würm II-III interstadial", although certain objects could exceptionally be called bifaces. Hand axe does not relate to axe, overused in lithic typology to describe a wide variety of stone tools. At the time the use of such items was not understood. In the particular case of Palaeolithic hand axes the term axe is an inadequate description. Lionel Balout stated, "the term should be rejected as an erroneous interpretation of these objects that are not'axes'". Subsequent studies supported this idea those examining the signs of use.
Hand axes are made of flint, but rhyolites, phonolites and other coarse rocks were used as well. Obsidian, natural volcanic glass and was used. Most hand axes have a sharp border all around, No academic consensus describes their use; the pioneers of Palaeolithic tool studies first suggested that bifaces were used as axes or at least for use in demanding physical activities. Other uses showed; the different forms and shapes of known specimens led them to be described as the Acheulean "Swiss Army knife". Each type of tool could have been used for multiple tasks. Wells proposed in 1899 that hand axes were used as missile weapons to hunt prey – an interpretation supported by Calvin, who suggested that some of the rounder specimens of Acheulean hand axes were used as hunting projectiles or as "killer frisbees" meant to be thrown at a herd of animals at a w
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
The Mousterian is a techno-complex of flint lithic tools associated with the earliest anatomically modern humans in North Africa and West Asia, as well as with the Neanderthals in Europe. The Mousterian defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age, it lasted from 160,000 to 40,000 BP. If its predecessor, known as Levallois or "Levallois-Mousterian" is included, the range is extended to as early as c. 300,000–200,000 BP. The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, three superimposed rock shelters in the Dordogne region of France. Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East and North Africa. Handaxes and points constitute the industry; the European Mousterian is the product of Neanderthals. It existed from 160,000 to 40,000 BP; some assemblages, namely those from Pech de l'Aze, include exceptionally small points prepared using the Levallois technique among other prepared core types, causing some researchers to suggest that these flakes take advantage of greater grip strength possessed by Neanderthals.
In North Africa and the Near East, Mousterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans; the Mousterian industry in North Africa is estimated to be 315,000 years old. Possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B; the industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45,000-40,000 BP period. Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa, as well as in Bambata cave, Zimbabwe, in Southern Africa. Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton. Located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, contains Mousterian objects. Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites including Teshik-Tash.
Turkmenistan has Mousterian relics. Siberia has many sites with eg Denisova Cave. Israel is one of the places where remains of both Neandertals and Homo sapiens sapiens have been found in association with Mousterian artifacts. Lynford Quarry near near Mundford, England has yielded Mousterian tools The archaeological cave site of Azykh contains Mousterian relics in the overlying strata. In this cave low jaw of hominid named “Azykhantrop” has been found, it is supposed that this finding belongs to “pre-neanderthal” species Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period. It is named after nineteenth-century finds of flint tools in the Levallois-Perret suburb of Paris, France; the technique was more sophisticated than earlier methods of lithic reduction, involving the striking of lithic flakes from a prepared lithic core. A striking platform is formed at one end and the core's edges are trimmed by flaking off pieces around the outline of the intended lithic flake; this creates a domed shape on the side of the core, known as a tortoise core, as the various scars and rounded form are reminiscent of a tortoise's shell. When the striking platform is hit, a lithic flake separates from the lithic core with a distinctive plano-convex profile and with all of its edges sharpened by the earlier trimming work; this method provides much greater control over the size and shape of the final flake which would be employed as a scraper or knife although the technique could be adapted to produce projectile points known as Levallois points.
Scientists consider the Levallois complex to be a Mode 3 technology, as a result of its diachronic variability. This is one level superior to the Acheulean complex of the Lower Paleolithic; the technique is first found in the Lower Palaeolithic but is most associated with the Neanderthal Mousterian industries of the Middle Palaeolithic. In the Levant, the Levallois technique was in used by anatomically modern humans during the Middle Stone Age. In North Africa, the Levallois technique was used in the Middle Stone Age, most notably in the Aterian industry to produce small projectile points. While Levallois cores do display some variability in their platforms, their flake production surfaces show remarkable uniformity; as the Levallois technique is counterintuitive, teaching the process is necessary and thus language is a prerequisite for such technology. The distinctive forms of the flakes were thought to indicate a wide ranging Levallois culture resulting from the expansion of archaic Homo sapiens out of Africa.
However, the wide geographical and temporal spread of the technique has rendered this interpretation obsolete. Adler et al. further argues that Levallois technology evolved independently in different populations and thus cannot be used as a reliable indicator of Paleolithic human population change and expansion. Aside from technique, the overarching commonality in Levallois complexes is the attention given to maximizing core efficiency. Lycett and von Cramon-Taubedel measured variability in shape and geometrics relationships between cores over multiple regions, with an outcome that suggests a tendency for knappers to choose planforms with a specific surface morphology. In other words, they conclude that Levallois knappers cared less about the overall outline or shape of their core and more about the striking surface, evidence of complex pre-planning and recognition of an "ideal form" of Levallois core. A recent article by Lycett and Eren statistically shows the efficiency of the Levallois technique which at times has been called into question.
Lycett and Eren created 75 Levallois flakes from 25 Texas Chert nodules. They counted the 3957 flakes and separated them into four stages in order to show efficiency, which grew subsequently in each stage. Based on the comparative study of 567 debitage flakes and 75 preferential Levallois flakes and Eren found out the thickness is more evenly distributed and less variable across preferential Levallois flakes, which indicates the thickness is an important factor for efficiency and retouch potential; the experiment shows that the Levallois core is an economic optimal strategy of raw material usage, which means it can generate longest cutting edge per weight unit of raw material. This result implies that the mobility of prehistoric people was higher when applying Levallois technology. There is disagreement. Archeologists question which attributes and dimensions are associated with Levallois, argue that there are other techniques with similar cosmetic and functional aspects. Due to these disagreements, there is now a more precise set of criteria that outlines Levallois technology from a geometric standpoint.
These criteria are: Exploitation of the volume of raw material is organized in terms of two intersecting planes, or flaking surfaces. Morocco: At Jebel Irhoud, a former barite mine located 100km west of Marrakesh, Levallois tools have been found. Dated as 315,000 years old in 2017, the finds were significant to the understanding of both the development of this technique and early humans. John McNabb, archaeologist at the University of Southampton said of this: "The tools the people at Jebel Irhoud were making were based on a knapping technique called Levallois, a sophisticated way of shaping stone tools; the date of 315,000 years ago adds